Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

Order results
Result details
Results per page
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Changes in the Antimicrobial-Resistance Gene Set (ARG) of Raw Milk and Dairy Products in a Cattle Farm, from Production to Consumption
by Ádám Kerek, Virág Németh, Ábel Szabó, Márton Papp, Krisztián Bányai, Gábor Kardos, Eszter Kaszab, Krisztina Bali, Zoltán Nagy, Miklós Süth and Ákos Jerzsele
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060265 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Raw milk and dairy products can serve as potential vectors for transmissible bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases, alongside harboring antimicrobial-resistance genes. This study monitors the changes in the antimicrobial-resistance gene pool in raw milk and cheese, from farm to consumer, utilizing next-generation sequencing. [...] Read more.
Raw milk and dairy products can serve as potential vectors for transmissible bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases, alongside harboring antimicrobial-resistance genes. This study monitors the changes in the antimicrobial-resistance gene pool in raw milk and cheese, from farm to consumer, utilizing next-generation sequencing. Five parallel sampling runs were conducted to assess the resistance gene pool, as well as phage or plasmid carriage and potential mobility. In terms of taxonomic composition, in raw milk the Firmicutes phylum made up 41%, while the Proteobacteria phylum accounted for 58%. In fresh cheese, this ratio shifted to 93% Firmicutes and 7% Proteobacteria. In matured cheese, the composition was 79% Firmicutes and 21% Proteobacteria. In total, 112 antimicrobial-resistance genes were identified. While a notable reduction in the resistance gene pool was observed in the freshly made raw cheese compared to the raw milk samples, a significant growth in the resistance gene pool occurred after one month of maturation, surpassing the initial gene frequency. Notably, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, such as OXA-662 (100% coverage, 99.3% identity) and OXA-309 (97.1% coverage, 96.2% identity), raised concerns; these genes have a major public health relevance. In total, nineteen such genes belonging to nine gene families (ACT, CMY, EC, ORN, OXA, OXY, PLA, RAHN, TER) have been identified. The largest number of resistance genes were identified against fluoroquinolone drugs, which determined efflux pumps predominantly. Our findings underscore the importance of monitoring gene pool variations throughout the product pathway and the potential for horizontal gene transfer in raw products. We advocate the adoption of a new approach to food safety investigations, incorporating next-generation sequencing techniques. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Birds and Equines in Madrid Province, Spain
by Richard A. J. Williams, Hillary A. Criollo Valencia, Irene López Márquez, Fernando González González, Francisco Llorente, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Núria Busquets, Marta Mateo Barrientos, Gustavo Ortiz-Díez and Tania Ayllón Santiago
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060259 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging flavivirus, primarily circulating among avian hosts and mosquito vectors, causing periodic outbreaks in humans and horses, often leading to neuroinvasive disease and mortality. Spain has reported several outbreaks, most notably in 2020 with seventy-seven human cases [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging flavivirus, primarily circulating among avian hosts and mosquito vectors, causing periodic outbreaks in humans and horses, often leading to neuroinvasive disease and mortality. Spain has reported several outbreaks, most notably in 2020 with seventy-seven human cases and eight fatalities. WNV has been serologically detected in horses in the Community of Madrid, but to our knowledge, it has never been reported from wild birds in this region. To estimate the seroprevalence of WNV in wild birds and horses in the Community of Madrid, 159 wild birds at a wildlife rescue center and 25 privately owned equines were sampled. Serum from thirteen birds (8.2%) and one equine (4.0%) tested positive with a WNV competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) designed for WNV antibody detection but sensitive to cross-reacting antibodies to other flaviviruses. Virus-neutralization test (VNT) confirmed WNV antibodies in four bird samples (2.5%), and antibodies to undetermined flavivirus in four additional samples. One equine sample (4.0%) tested positive for WNV by VNT, although this horse previously resided in a WN-endemic area. ELISA-positive birds included both migratory and resident species, juveniles and adults. Two seropositive juvenile birds suggest local flavivirus transmission within the Community of Madrid, while WNV seropositive adult birds may have been infected outside Madrid. The potential circulation of flaviviruses, including WNV, in birds in the Madrid Community raises concerns, although further surveillance of mosquitoes, wild birds, and horses in Madrid is necessary to establish the extent of transmission and the principal species involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wild Birds as Sentinels of the Health Status of the Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Beyond Borders: Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Dogs Spreads to Previously Non-Enzootic Areas in Greece—A Serological Survey
by Isaia Symeonidou, Georgios Sioutas, Athanasios I. Gelasakis, Dimitra Bitchava, Eleni Kanaki and Elias Papadopoulos
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060255 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Although Dirofilaria immitis in dogs is considered enzootic in northern Greece, the available data on the occurrence of infection in southern parts of the country demonstrate its scarcity. The aim of this study was to update the current knowledge on D. immitis infection [...] Read more.
Although Dirofilaria immitis in dogs is considered enzootic in northern Greece, the available data on the occurrence of infection in southern parts of the country demonstrate its scarcity. The aim of this study was to update the current knowledge on D. immitis infection in dogs in areas of Greece previously considered non-enzootic (Central Greece, Attica, Peloponnese, North Aegean, South Aegean, Crete and the Ionian islands). In total, 1528 dog blood samples were collected from the aforementioned areas and examined by Dirochek® ELISA (Synbiotics). Additionally, data published until 2022 on the prevalence of infection in these areas were compared to the data of this study. The ‘Wilson’ Score interval method (Epitools) was employed. Overall, 10.8% of dogs were positive for D. immitis. In detail, the prevalence was 21.7, 13.7, 10.7, 5.4, 4.7, 6.2 and 17.0% for D. immitis, in Central Greece, Attica, Peloponnese, North Aegean, South Aegean, Crete and the Ionian islands, respectively. Infection with D. immitis is recorded for the first time in Crete. The probability of a dog becoming infected has increased 4.1 times since 2022 in previously non-enzootic areas. This study denotes the spread of D. immitis and highlights the necessity for preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonotic Vector-Borne Diseases of Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3727 KiB  
Article
Wildlife–Livestock Host Community Maintains Simultaneous Epidemiologic Cycles of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in a Mountain Ecosystem
by Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Eva Ramírez, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco and José Enrique Granados
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050217 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an eye disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae that affects domestic and wild caprines, including Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate. However, its role in IKC dynamics in multi-host communities has been poorly studied. This study [...] Read more.
Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an eye disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae that affects domestic and wild caprines, including Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate. However, its role in IKC dynamics in multi-host communities has been poorly studied. This study assessed M. conjunctivae in Iberian ibex and seasonally sympatric domestic small ruminants in the Natural Space of Sierra Nevada (NSSN), a mountain habitat in southern Spain. From 2015 to 2017, eye swabs were collected from 147 ibexes (46 subadults, 101 adults) and 169 adult domestic small ruminants (101 sheep, 68 goats). Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated through real-time qPCR and statistically assessed according to species, sex, age category, year, period, and area. The lppS gene of M. conjunctivae was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was endemic and asymptomatic in the host community of the NSSN. Three genetic clusters were shared by ibex and livestock, and one was identified only in sheep, although each host species could maintain the infection independently. Naïve subadults maintained endemic infection in Iberian ibex, with an epizootic outbreak in 2017 when the infection spread to adults. Wild ungulates are epidemiologically key in maintaining and spreading IKC and other shared diseases among spatially segregated livestock flocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Ophthalmologic Pathology in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1024 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Metronidazole versus a Synbiotic on Clinical Course and Core Intestinal Microbiota in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea
by Helene Stübing, Jan S. Suchodolski, Andrea Reisinger, Melanie Werner, Katrin Hartmann, Stefan Unterer and Kathrin Busch
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050197 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2248
Abstract
The usefulness of antibiotics in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) is controversial. It is also unclear what effect metronidazole has on potential enteropathogens such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
The usefulness of antibiotics in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) is controversial. It is also unclear what effect metronidazole has on potential enteropathogens such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole vs. a synbiotic on the clinical course and core intestinal bacteria of dogs with AD. Twenty-seven dogs with AD were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial and treated with either metronidazole (METg) or a synbiotic (SYNg; E. faecium DSM 10663; NCIMB 10415/4b170). The Canine Acute Diarrhea Severity (CADS) index was recorded daily for eleven days. Bacteria were quantified using qPCR. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. A higher concentration of E. coli was observed in the METg group vs. the SYNg group on Day 6 (p < 0.0001) and Day 30 (p = 0.01). Metronidazole had no effect on C. perfringens. C. hiranonis was significantly lower in the METg group than in the SYNg group on Days 6 and 30 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.0015). No significant differences were observed in CADS index, fecal consistency, or defecation frequency between treatment groups (except for the CADS index on one single day). In conclusion, metronidazole negatively impacts the microbiome without affecting clinical outcomes. Thus, synbiotics might be a preferred treatment option for dogs with AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2260 KiB  
Article
ESBL-Producing Enterobacterales at the Human–Domestic Animal–Wildlife Interface: A One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance in Piauí, Northeastern Brazil
by Sandy Kelly S. M. da Silva, Danny A. Fuentes-Castillo, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Carlos Sacristán, José L. Catão-Dias, Anaiá P. Sevá, Nilton Lincopan, Sharon L. Deem, Lauro C. S. Feitosa and Lilian S. Catenacci
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050195 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2030
Abstract
The use, misuse, and overuse of antimicrobials is one of the main public health threats of the 21st century. We investigated the risk factor of the presence of extended-spectrum, cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales in feces of non-domestic and domestic birds and other domestic animals in [...] Read more.
The use, misuse, and overuse of antimicrobials is one of the main public health threats of the 21st century. We investigated the risk factor of the presence of extended-spectrum, cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales in feces of non-domestic and domestic birds and other domestic animals in Piauí State, northeast Brazil. We collected a total of 387 cloacal and rectal swab samples of free-living birds, domestic birds, and domestic mammals in five municipalities: Amarante, Água Branca, Lagoa Alegre, Parnaíba, and Teresina. A total of 59/387 (15.2%) of these samples harbored extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales. Using the MALDI-TOF technique, we identified fifty-seven samples as Escherichia coli and two samples as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Teresina and Parnaíba had the highest prevalence of animals with resistant bacteria (32.1% and 27.1%, respectively) and highest exposure risk factor (OR of 16.06 and 8.58, respectively, and p < 0.001 for all). Multidrug-resistant, ESBL-producing Enterobacterales were observed in 72.8% of the samples (43/59). For the free-living birds, the positive samples belonged to a great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) and a semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) in migratory and resident species, respectively. For domestic animals, the swine samples showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. The lack of access to veterinary care and information regarding antimicrobial therapy, along with the easy access to antimicrobials without medical prescription, favors the inadequate use of antimicrobials in Piauí. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 959 KiB  
Review
Canine Prostate Cancer: Current Treatments and the Role of Interventional Oncology
by Erin A. Gibson and William T. N. Culp
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040169 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2612
Abstract
Prostate carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide in men, with over 3 million men currently living with prostate carcinoma. In men, routine screening and successful treatment schemes, including radiation, prostatectomy, or hormone therapy, have allowed for high survivability. Dogs are [...] Read more.
Prostate carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide in men, with over 3 million men currently living with prostate carcinoma. In men, routine screening and successful treatment schemes, including radiation, prostatectomy, or hormone therapy, have allowed for high survivability. Dogs are recognized as one of the only mammals to spontaneously develop prostate neoplasia and are an important translational model. Within veterinary medicine, treatment options have historically been limited in efficacy or paired with high morbidity. Recently, less invasive treatment modalities have been investigated in dogs and people and demonstrated promise. Below, current treatment options available in dogs and people are reviewed, as well as a discussion of current and future trends within interventional treatment for canine PC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Interventional Radiology in Small Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1362 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Subsequent Dose of Dexmedetomidine or Other Sedatives following an Initial Dose of Dexmedetomidine on Electrolytes, Acid–Base Balance, Creatinine, Glucose, and Cardiac Troponin I in Cats: Part II
by Chrysoula Margeti, Georgios Kazakos, Apostolos D. Galatos, Vassilis Skampardonis, Theodora Zacharopoulou, Vassiliki Tsioli, Panagiota Tyrnenopoulou, Epameinondas Loukopoulos, Vasileios G. Papatsiros and Eugenia Flouraki
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040143 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2648
Abstract
The administered dose of dexmedetomidine may occasionally fail to produce the anticipated sedative effects. Therefore, a subsequent dose or administration of another sedative may enhance sedation; however, patient safety may be affected. The safety of seven different drugs administered at the following time [...] Read more.
The administered dose of dexmedetomidine may occasionally fail to produce the anticipated sedative effects. Therefore, a subsequent dose or administration of another sedative may enhance sedation; however, patient safety may be affected. The safety of seven different drugs administered at the following time point after an insufficient dose of dexmedetomidine was evaluated in a crossover, blind, experimental study that included six healthy adult cats. All cats received an initial dose of dexmedetomidine and a subsequent dose of either dexmedetomidine (Group DD), NS 0.9% (DC), tramadol (DT), butorphanol (DBT), buprenorphine (DBP), ketamine (DK), or midazolam (DM). Animal safety was assessed using repeated blood gas analysis and measurement of electrolytes, glucose, cardiac troponin I, and creatinine to evaluate cardiac, respiratory, and renal function. The median values of creatinine, cardiac troponin I, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, potassium, and sodium did not change significantly throughout the study. Heart rate was significantly decreased in all groups after administration of the drug combinations, except for in the DK group. Respiratory rate decreased significantly after administration of the initial dose of dexmedetomidine and in the DBP and DM groups. The partial pressure of oxygen, although normal, decreased significantly after the administration of dexmedetomidine, whereas the median concentration of glucose increased significantly following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The results of our study suggest that the drug combinations used did not alter the blood parameters above normal limits, while cardiac and renal function were not compromised. Therefore, a safe level of sedation was achieved. However, the administration of dexmedetomidine reduced the partial pressure of oxygen; thus, oxygen supplementation during sedation may be advantageous. Additionally, the increase in glucose concentration indicates that dexmedetomidine should not be used in cats with hyperglycaemia, whereas the decrease in haematocrit suggests that dexmedetomidine is not recommended in anaemic cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minimizing Anesthetic Risks in Dogs and Cats)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1270 KiB  
Communication
Animal Health Discourse during Ecological Crises in the Media—Lessons Learnt from the Flood in Thessaly from the One Health Perspective
by Eleftherios Meletis, Andrzej Jarynowski, Stanisław Maksymowicz, Polychronis Kostoulas and Vitaly Belik
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11040140 - 22 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Due to the increasing risk of extreme events caused by climate change (i.e., floods, fires and hurricanes) or wars, European veterinary public health may need some improvement. Utilizing a mix of qualitative (participatory observation) and quantitative methods (Internet mining), we analyzed the Greek [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing risk of extreme events caused by climate change (i.e., floods, fires and hurricanes) or wars, European veterinary public health may need some improvement. Utilizing a mix of qualitative (participatory observation) and quantitative methods (Internet mining), we analyzed the Greek media’s responses to the millennial flood in Thessaly (September 2023), focusing on animal health (including wild, companion animals and livestock) and public sentiment towards epizootic/epidemic threats. The study revealed a gap in crisis management plans regarding veterinary-related issues, emphasizing the need for comprehensive emergency response strategies. Our findings show how (i) the lay referral system is projecting the perception of epidemic threats into the population; (ii) the emotional load of images of animal carcasses is misused by media creators aiming for a big audience; and (iii) pets’ owners are creating online communities for the searching and treatment of their pets. Our results stress the importance of integrating crisis communication in consecutive phases of the discourse, such as the following: (i) weather change; (ii) acute flood; (iii) recovery; and (iv) outbreaks, into veterinary practices to better prepare for such disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Special Issue on the Occasion of the One Health Day)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1240 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Transboundary Swine Disease Management in Asian Islands: Foot and Mouth Disease, Classical Swine Fever, and African Swine Fever in Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines
by Chia-Hui Hsu, Chia-Yi Chang, Satoshi Otake, Thomas W. Molitor and Andres Perez
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030130 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Swine transboundary diseases pose significant challenges in East and Southeast Asia, affecting Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines. This review delves into strategies employed by these islands over the past two decades to prevent or manage foot and mouth disease (FMD), classical swine fever [...] Read more.
Swine transboundary diseases pose significant challenges in East and Southeast Asia, affecting Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines. This review delves into strategies employed by these islands over the past two decades to prevent or manage foot and mouth disease (FMD), classical swine fever (CSF), and African swine fever (ASF) in domestic pigs and wild boars. Despite socio-economic differences, these islands share geographical and climatic commonalities, influencing their thriving swine industries. Focusing on FMD eradication, this study unveils Taiwan’s success through mass vaccination, Japan’s post-eradication surveillance, and the Philippines’ zoning strategy. Insights into CSF in Japan emphasize the importance of wild boar control, whereas the ASF section highlights the multifaceted approach implemented through the Philippine National ASF Prevention and Control Program. This review underscores lessons learned from gained experiences, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of swine disease management in the region. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Surgical Outcomes of Laminectomy, Durotomy and a Non-Synthetic Dura Substitute Application in Ten Dogs with a Spinal Subarachnoid Diverticulum
by Michał Mól, Ricardo Fernandes, Simon Wheeler and Massimo Mariscoli
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030128 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2883
Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to report the surgical treatment and outcomes of laminectomies followed by durotomy and the application of a non-synthetic collagen matrix dura substitute (DurepairTM) in ten dogs with a spinal subarachnoid diverticulum (SAD). The medical records of these [...] Read more.
This retrospective study aimed to report the surgical treatment and outcomes of laminectomies followed by durotomy and the application of a non-synthetic collagen matrix dura substitute (DurepairTM) in ten dogs with a spinal subarachnoid diverticulum (SAD). The medical records of these ten client-owned dogs with SAD diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed. All patients had chronic and progressive deficits. At presentation, common neurological signs were proprioceptive ataxia, ambulatory spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis, and faecal incontinence. Dorsal thoracolumbar laminectomy was performed in eight dogs; one dog underwent cervical dorsolateral laminectomy, and one patient had thoracic hemilaminectomy. Laminectomies were followed by durotomy, allowing the dissection of the pia-arachnoid adhesions. A rectangular patch of a non-synthetic dura substitute was applied as an onlay graft over the durotomy site before routine closure. Proprioceptive ataxia, paraparesis, and tetraparesis improved in all patients. Faecal incontinence in one patient resolved postoperatively. Laminectomy, durotomy, and the application of a non-synthetic dura substitute was a safe procedure facilitating postoperative improvement over a long-term follow-up period (from 9 to 40 months). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurology and Neurosurgery in Small Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Intraoperative Isoflurane End-Tidal Concentration during Infusion of Fentanyl, Tramadol, or Fentanyl–Tramadol Combination in Cats
by Claudia Interlandi, Fabio Bruno, Marco Tabbì, Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Elisabetta Giudice, Patrizia Licata, Daniele Macrì, Viola Zappone and Giovanna Lucrezia Costa
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030125 - 11 Mar 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the end-tidal concentration of isoflurane required, clinical parameters, intraoperative antinociceptive effect, and postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, receiving fentanyl, tramadol, or fentanyl/tramadol. Sixty-six cats in three groups, were premedicated with dexmedetomidine and infused with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the end-tidal concentration of isoflurane required, clinical parameters, intraoperative antinociceptive effect, and postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, receiving fentanyl, tramadol, or fentanyl/tramadol. Sixty-six cats in three groups, were premedicated with dexmedetomidine and infused with one of the following treatments: fentanyl, tramadol, or fentanyl/tramadol combination. Anesthesia was induced with alfaxolone and maintained with isoflurane, titrated to keep heart rate, respiratory rate and systolic arterial pressure within target values recorded at endotracheal intubation. An intraoperative cumulative scale was performed. Postoperatively, a short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale Feline was used at 2, 12, and 24 h. The groups were similar for age, weight, dose of dexmedetomidine, and alfaxalone administered. A greater reduction in the end-tidal isoflurane fraction was observed with the combined fentanyl/tramadol infusion than with either fentanyl or tramadol alone. No differences in the end-tidal isoflurane fraction were found between fentanyl or tramadol alone. Hemodynamic stability associated with minimal cardiopulmonary changes, low response to noxious intraoperative stimulation, and low postoperative pain scores were also observed with the fentanyl/tramadol combination. The fentanyl/tramadol combination provided a reduction in the end-tidal isoflurane fraction compared with fentanyl or tramadol alone. Full article
16 pages, 12504 KiB  
Article
Development of Virus-like Particle Plant-Based Vaccines against Avian H5 and H9 Influenza A Viruses
by Ola A. Elbohy, Munir Iqbal, Janet M. Daly and Stephen P. Dunham
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020093 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2458
Abstract
Avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a significant cause of mortality in poultry, causing substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries, and has zoonotic potential. For example, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype have been circulating in Egypt for [...] Read more.
Avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a significant cause of mortality in poultry, causing substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries, and has zoonotic potential. For example, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype have been circulating in Egypt for around two decades. In the last decade, H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 have been succeeded by the antigenically distinct H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses. Furthermore, H9N2 viruses co-circulate with the H5N8 viruses in Egyptian poultry. It is widely recognised that effective vaccination against IAV requires a close antigenic match between the vaccine and viruses circulating in the field. Therefore, approaches to develop cost-effective vaccines that can be rapidly adapted to local virus strains are required for developing countries such as Egypt. In this project, the haemagglutinin (HA) proteins of Egyptian H5 and H9 viruses were expressed by transient transfection of plants (Nicotiana benthamiana). The formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Mice were immunised with four doses of either H5 or H9 VLPs with adjuvant. Antibody and cellular immune responses were measured against the corresponding recombinant protein using ELISA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISpot), respectively. Chickens were immunised with one dose of H5 VLPs, eliciting HA-specific antibodies measured by ELISA and a pseudotyped virus neutralisation test using a heterologous H5 HA. In conclusion, plant-based VLP vaccines have potential for producing an effective vaccine candidate within a short time at a relatively low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Control in Avian Virus Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 416 KiB  
Review
Perspectives on SARS-CoV-2 Cases in Zoological Institutions
by Remco A. Nederlof, Melissa A. de la Garza and Jaco Bakker
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020078 - 7 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a zoological institution were initially reported in March 2020. Since then, at least 94 peer-reviewed cases have been reported in zoos worldwide. Among the affected animals, nonhuman primates, carnivores, and artiodactyls appear to be [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a zoological institution were initially reported in March 2020. Since then, at least 94 peer-reviewed cases have been reported in zoos worldwide. Among the affected animals, nonhuman primates, carnivores, and artiodactyls appear to be most susceptible to infection, with the Felidae family accounting for the largest number of reported cases. Clinical symptoms tend to be mild across taxa; although, certain species exhibit increased susceptibility to disease. A variety of diagnostic tools are available, allowing for initial diagnostics and for the monitoring of infectious risk. Whilst supportive therapy proves sufficient in most cases, monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as a promising additional treatment option. Effective transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in some species raises concerns over potential spillover and the formation of reservoirs. The occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of animal species may contribute to the emergence of variants of concern due to altered viral evolutionary constraints. Consequently, this review emphasizes the need for effective biosecurity measures and surveillance strategies to prevent and control SARS-CoV-2 infections in zoological institutions. Full article
19 pages, 3561 KiB  
Article
Multidrug-Resistant Commensal and Infection-Causing Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Companion Animals in the Valencia Region
by Ana Marco-Fuertes, Clara Marin, Concepción Gimeno-Cardona, Violeta Artal-Muñoz, Santiago Vega and Laura Montoro-Dasi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020054 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) among microorganisms to commonly used antibiotics is a growing concern in both human and veterinary medicine. Companion animals play a significant role in the epidemiology of AMR, as their population is continuously increasing, [...] Read more.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) among microorganisms to commonly used antibiotics is a growing concern in both human and veterinary medicine. Companion animals play a significant role in the epidemiology of AMR, as their population is continuously increasing, posing a risk of disseminating AMR, particularly to strains of public health importance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AMR and MDR in commensal and infection-causing Staphylococcus spp. in dogs and cats in Valencia region. For this purpose, 271 samples were taken from veterinary centers to assess antimicrobial susceptibility against 20 antibiotics, including some of the most important antibiotics for the treatment of Staphylococcus infections, including the five last resort antibiotics in this list. Of all the samples, 187 Staphylococcus spp. strains were recovered from asymptomatic and skin-diseased dogs and cats, of which S. pseudintermedius (≈60%) was more prevalent in dogs, while S. felis (≈50%) was more prevalent in cats. In the overall analysis of the isolates, AMR was observed for all antibiotics tested, including those crucial in human medicine. Furthermore, over 70% and 30% of the strains in dogs and cats, respectively, exhibited MDR. This study highlights the significance of monitoring the trends in AMR and MDR among companion animals. The potential contribution of these animals to the dissemination of AMR and its resistance genes to humans, other animals, and their shared environment underscores the necessity for adopting a One Health approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use in Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 5731 KiB  
Article
Streptococcus suis Research Update: Serotype Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Distribution in Swine Isolates Recovered in Spain from 2020 to 2022
by Máximo Petrocchi Rilo, César Bernardo Gutiérrez Martín, Vanessa Acebes Fernández, Álvaro Aguarón Turrientes, Alba González Fernández, Rubén Miguélez Pérez and Sonia Martínez Martínez
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11010040 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
This study aimed to update the Streptococcus suis serotype distribution in Spain by analysing 302 clinical isolates recovered from diseased pigs between 2020 and 2022. The main objectives were to identify prevalent serotypes, differentiate specific serotypes 1, 14, 2, and 1/2, investigate specific [...] Read more.
This study aimed to update the Streptococcus suis serotype distribution in Spain by analysing 302 clinical isolates recovered from diseased pigs between 2020 and 2022. The main objectives were to identify prevalent serotypes, differentiate specific serotypes 1, 14, 2, and 1/2, investigate specific genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance features, and explore associations between resistance genes and phenotypic resistances. Serotypes 9 (21.2%), 1 (16.2%), 2 (15.6%), 3 (6%), and 7 (5.6%) were the most prevalent, whereas serotypes 14 and 1/2 corresponded with 4.3% and 0.7% of all isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes, including tet(O), erm(B), lnu(B), lsa(E), tet(M), and mef(A/E), were analysed, which were present in 85.8%, 65.2%, 7%, 7%, 6.3%, and 1% of the samples, respectively. Susceptibility testing for 18 antimicrobials revealed high resistance levels, particularly for clindamycin (88.4%), chlortetracycline (89.4%), and sulfadimethoxine (94.4%). Notably, seven significant associations (p < 0.0001) were detected, correlating specific antimicrobial resistance genes to the observed phenotypic resistance. These findings contribute to understanding the S. suis serotype distribution and its antibiotic resistance profiles in Spain, offering valuable insights for veterinary and public health efforts in managing S. suis-associated infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Antimicrobial Resistance in Farm Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Temporal Variability of the Dominant Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Adult Cats
by Chi-Hsuan Sung, Sina Marsilio, Rachel Pilla, Yu-An Wu, Joao Pedro Cavasin, Min-Pyo Hong and Jan S. Suchodolski
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11010031 - 13 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
While shifts in gut microbiota have been studied in diseased states, the temporal variability of the microbiome in cats has not been widely studied. This study investigated the temporal variability of the feline dysbiosis index (DI) and the abundance of core bacterial groups [...] Read more.
While shifts in gut microbiota have been studied in diseased states, the temporal variability of the microbiome in cats has not been widely studied. This study investigated the temporal variability of the feline dysbiosis index (DI) and the abundance of core bacterial groups in healthy adult cats. The secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between the fecal abundance of Clostridium hiranonis and the fecal concentrations of unconjugated bile acids. A total of 142 fecal samples collected from 17 healthy cats were prospectively included: nine cats with weekly collection over 3 weeks (at least four time points), five cats with monthly collection over 2 months (three time points), and three cats with additional collections for up to 10 months. The DI remained stable within the reference intervals over two months for all cats (Friedman test, p > 0.2), and 100% of the DI values (n = 142) collected throughout the study period remained within the RI. While some temporal individual variation was observed for individual taxa, the magnitude was minimal compared to cats with chronic enteropathy and antibiotic exposure. Additionally, the abundance of Clostridium hiranonis was significantly correlated with the percentage of fecal primary bile acids, supporting its role as a bile acid converter in cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 17295 KiB  
Article
Histopathological Aspects of the Influence of Babesia microti on the Placentas of Infected Female Rats
by Krzysztof P. Jasik, Anna Kleczka and Aleksandra Franielczyk
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11010018 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
Babesiosis is perceived mainly an animal disease; however, awareness that Babesia spp. parasites that can cause diseases in humans is increasing significantly. Babesiosis is spread by the bite of an infected tick (Ixodes spp.), but it can also be transmitted by transfusion [...] Read more.
Babesiosis is perceived mainly an animal disease; however, awareness that Babesia spp. parasites that can cause diseases in humans is increasing significantly. Babesiosis is spread by the bite of an infected tick (Ixodes spp.), but it can also be transmitted by transfusion of infected blood and from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy or childbirth. The parasites multiply in the bloodstream and destroy red blood cells. This study aimed to assess the influence of Babesia microti on the histological structure of the placenta. Histopathological material collected from pregnant rats infected with Babesia microti was used in the experiment. Microscopic images of the placentas were assessed by Mallory staining and by using methylene blue-stained semi-thin sections. In addition, FISH was used to detect parasite DNA. The presence of piroplasms in both maternal and fetal vessels was demonstrated. Babesia microti infection caused vacuolization of syncytioblasts and cytotrophoblasts, accumulation of collagen fibers in placental villi, and increased adhesion of erythrocytes to the vascular walls. These results indicate that Babesia may influence the course of pregnancy and invite further research on the mechanism of piroplasm penetration into cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Borne Diseases and Their Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 3107 KiB  
Article
Obesity during Pregnancy in the Horse: Effect on Term Placental Structure and Gene Expression, as Well as Colostrum and Milk Fatty Acid Concentration
by Morgane Robles, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Cédric Dubois, Tiphanie Josse, Émilie Nouveau, Michele Dahirel, Laurence Wimel, Anne Couturier-Tarrade and Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(12), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10120691 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2278
Abstract
In horses, the prevalence of obesity is high and associated with serious metabolic pathologies. Being a broodmare has been identified as a risk factor for obesity. In other species, maternal obesity is known to affect the development of the offspring. This article is [...] Read more.
In horses, the prevalence of obesity is high and associated with serious metabolic pathologies. Being a broodmare has been identified as a risk factor for obesity. In other species, maternal obesity is known to affect the development of the offspring. This article is a follow-up study of previous work showing that Obese mares (O, n = 10, body condition score > 4.25 at insemination) were more insulin resistant and presented increased systemic inflammation during pregnancy compared to Normal mares (N, n = 14, body condition score < 4 at insemination). Foals born to O mares were more insulin-resistant, presented increased systemic inflammation, and were more affected by osteoarticular lesions. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function, as well as the fatty acid profile in the plasma of mares and foals, colostrum, and milk until 90 days of lactation, which, to our knowledge, has been poorly studied in the horse. Mares from both groups were fed the same diet during pregnancy and lactation. During lactation, mares were housed in pasture. A strong heat wave, followed by a drought, occurred during their 2nd and 3rd months of lactation (summer of 2016 in the Limousin region, France). In the present article, term placental morphometry, structure (stereology), and gene expression (RT-qPCR, genes involved in nutrient transport, growth, and development, as well as vascularization) were studied. Plasma of mares and their foals, as well as colostrum and milk, were sampled at birth, 30 days, and 90 days of lactation. The fatty acid composition of these samples was measured using gas chromatography. No differences between the N and O groups were observed for term placental morphometry, structure, or gene expression. No difference in plasma fatty acid composition was observed between groups in mares. The plasma fatty acid profile of O foals was more pro-inflammatory and indicated an altered placental lipid metabolism between birth and 90 days of age. These results are in line with the increased systemic inflammation and altered glucose metabolism observed until 18 months of age in this group. The colostrum fatty acid profile of O mares was more pro-inflammatory and indicated an increased transfer and/or desaturation of long-chain fatty acids. Moreover, O foals received a colostrum poorer in medium-chain saturated fatty acid, a source of immediate energy for the newborn that can also play a role in immunity and gut microbiota development. Differences in milk fatty acid composition indicated a decreased ability to adapt to heat stress in O mares, which could have further affected the metabolic development of their foals. In conclusion, maternal obesity affected the fatty acid composition of milk, thus also influencing the foal’s plasma fatty acid composition and likely participating in the developmental programming observed in growing foals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Placentation in Mammals: Development, Function and Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
A Multifaceted Approach for Evaluating Hepatitis E Virus Infectivity In Vitro: Cell Culture and Innovative Molecular Methods for Integrity Assessment
by Tatjana Locus, Ellen Lambrecht, Sophie Lamoral, Sjarlotte Willems, Steven Van Gucht, Thomas Vanwolleghem and Michael Peeters
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10120676 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus is a prominent cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. In Western countries, most infections are asymptomatic. However, acute self-limiting hepatitis and chronic cases in immunocompromised individuals can occur. Studying HEV is challenging due to its difficulty to grow in cell culture. [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus is a prominent cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. In Western countries, most infections are asymptomatic. However, acute self-limiting hepatitis and chronic cases in immunocompromised individuals can occur. Studying HEV is challenging due to its difficulty to grow in cell culture. Consequently, the detection of the virus mainly relies on RT-qPCR, which cannot differentiate between infectious and non-infectious particles. To overcome this problem, methods assessing viral integrity offer a possible solution to differentiate between intact and damaged viruses. This study aims at optimizing existing HEV cell culture models and RT-qPCR-based assays for selectively detecting intact virions to establish a reliable model for assessing HEV infectivity. In conclusion, these newly developed methods hold promise for enhancing food safety by identifying approaches for inactivating HEV in food processing, thereby increasing food safety measures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 329 KiB  
Review
Estimating Microbial Protein Synthesis in the Rumen—Can ‘Omics’ Methods Provide New Insights into a Long-Standing Question?
by Joana Lima, Winfred Ingabire, Rainer Roehe and Richard James Dewhurst
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(12), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10120679 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3221
Abstract
Rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS) provides at least half of the amino acids for the synthesis of milk and meat protein in ruminants. As such, it is fundamental to global food protein security. Estimating microbial protein is central to diet formulation, maximising nitrogen [...] Read more.
Rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS) provides at least half of the amino acids for the synthesis of milk and meat protein in ruminants. As such, it is fundamental to global food protein security. Estimating microbial protein is central to diet formulation, maximising nitrogen (N)-use efficiency and reducing N losses to the environment. Whilst factors influencing MPS are well established in vitro, techniques for in vivo estimates, including older techniques with cannulated animals and the more recent technique based on urinary purine derivative (UPD) excretion, are subject to large experimental errors. Consequently, models of MPS used in protein rationing are imprecise, resulting in wasted feed protein and unnecessary N losses to the environment. Newer ‘omics’ techniques are used to characterise microbial communities, their genes and resultant proteins and metabolites. An analysis of microbial communities and genes has recently been used successfully to model complex rumen-related traits, including feed conversion efficiency and methane emissions. Since microbial proteins are more directly related to microbial genes, we expect a strong relationship between rumen metataxonomics/metagenomics and MPS. The main aims of this review are to gauge the understanding of factors affecting MPS, including the use of the UPD technique, and explore whether omics-focused studies could improve the predictability of MPS, with a focus on beef cattle. Full article
13 pages, 4095 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sampling Method on Detection of the Equine Uterine Microbiome during Estrus
by B. A. Heil, M. van Heule, S. K. Thompson, T. A. Kearns, E. L. Oberhaus, G. King, P. Daels, P. Dini and J. L. Sones
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110644 - 8 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Bacterial endometritis is among the most common causes of subfertility in mares. It has a major economic impact on the equine breeding industry. The sensitivity of detecting uterine microbes using culture-based methods, irrespective of the sample collection method, double-guarded endometrial swab, endometrial biopsy, [...] Read more.
Bacterial endometritis is among the most common causes of subfertility in mares. It has a major economic impact on the equine breeding industry. The sensitivity of detecting uterine microbes using culture-based methods, irrespective of the sample collection method, double-guarded endometrial swab, endometrial biopsy, or uterine low-volume lavage (LVL), is low. Therefore, equine bacterial endometritis often goes undiagnosed. Sixteen individual mares were enrolled, and an endometrial sample was obtained using each method from all mares. After trimming, quality control and decontamination, 3824 amplicon sequence variants were detected in the dataset. We found using 16S rRNA sequencing that the equine uterus harbors a distinct resident microbiome during estrus. All three sampling methods used yielded similar results in composition as well as relative abundance at phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidota) and genus (Klebsiella, Mycoplasma, and Aeromonas) levels. A significant difference was found in alpha diversity (Chao1) between LVL and endometrial biopsy, suggesting that LVL is superior at detecting the low-abundant (rare) taxa. These new data could pave the way for innovative treatment methods for endometrial disease and subfertility in mares. This, in turn, could lead to more judicious antimicrobial use in the equine breeding industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Findings in Equine Reproduction and Neonatology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Influence of Sex and a High-Fiber Diet on the Gut Microbiome of Alentejano Pigs Raised to Heavy Weights
by André Albuquerque, Nicolás Garrido, Rui Charneca, Conceição Egas, Luísa Martin, Amélia Ramos, Filipa Costa, Carla Marmelo and José Manuel Martins
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110641 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2415
Abstract
This study investigates the influence of sex and a dietary transition on the gut microbiota of a local Portuguese pig breed. Three groups of male Alentejano pigs (n = 10 each) were raised between ~40 and 160 kg LW. Group C included [...] Read more.
This study investigates the influence of sex and a dietary transition on the gut microbiota of a local Portuguese pig breed. Three groups of male Alentejano pigs (n = 10 each) were raised between ~40 and 160 kg LW. Group C included pigs that were surgically castrated, while the I group included intact ones; both were fed with commercial diets. The third group, IExp, included intact pigs that were fed commercial diets until ~130 kg, then replaced by an experimental diet based on legumes and agro-industrial by-products between ~130 and 160 kg. Fecal samples were collected two weeks before slaughter. The total DNA was extracted and used for 16S metabarcoding on a MiSeq® System. The dietary transition from a commercial diet to the experimental diet substantially increased and shifted the diversity observed. Complex carbohydrate fermenting bacteria, such as Ruminococcus spp. and Sphaerochaeta spp., were significantly more abundant in IExp (q < 0.05). On the other hand, castrated pigs presented a significantly lower abundance of the potential probiotic, Roseburia spp. and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group (q < 0.01), bacteria commonly associated with better gut health and lower body fat composition. Understanding the role of gut microbiota is paramount to ensure a low skatole deposition and consumers’ acceptance of pork products from non-castrated male pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Analysis in Domestic Animal Breeds and Performance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains, Isolated from Clinical Cases of Companion Animals in Greece
by Marios Lysitsas, Eleutherios Triantafillou, Irene Chatzipanagiotidou, Konstantina Antoniou and George Valiakos
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(11), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10110635 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus (Abc) Complex bacteria are troublesome nosocomial pathogens in human medicine, especially during the last 30 years. Recent research in veterinary medicine also supports its emergence as an animal pathogen. However, relevant data are limited. In this study, we obtained [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus (Abc) Complex bacteria are troublesome nosocomial pathogens in human medicine, especially during the last 30 years. Recent research in veterinary medicine also supports its emergence as an animal pathogen. However, relevant data are limited. In this study, we obtained 41 A. baumannii isolates from clinical samples of canine and feline origin collected in veterinary clinics in Greece between 2020 and 2023. Biochemical identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular identification and statistical analysis were performed. Most of the samples were of soft tissue and urine origin, while polymicrobial infections were recorded in 29 cases. Minocycline was the most effective in vitro antibiotic, whereas high resistance rates were detected for almost all the agents tested. Notably, 20 isolates were carbapenem resistant and 19 extensively drug resistant (XDR). This is the first report of canine and feline infections caused by Abc in Greece. The results create concerns regarding the capability of the respective bacteria to cause difficult-to-treat infections in pets and persist in veterinary facilities through hospitalized animals, contaminated equipment, and surfaces. Moreover, the prevalence of highly resistant strains in companion animals constitutes a public health issue since they could act as a reservoir, contributing to the spread of epidemic clones in a community. Full article
11 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Lipid Compounds as Eco-Friendly Agents in the Diets of Broiler Chicks for Sustainable Production and Health Status
by Ahmed A. A. Abdel-Wareth and Jayant Lohakare
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(10), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10100612 - 9 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Phytogenic compounds can improve feed efficiency, meat quality, and the health status of chickens under hot climatic conditions. The current study investigated the impact of the bioactive lipid compounds of oregano and peppermint and their combination on the sustainability of meat production and [...] Read more.
Phytogenic compounds can improve feed efficiency, meat quality, and the health status of chickens under hot climatic conditions. The current study investigated the impact of the bioactive lipid compounds of oregano and peppermint and their combination on the sustainability of meat production and the health of broiler chicks in hot climatic conditions. Two hundred and fifty-six one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed into four treatment groups. The birds were fed a control diet, bioactive lipid compounds of oregano (BLCO, 150 mg/kg), bioactive lipid compounds of peppermint (BLCP, 150 mg/kg), or a combination of BLCO and BLCP at 150 mg/kg each for 35 days. Each treatment included 8 replicates, each with 8 birds. The results showed that adding BLCO and BLCP separately or in combination to broiler diets improved body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. BLCO, BLCP, or their combination increased the percentages of the dressing and gizzard and lowered the percentage of abdominal fat as compared to the control. Supplementation of BLCO, BLCP, or their combination decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, creatinine, and urea compared to control. BLCO, BLCP, or their combination reduced cook and drip loss in the meat of broilers. In conclusion, birds fed diets containing BLCO and BLCP, either independently or in combination, showed improvements in performance, blood biochemistry, and meat quality in hot climatic conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Effect of Immunocastration on Culled Sows—A Preliminary Study on Reproductive Tract, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality
by Sofia Botelho-Fontela, Gustavo Paixão, Ricardo Pereira-Pinto, Manuela Vaz-Velho, Maria dos Anjos Pires, Rita Payan-Carreira, Luís Patarata, José Lorenzo, António Silva and Alexandra Esteves
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(10), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10100600 - 2 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3065
Abstract
The Bísaro pig is a Portuguese autochthonous breed greatly appreciated for its meat quality and is mainly reared outdoors. Immunocastration could be a solution to avoid undesirable pregnancies and boar taint in cull sows. The present study tested three immunocastration protocols (with Improvac [...] Read more.
The Bísaro pig is a Portuguese autochthonous breed greatly appreciated for its meat quality and is mainly reared outdoors. Immunocastration could be a solution to avoid undesirable pregnancies and boar taint in cull sows. The present study tested three immunocastration protocols (with Improvac®) according to their reproductive cycle. The first inoculation was performed two weeks after farrowing (IM1, n = 5), at the beginning of estrus (IM2, n = 5), and one week after the end of estrus (IM3, n = 5), followed by a second administration four weeks apart. A control group (C, n = 5) was also included in the same housing conditions. The sample collection included the reproductive tract for morphometric evaluation, neck fat for the quantification of boar taint compounds, and a portion of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum for meat quality trait assessment. The reproductive tracts from intact sows (C) were significantly heavier compared to the immunocastrated groups (p < 0.05) (1.403 kg C to 0.508 kg IM1, 0.590 kg IM2, and 0.599 kg IM3), suggesting the regression of the reproductive tract to nonstimulated conditions due to immunization against GnRH. The IM1 group exhibited significantly smaller reproductive tract measurements compared to group C for most of the evaluated segments (p < 0.05). No marked differences were observed in the meat quality traits. Therefore, immunocastration can be used in culling sows to avoid ovarian activity, and it is not detrimental to pork quality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Analysis of the Detection of Pathogens Associated with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Routine Diagnostic Samples from Austrian Swine Stocks
by René Renzhammer, Angelika Auer, Igor Loncaric, Annabell Entenfellner, Katharina Dimmel, Karin Walk, Till Rümenapf, Joachim Spergser and Andrea Ladinig
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(10), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10100601 - 2 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
The diagnostic workup of respiratory disease in pigs is complex due to coinfections and non-infectious causes. The detection of pathogens associated with respiratory disease is a pivotal part of the diagnostic workup for respiratory disease. We aimed to report how frequently certain viruses [...] Read more.
The diagnostic workup of respiratory disease in pigs is complex due to coinfections and non-infectious causes. The detection of pathogens associated with respiratory disease is a pivotal part of the diagnostic workup for respiratory disease. We aimed to report how frequently certain viruses and bacteria were detected in samples from pigs with respiratory symptoms in the course of routine diagnostic procedures. Altogether, 1975 routine diagnostic samples from pigs in Austrian swine stocks between 2016 and 2021 were analysed. PCR was performed to detect various pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (n = 921), influenza A virus (n = 479), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) (n = 518), Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae (n = 713), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (n = 198), Glaesserella (G.) parasuis (n = 165) and M. hyorhinis (n = 180). M. hyorhinis (55.1%) had the highest detection rate, followed by PCV2 (38.0%) and Streptococcus (S.) suis (30.6%). PRRSV was detected most frequently in a pool of lung, tonsil and tracheobronchial lymph node (36.2%). G. parasuis was isolated more frequently from samples taken after euthanasia compared to field samples. PRRSV-positive samples were more likely to be positive for PCV2 (p = 0.001), M. hyopneumoniae (p = 0.032) and Pasteurella multocida (p < 0.001). M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were more likely to be positive for P. multocida (p < 0.001) and S. suis (p = 0.046), but less likely for M. hyorhinis (p = 0.004). In conclusion, our data provide evidence that lung samples that were positive for a primary pathogenic agent were more likely to be positive for a secondary pathogenic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Swine Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
The Evolution of Cystic Echinococcosis in Humans and Ruminants in Portugal—A One Health Approach
by Ana Margarida Alho, Miguel Canhão Dias, Miguel Cardo, Pedro Aguiar and Luís Madeira de Carvalho
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(9), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10090584 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2983
Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, is a significant parasitic zoonosis with public health implications, albeit often neglected. In Portugal, data on this zoonosis are scarce despite being a mandatory notifiable disease in both humans and animals. To assess the impact of [...] Read more.
Cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, is a significant parasitic zoonosis with public health implications, albeit often neglected. In Portugal, data on this zoonosis are scarce despite being a mandatory notifiable disease in both humans and animals. To assess the impact of cystic echinococcosis on both livestock and humans, we compiled data from slaughterhouse records of ruminants, human hospitalizations, and confirmed cases of human echinococcosis. Overall, a total of 298 cases of cystic echinococcosis were identified in ruminants slaughtered from national farms for human consumption in Portugal between 2008 and 2022, comprising 192 cases in ovines, 95 in bovines, and 11 in caprines. Echinococcosis led to 582 hospitalizations in Portuguese public hospitals, with an average hospital stay of 11 days (±15.66), and resulted in 13 deaths (2.23%) from 2008 to 2018. Each infected animal was associated with a 7% increase in the incidence rate of human hospitalization (p = 0.002, IRR = 1.070, 95% CI: 1.025–1.117). Additionally, for every 100,000 person-years observed between 2008 and 2018, the total number of hospitalizations was 0.528. Residence in the Alentejo region was associated with a 5.3-fold increase in the incidence rate of human hospitalizations and an 8-fold higher risk of death from echinococcosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 9199 KiB  
Article
Lymphoma in Border Collies: Genome-Wide Association and Pedigree Analysis
by Pamela Xing Yi Soh, Mehar Singh Khatkar and Peter Williamson
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(9), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10090581 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3585
Abstract
There has been considerable interest in studying cancer in dogs and its potential as a model system for humans. One area of research has been the search for genetic risk variants in canine lymphoma, which is amongst the most common canine cancers. Previous [...] Read more.
There has been considerable interest in studying cancer in dogs and its potential as a model system for humans. One area of research has been the search for genetic risk variants in canine lymphoma, which is amongst the most common canine cancers. Previous studies have focused on a limited number of breeds, but none have included Border Collies. The aims of this study were to identify relationships between Border Collie lymphoma cases through an extensive pedigree investigation and to utilise relationship information to conduct genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses to identify risk regions associated with lymphoma. The expanded pedigree analysis included 83,000 Border Collies, with 71 identified lymphoma cases. The analysis identified affected close relatives, and a common ancestor was identified for 54 cases. For the genomic study, a GWAS was designed to incorporate lymphoma cases, putative “carriers”, and controls. A case-control GWAS was also conducted as a comparison. Both analyses showed significant SNPs in regions on chromosomes 18 and 27. Putative top candidate genes from these regions included DLA-79, WNT10B, LMBR1L, KMT2D, and CCNT1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine and Feline Lymphoma)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 3568 KiB  
Review
Development and Degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc—Insights from Across Species
by Kathryn Murphy, Thomas Lufkin and Petra Kraus
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(9), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10090540 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3855
Abstract
Back pain caused by intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has a major socio-economic impact in humans, yet historically has received minimal attention in species other than humans, mice and dogs. However, a general growing interest in this unique organ prompted the expansion of IVD [...] Read more.
Back pain caused by intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has a major socio-economic impact in humans, yet historically has received minimal attention in species other than humans, mice and dogs. However, a general growing interest in this unique organ prompted the expansion of IVD research in rats, rabbits, cats, horses, monkeys, and cows, further illuminating the complex nature of the organ in both healthy and degenerative states. Application of recent biotechnological advancements, including single cell RNA sequencing and complex data analysis methods has begun to explain the shifting inflammatory signaling, variation in cellular subpopulations, differential gene expression, mechanical loading, and metabolic stresses which contribute to age and stress related degeneration of the IVD. This increase in IVD research across species introduces a need for chronicling IVD advancements and tissue biomarkers both within and between species. Here we provide a comprehensive review of recent single cell RNA sequencing data alongside existing case reports and histo/morphological data to highlight the cellular complexity and metabolic challenges of this unique organ that is of structural importance for all vertebrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1947 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Dietary Protein Concentration on the Fecal Microbiome and Serum Concentrations of Gut-Derived Uremic Toxins in Healthy Adult Cats
by Stacie Summers, Jessica Quimby, Jason Gagné and Michael Lappin
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(8), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10080497 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding healthy adult cats with foods containing variable protein concentrations on the fecal microbiome and serum concentrations of the gut-derived uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate (pCS), and trimethylamine-n-oxide. Twenty healthy young [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding healthy adult cats with foods containing variable protein concentrations on the fecal microbiome and serum concentrations of the gut-derived uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate (pCS), and trimethylamine-n-oxide. Twenty healthy young adult cats were randomized into two groups and fed either a low-protein diet (LPD; 7.4 g/100 kcal ME) or a high-protein diet (HPD; 11.0 g/100 kcal ME) for a 12-week period. Serum uremic toxin concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and the fecal microbiome was characterized using shallow sequence shotgun metagenomics. Cats that consumed the HPD had higher pCS concentrations at 8 weeks (p = 0.028) when compared to baseline. After 12 weeks, cats fed the HPD had higher fecal alpha diversity indices at both the taxonomic and functional levels and lower fecal Bifidobacterium relative abundance compared to those cats fed the LPD. In conclusion, a change in diet and dietary protein concentration shifted the fecal microbial community and microbial function. Feeding cats a high amount of protein increased serum concentrations of the uremic toxin pCS; however, the effect was short-lived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet on Small Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites, Risk Factors and Zoonotic Aspects in Dog and Cat Populations from Goiás, Brazil
by Juliana Bruno Borges Souza, Zara Mariana de Assis Silva, Bruna Samara Alves-Ribeiro, Iago de Sá Moraes, Ana Vitória Alves-Sobrinho, Klaus Casaro Saturnino, Henrique Trevizoli Ferraz, Mônica Rodrigues Ferreira Machado, Ísis Assis Braga and Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(8), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10080492 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5533
Abstract
Gastrointestinal diseases caused by parasites are frequently diagnosed in the clinical routine of domestic animals, especially dogs and cats. In general, they trigger factors that can affect human health due to zoonoses. Therefore, this study aims to identify the main intestinal parasites obtained [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal diseases caused by parasites are frequently diagnosed in the clinical routine of domestic animals, especially dogs and cats. In general, they trigger factors that can affect human health due to zoonoses. Therefore, this study aims to identify the main intestinal parasites obtained from the fecal samples of dogs and cats in the municipality of Jata, Brazil, and their associated risk factors. Between October 2020 and March 2022, fecal samples were collected from 359 dogs and 55 cats through spontaneous defecation and subsequently subjected to coproparasitological analyses using the Willis fluctuation and Hoffman spontaneous sedimentation techniques. The following parasitic species were identified: Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum; Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Cystoisospora spp., and Platynosomum fastosum. The risk factors associated with parasitism include age, average income of owners, access to garbage, sewage, waste, outdated deworming, and contact with animals. The results demonstrate the need to establish public policies and implement preventive and control measures to reduce the occurrence of parasites in animals and the exposure of humans to pathogenic agents Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Extended Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Raw Poultry Carcasses in Catering Services in Northern Greece
by Vangelis Economou, Georgios Delis, Dimitra Stavrou, Panagiota Gousia, Anestis Tsitsos, Tilemachos Mantzios, Eirini Chouliara, Nikolaos Kolovos and Nikolaos Soultos
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(8), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10080487 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is considered a topic of utmost interest under the concept of “One Health”, having severe implications in both human and veterinary medicine. Among the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, especially those belonging to the order of Enterobacterales (such as Escherichia coli), [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is considered a topic of utmost interest under the concept of “One Health”, having severe implications in both human and veterinary medicine. Among the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, especially those belonging to the order of Enterobacterales (such as Escherichia coli), hold a prominent position in terms of both virulence and possessing/disseminating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) traits. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli isolates in raw poultry carcasses collected from a university club. Five hundred raw poultry skin samples were collected from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) club in Thessaloniki, Greece. A total of 64% of the samples were positive for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. The isolates were further examined for their susceptibility to selected antibiotics by the disc diffusion method and were characterized as true ESBL, as producing class C cephalosporinases (AmpC) or “of unknown etiology” by the combination disc test. The 86 of the 120 isolates (71.67%) were classified as true ESBL, 24 (20.00%) as AmpC, and 10 (8.33%) as “of unknown etiology”. The isolates were screened for the occurrence of β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaOXA). Thirty-six isolates (32 ESBL- and 4 AmpC-phenotype) harbored both blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes, twenty-two isolates (among which 19 ESBL-phenotype and 2 AmpC-phenotype) harbored blaCTX-M only, whereas twenty-six (14 ESBL- and 12 AmpC-phenotype) isolates harbored blaTEM alone. No isolate harboring blaSHV or blaOXA was detected. The results demonstrate the existence of E. coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases in poultry carcasses from Greece, pausing a risk for antibiotic resistance transfer to humans. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Cooling Methods Used to Manage Heat-Related Illness in Dogs Presented to Primary Care Veterinary Practices during 2016–2018 in the UK
by Emily J. Hall, Anne J. Carter, Jude Bradbury, Sian Beard, Sophie Gilbert, Dominic Barfield and Dan G. O’Neill
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070465 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6639
Abstract
The management of heat-related illness (HRI) in dogs has received limited attention in the veterinary literature, especially regarding effective cooling methods. Guidelines published in 2016 for prehospital management of dogs with HRI advised “cool first, transport second”, and recommended using cold-water immersion and [...] Read more.
The management of heat-related illness (HRI) in dogs has received limited attention in the veterinary literature, especially regarding effective cooling methods. Guidelines published in 2016 for prehospital management of dogs with HRI advised “cool first, transport second”, and recommended using cold-water immersion and evaporative cooling (water application with air movement) as the optimal approaches to reduce the patient’s temperature. The current retrospective cross-sectional observation study analysed electronic patient records from the VetCompass programme to describe the cooling methods used in dogs with HRI presented to primary care veterinary practices during 2016–2018. Of 623 HRI events identified, 341 (54.74%, 95% CI 50.81–58.60%) included information on cooling in their clinical record. Of these, 74/341 (21.70%, 95% CI 17.65–26.38%) were cooled prior to transport for veterinary care. Overall, 23.97% (95% CI 19.24–29.44%) were cooled using one of the two recommended cooling methods, whilst the most common cooling method recorded was the application of wet towels (51.31%, 95% CI 45.34–57.24%). Canine cooling guidance and messaging in both the public and veterinary sectors requires urgent review to ensure that the most effective cooling methods are promoted because delays to canine temperature reduction worsen patient outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Beraprost and Overall Survival in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease
by Hiroyuki Ito, Takumi Matsuura and Tadashi Sano
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070459 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6828
Abstract
Background: Overall survival is the most important outcome for treatment response in feline chronic kidney disease (CKD). Beraprost has been shown to reduce the kidney function decline in cats with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 2 and 3 CKD. However, the association [...] Read more.
Background: Overall survival is the most important outcome for treatment response in feline chronic kidney disease (CKD). Beraprost has been shown to reduce the kidney function decline in cats with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 2 and 3 CKD. However, the association with prolonged survival has not yet been examined. Objective: To assess the relationship between beraprost and overall survival in cats with CKD in real clinical practice. Animals: Client-owned cats with IRIS stage 3 CKD (n = 134) were evaluated between 2017 and 2020. Methods: A retrospective cohort study based on data from electronic medical records of one hospital. Results: The cohort was divided into “beraprost therapy” and “no beraprost therapy” groups, and survival analyses revealed that overall survival was significantly longer in the beraprost therapy group, using Kaplan–Meier curves (p = 0.004). However, baseline phosphate is known to be an important prognostic indicator and was not well balanced between the two groups. Therefore, a subcohort of 97 cats was selected (those having baseline phosphate <6.0 mg/dL) that allowed for this parameter to be balanced between groups. The survival data in this subcohort were consistent with those of the overall study cohort. Conclusions: In feline patients with CKD, beraprost therapy is associated with better overall survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Balaenophilus manatorum in Debilitated and Bycatch-Derived Loggerhead Sea Turtles Caretta caretta from Northwestern Adriatic Sea
by Erica Marchiori, Andrea Gustinelli, Viola Vignali, Sara Segati, Simone D’Acunto, Silvia Brandi, José Luìs Crespo-Picazo and Federica Marcer
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070427 - 1 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Balenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpaticoida) is one of the few components of the epibiontic fauna of Caretta caretta that show a “true” parasitic association with their host. From rrosive to ulcerative cutaneous lesions may seldom appear as a consequence of the copepod feeding on [...] Read more.
Balenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpaticoida) is one of the few components of the epibiontic fauna of Caretta caretta that show a “true” parasitic association with their host. From rrosive to ulcerative cutaneous lesions may seldom appear as a consequence of the copepod feeding on keratin on turtles’ skin. Debilitating Turtle Syndrome (DTS) is the final outcome of a chronic insufficient assumption of nutrients, generally occurring with the impairment of immune functions and high epibiota burdens. In this survey, the presence of B. manatorum in C. caretta from the Northwestern Adriatic Sea was investigated and the relation between infection indices and the co-occurrence of DTS was studied. Clinical examination was performed at the time of rescue, including routine hematological assessment; external parasites were isolated mechanically from turtles’ skin and morphologically identified through observation with an optic microscope and SEM. Ten turtles were classified as affected by DTS, all of them being small juveniles with typical clinical and clinicopathological presentation. A higher prevalence, abundance, and density of infection were found in turtles affected by the syndrome. The presence of massive skin coverage by the burrowing barnacle Pletylepas hexastylos prevented a proper evaluation of the pathology associated with B. manatorum in turtles affected by DTS. In any event, eventual skin damages caused by the parasite may represent a port of entry for secondary infections in such immunocompromised animals. Therefore, infection by B. manatorum should not go overlooked in debilitated turtles and should be opportunely treated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sea Turtle Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2935 KiB  
Article
The Indirect Antiglobulin (Coombs’) Test Is Specific but Less Sensitive Than the Direct Antiglobulin Test for Detecting Anti-Erythrocytic Autoantibodies and Thereby Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia in Dogs
by Nadine Idalan, Elisabeth Müller and Urs Giger
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070415 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4068
Abstract
The immunodiagnostic assessment of dogs suspected of having immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is based on persistent autoagglutination of erythrocytes (after three saline washes), marked spherocytosis, and a positive direct antiglobulin (Coombs’) test (DAT). However, the value of using the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) [...] Read more.
The immunodiagnostic assessment of dogs suspected of having immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is based on persistent autoagglutination of erythrocytes (after three saline washes), marked spherocytosis, and a positive direct antiglobulin (Coombs’) test (DAT). However, the value of using the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) for the detection of anti-erythrocytic autoantibodies in serum from dogs suspected of having IMHA is unclear. To evaluate the IAT, leftover serum samples from a large cohort of 94 dogs suspected of having IMHA and for which DAT results were known were incubated with DAT− erythrocytes, and five IAT techniques were performed (in part with different reagents and temperatures): microtiter plate (MICRO), microcapillary, laboratory gel column, gel minitube kit (GEL KIT), and immunochromatographic strip kit. Two IAT techniques (MICRO at 37 °C and GEL KIT with rabbit anti-dog polyvalent reagent) detected autoantibodies against erythrocytes in serum from 53% and 57% of DAT+ dogs, respectively, while other IATs performed less well. Moreover, while the analytic specificity of the IAT methods compared to the DAT ranged from 96–100%, the sensitivity range was only 9–57%. Thus, we still recommend DAT for diagnosis and monitoring of IMHA in dogs but conclude that a positive IAT result may aid diagnostically when serum is available, but fresh red blood cells are not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1073 KiB  
Communication
A Study of 41 Canine Orthologues of Human Genes Involved in Monogenic Obesity Reveals Marker in the ADCY3 for Body Weight in Labrador Retrievers
by Mateusz Sypniewski and Maciej Szydlowski
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(6), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10060390 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Obesity and overweight are common conditions in dogs, but individual susceptibility varies with numerous risk factors, including diet, age, sterilization, and gender. In addition to environmental and biological factors, genetic and epigenetic risk factors can influence predisposition to canine obesity, however, they remain [...] Read more.
Obesity and overweight are common conditions in dogs, but individual susceptibility varies with numerous risk factors, including diet, age, sterilization, and gender. In addition to environmental and biological factors, genetic and epigenetic risk factors can influence predisposition to canine obesity, however, they remain unknown. Labrador Retrievers are one of the breeds that are prone to obesity. The purpose of this study was to analyse 41 canine orthologues of human genes linked to monogenic obesity in humans to identify genes associated with body weight in Labrador Retriever dogs. We analysed 11,520 variants from 50 dogs using a linear mixed model with sex, age, and sterilization as covariates and population structure as a random effect. Estimates obtained from the model were subjected to a maxT permutation procedure to adjust p-values for FWER < 0.05. Only the ADCY3 gene showed statistically significant association: TA>T deletion located at 17:19,222,459 in 1/20 intron (per allele effect of 5.56 kg, SE 0.018, p-value = 5.83 × 10−5, TA/TA: 11 dogs; TA/T: 32 dogs; T/T: 7 dogs). Mutations in the ADCY3 gene have already been associated with obesity in mice and humans, making it a promising marker for canine obesity research. Our results provide further evidence that the genetic makeup of obesity in Labrador Retriever dogs contains genes with large effect sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in Veterinary Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1787 KiB  
Article
Sphingomyelin-Rich Lipid Extract Collar for Canine Atopic Dermatitis
by Sergi Segarra, David Sanmiguel, Eliseo Zuriaga, Sophie Leclerc, Jesús Cabañas, Estelle Seigneuric, Aurélie Miquel, Ana Vázquez and Lluís Ferrer
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(6), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10060389 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
The management of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is complex, and it needs to be multimodal, combining topical and systemic therapies. Given that the currently available options are not always totally effective and might have some associated adverse effects, novel alternatives are needed. For [...] Read more.
The management of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is complex, and it needs to be multimodal, combining topical and systemic therapies. Given that the currently available options are not always totally effective and might have some associated adverse effects, novel alternatives are needed. For this reason, a new collar for CAD was developed with 2.5% of a sphingomyelin-rich lipid extract (LE) with proven benefits for skin health. The release of the active ingredient when incorporated into the collar was tested in vitro, showing an adequate kinetic profile. Then, the efficacy and safety of the collar were assessed in 12 client-owned dogs with CAD in a pilot study. After eight weeks, the dogs experienced significant clinical improvements on the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-4, Pruritus Index for Canine Atopic Dermatitis (PCAD) and Pruritus Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) scores, without any adverse effects. Additionally, further in vitro studies were performed, indicating that this LE collar should be compatible with antiparasitic collars (with deltamethrin or imidacloprid/flumethrin) if worn simultaneously. Given the observed benefits of this LE collar, combining it with other CAD therapies could potentially allow for drug sparing, reduction in adverse effects, enhanced owner compliance, and reduced treatment costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Dermatology: Challenges and Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 14027 KiB  
Review
Mammary Glands of Women, Female Dogs and Female Rats: Similarities and Differences to Be Considered in Breast Cancer Research
by Tiago Ferreira, Adelina Gama, Fernanda Seixas, Ana I. Faustino-Rocha, Carlos Lopes, Vítor M. Gaspar, João F. Mano, Rui Medeiros and Paula A. Oliveira
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(6), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10060379 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 9202
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common and well-known types of cancer among women worldwide and is the most frequent neoplasm in intact female dogs. Female dogs are considered attractive models or studying spontaneous breast cancer, whereas female rats are currently the [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most common and well-known types of cancer among women worldwide and is the most frequent neoplasm in intact female dogs. Female dogs are considered attractive models or studying spontaneous breast cancer, whereas female rats are currently the most widely used animal models for breast cancer research in the laboratory context. Both female dogs and female rats have contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge in this field, and, in a “One Health” approach, they have allowed broad understanding of specific biopathological pathways, influence of environmental factors and screening/discovery of candidate therapies. This review aims to clearly showcase the similarities and differences among woman, female dog and female rat concerning to anatomical, physiological and histological features of the mammary gland and breast/mammary cancer epidemiology, in order to better portray breast tumorigenesis, and to ensure appropriate conclusions and extrapolation of results among species. We also discuss the major aspects that stand out in these species. The mammary glands of female dogs and women share structural similarities, especially with respect to the lactiferous ducts and lymphatic drainage. In contrast, female rats have only one lactiferous duct per nipple. A comprehensive comparison between humans and dogs is given a special focus, as these species share several aspects in terms of breast/mammary cancer epidemiology, such as age of onset, hormonal etiology, risk factors, and the clinical course of the disease. Holistically, it is clear that each species has advantages and limitations that researchers must consider during the development of experimental designs and data analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Use in Canadian Cow–Calf Herds
by Jayce D. Fossen, John R. Campbell, Sheryl P. Gow, Nathan Erickson and Cheryl L. Waldner
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050366 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Despite growing concern surrounding antimicrobial use (AMU) and the importance of cow–calf herds to the Canadian livestock industry, surveillance of AMU in cow–calf herds to inform antimicrobial stewardship programs has been sporadic. Producers from the Canadian Cow–Calf Surveillance Network (87%, 146/168) provided data [...] Read more.
Despite growing concern surrounding antimicrobial use (AMU) and the importance of cow–calf herds to the Canadian livestock industry, surveillance of AMU in cow–calf herds to inform antimicrobial stewardship programs has been sporadic. Producers from the Canadian Cow–Calf Surveillance Network (87%, 146/168) provided data and almost all reported AMU in at least one animal (99%, 145/146 herds) in 2019–2020. The most common reasons for AMU were treatment of respiratory disease in nursing calves in 78% of herds and neonatal diarrhea in 67% of herds, as well as for lameness in cows in 83% of herds. However, most herds treated <5% of animals for these reasons. Less than 2.5% of herds treated more than 30% of calves for either bovine respiratory disease or neonatal diarrhea and no herds treated more than 30% of cows for lameness. The most frequently reported antimicrobial was oxytetracycline in 81% of herds, followed by florfenicol in 73% of herds. Antimicrobials with very high importance to human health, such as ceftiofur, were used at least once by 20% of herds but were only used in >30% of nursing calves from one herd. Similarly, while 56% of herds used macrolides at least once, within-herd use was the highest in nursing calves where <4% of herds reported use in >30% of animals. Herds using artificial insemination and calving in the winter were more likely (p = 0.05) to treat >5% of nursing calves for respiratory disease, suggesting the importance of vaccination programs for herds at risk. Overall, AMU was similar to previous Canadian studies; however, the percentage of herds using macrolides had increased from a comparable study in 2014. Full article
28 pages, 42282 KiB  
Review
Chronic Progressive Lymphedema in Belgian Draft Horses: Understanding and Managing a Challenging Disease
by Marieke Brys, Edwin Claerebout and Koen Chiers
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050347 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5900
Abstract
Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) in draft horses is characterized by increased dermal thickness and fibrosis, with the development of skinfolds and nodules, hyperkeratosis, and ulcerations on the distal limbs of affected horses. Secondary bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections frequently complicate and aggravate the [...] Read more.
Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) in draft horses is characterized by increased dermal thickness and fibrosis, with the development of skinfolds and nodules, hyperkeratosis, and ulcerations on the distal limbs of affected horses. Secondary bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections frequently complicate and aggravate the lesions, as well as the progression of this disease. CPL has a particularly high prevalence of up to 85.86% in the Belgian draft horse breed. Due to the disease’s progressive and incurable nature, affected horses are often euthanized prematurely. The treatment options are solely symptomatic, aimed at improving the horse’s quality of life. Despite the severity of this condition, many uncertainties about its etiology and pathogenesis still remain to date. The established scientific research on CPL is rather limited, although there is an urgent need for strategies to tackle this disease. This review summarizes the available knowledge, serving as a guideline for practitioners, and provides perspectives for future research programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Animal Dermatology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1021 KiB  
Review
Review of Canine Lymphoma Treated with Chemotherapy—Outcomes and Prognostic Factors
by Peter Bennett, Peter Williamson and Rosanne Taylor
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050342 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7627
Abstract
While canine lymphoma is a relatively common and important disease seen by veterinarians, there are limited comprehensive reviews of the literature regarding the remission and survival times following chemotherapy, and the associated prognostic factors. This comprehensive thematic review covers the available veterinary literature [...] Read more.
While canine lymphoma is a relatively common and important disease seen by veterinarians, there are limited comprehensive reviews of the literature regarding the remission and survival times following chemotherapy, and the associated prognostic factors. This comprehensive thematic review covers the available veterinary literature covering treatment outcomes and identified prognostic factors. A lack of standardised approaches to evaluate and report the outcomes was identified, including factors that would alter the duration of responses by weeks, or occasionally months. After publication of the suggested reporting criteria, this has improved but is still not uniformly applied. The prognostic factors included for evaluation varied from as few as three to seventeen, with over 50 studies using only univariate analysis. Individual papers reported much longer outcomes than others, but assessing the outcomes overall, there has been minimal change over the last 40 years. This supports the belief that novel approaches for lymphoma therapy will be required to substantively improve outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 803 KiB  
Article
Challenging the Hypothesis of in Utero Microbiota Acquisition in Healthy Canine and Feline Pregnancies at Term: Preliminary Data
by Penelope Banchi, Barbara Colitti, Andrea Del Carro, Michela Corrò, Alessia Bertero, Ugo Ala, Angela Del Carro, Ann Van Soom, Luigi Bertolotti and Ada Rota
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050331 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
At present, there are no data on the presence of bacteria in healthy canine and feline pregnancies at term. Here, we investigated the uterine microbiome in bitches (n = 5) and queens (n = 3) undergoing elective cesarean section in two [...] Read more.
At present, there are no data on the presence of bacteria in healthy canine and feline pregnancies at term. Here, we investigated the uterine microbiome in bitches (n = 5) and queens (n = 3) undergoing elective cesarean section in two facilities. Samples included swabs from the endometrium, amniotic fluid, and meconium, and environmental swabs of the surgical tray as controls. Culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the presence of bacteria. Culture was positive for 34.3% of samples (uterus n = 3, amniotic fluid n = 2, meconium n = 4, controls n = 0), mostly with low growth of common contaminant bacteria. With sequencing techniques, the bacterial abundance was significantly lower than in environmental controls (p < 0.05). Sequencing results showed a species-specific pattern, and significant differences between canine and feline bacterial populations were found at order, family, and genus level. No differences were found in alpha and beta diversities between feto-maternal tissues and controls (p > 0.05). Dominant phyla were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria in different proportions based on tissue and species. Culture and sequencing results suggest that the bacterial biomass is very low in healthy canine and feline pregnancies at term, that bacteria likely originate from contamination from the dam’s skin, and that the presence of viable bacteria could not be confirmed most of the time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1156 KiB  
Article
Can Chemotherapy Negatively Affect the Specific Antibody Response toward Core Vaccines in Canine Cancer Patients?
by Paola Dall’Ara, Joel Filipe, Chiara Pilastro, Lauretta Turin, Stefania Lauzi, Elisa Maria Gariboldi and Damiano Stefanello
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040303 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3474
Abstract
The life expectancy of our pets has been getting longer in recent years due to new therapeutic opportunities, better nutrition, and better diagnostic approaches. This positive effect, however, has been accompanied by a concomitant increase in neoplasms, particularly in canine patients. Therefore, veterinarians [...] Read more.
The life expectancy of our pets has been getting longer in recent years due to new therapeutic opportunities, better nutrition, and better diagnostic approaches. This positive effect, however, has been accompanied by a concomitant increase in neoplasms, particularly in canine patients. Therefore, veterinarians inevitably face new issues related to these diseases, poorly or never investigated in the past, such as the possible side effects resulting from chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how chemotherapy influences the antibody response against CPV-2, CDV, and CAdV-1 in dogs vaccinated before starting chemotherapy. Twenty-one canine patients with different types of malignancies were sampled before, during, and after different chemotherapy protocols to determine their actual levels of seroprotection against CPV-2, CDV, and CadV-1 by using the in-practice test VacciCheck. Differences related to sex, breed size, type of tumor, and chemotherapy protocol were evaluated. No statistically significant changes in antibody protection emerged for any of the chemotherapy protocol used, suggesting that, contrary to expectation, chemotherapy does not have a marked immunosuppressive effect on the post-vaccine antibody response. These results, although preliminary, may be useful in improving the clinical approach to the canine cancer patient, helping veterinarians fully manage their patients, and enabling owners to feel more confident about their pets’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Clinical Effects of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation as Adjunctive Therapy in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathies—A Retrospective Case Series of 41 Dogs
by Linda Toresson, Thomas Spillmann, Rachel Pilla, Ulrika Ludvigsson, Josefin Hellgren, Gunilla Olmedal and Jan S. Suchodolski
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040271 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6221
Abstract
Chronic enteropathies (CE) are common in dogs, but not all affected dogs respond to standard therapy. Successful responses to faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) in dogs with non-responsive CE have been reported in two case series. The objective of this retrospective study was to [...] Read more.
Chronic enteropathies (CE) are common in dogs, but not all affected dogs respond to standard therapy. Successful responses to faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) in dogs with non-responsive CE have been reported in two case series. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical effects of FMT as an adjunctive therapy in a larger population of dogs with CE. Forty-one dogs aged 0.6–13.0 years (median 5.8) under treatment for CE at one referral animal hospital were included. Dogs were treated with 1–5 (median 3) FMTs as a rectal enema at a dose of 5–7 g/kg body weight. The canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) was compared at baseline versus after the last FMT. Stored faecal samples (n = 16) were analysed with the dysbiosis index. CIBDAI at baseline was 2–17 (median 6), which decreased to 1–9 (median 2; p < 0.0001) after FMT. Subsequently, 31/41 dogs responded to treatment, resulting in improved faecal quality and/or activity level in 24/41 and 24/41 dogs, respectively. The dysbiosis index at baseline was significantly lower for good responders versus poor responders (p = 0.043). Results suggest that FMT can be useful as an adjunctive therapy in dogs with poorly responsive CE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Description of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli and Their Dissemination Mechanisms on Dairy Farms
by Jonathan Massé, Ghyslaine Vanier, John M. Fairbrother, Maud de Lagarde, Julie Arsenault, David Francoz, Simon Dufour and Marie Archambault
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040242 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Despite its importance in veterinary medicine, there is little information about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its transmission in dairy cattle. The aim of this work is to compare AMR phenotypes and genotypes in resistant Escherichia coli and to determine how the resistance genes [...] Read more.
Despite its importance in veterinary medicine, there is little information about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its transmission in dairy cattle. The aim of this work is to compare AMR phenotypes and genotypes in resistant Escherichia coli and to determine how the resistance genes spread among the E. coli population on dairy farms in Québec, Canada. From an existing culture collection of E. coli isolated from dairy manure, a convenient selection of the most resistant isolates (a high level of multidrug resistance or resistance to broad-spectrum β-lactams or fluoroquinolones) was analyzed (n = 118). An AMR phenotype profile was obtained for each isolate. Whole genome sequencing was used to determine the presence of resistance genes, point mutations, and mobile genetic elements. In addition, a subset of isolates from 86 farms was taken to investigate the phylogenetic relationship and geographic distribution of the isolates. The average agreement between AMR phenotypes and genotypes was 95%. A third-generation cephalosporin resistance gene (blaCTX-M-15), a resistance gene conferring reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (qnrS1), and an insertion sequence (ISKpn19) were detected in the vicinity of each other on the genome. These genes were harbored in one triplet of clonal isolates from three farms located >100 km apart. Our study reveals the dissemination of resistant E. coli clones between dairy farms. Furthermore, these clones are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 814 KiB  
Article
RT-LAMP as Diagnostic Tool for Influenza—A Virus Detection in Swine
by Suzanna M. Storms, Joanna Shisler, Thanh H. Nguyen, Federico A. Zuckermann and James F. Lowe
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030220 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
Point-of-care diagnostic technologies are becoming more widely available for production species. Here, we describe the application of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect the matrix (M) gene of influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S). M-specific LAMP primers were designed based on [...] Read more.
Point-of-care diagnostic technologies are becoming more widely available for production species. Here, we describe the application of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect the matrix (M) gene of influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S). M-specific LAMP primers were designed based on M gene sequences from IAV-S isolated in the USA between 2017 and 2020. The LAMP assay was incubated at 65 °C for 30 min, with the fluorescent signal read every 20 s. The assay’s limit of detection (LOD) was 20 M gene copies for direct LAMP of the matrix gene standard, and 100 M gene copies when using spiked extraction kits. The LOD was 1000 M genes when using cell culture samples. Detection in clinical samples showed a sensitivity of 94.3% and a specificity of 94.9%. These results show that the influenza M gene RT-LAMP assay can detect the presence of IAV in research laboratory conditions. With the appropriate fluorescent reader and heat block, the assay could be quickly validated as a low-cost, rapid, IAV-S screening tool for use on farms or in clinical diagnostic labs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Swine Viral Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1402 KiB  
Article
The Endometrial Microbiota—16S rRNA Gene Sequence Signatures in Healthy, Pregnant and Endometritis Dairy Cows
by Anne A. M. J. Becker, Stacie Munden, Evonne McCabe, Daniel Hurley, Séamus Fanning, Aspinas Chapwanya and Patrick Butaye
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030215 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
Endometritis is one of the most important causes of infertility in dairy cows, resulting in high economic losses in the dairy industry. Though the presence of a commensal uterine microbiota is now well established, the complex role of these bacteria in genital health, [...] Read more.
Endometritis is one of the most important causes of infertility in dairy cows, resulting in high economic losses in the dairy industry. Though the presence of a commensal uterine microbiota is now well established, the complex role of these bacteria in genital health, fertility, and susceptibility to uterine diseases remains unclear. In this study, we explore the endometrial microbiota through 16S rRNA gene profiling from cytobrush samples taken ex vivo from healthy, pregnant, and endometritis cows. There were no significant differences between healthy and pregnant cows, whose uterine microbiota were dominated by Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Fusobacterium, Lactococcus and Bacteroides. Compared to pregnant and clinically healthy cows, the uterine bacterial community of endometritis cows was significantly decreased in species diversity (p < 0.05), reflecting uneven community composition in different patterns with either dominance of Escherichia-Shigella, Histophilus, Bacteroides and Porphyromonas or Actinobacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Epidemiologic Factors Supporting Triage of Infected Dog Patients Admitted to a Veterinary Hospital Biological Isolation and Containment Unit
by Inês Cunha Machado, Telmo Nunes, Miguel Maximino, João Malato, Luís Tavares, Virgilio Almeida, Nuno Sepúlveda and Solange Gil
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030186 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
The teaching hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Lisbon hosts a Biological Isolation and Containment Unit (BICU) for the hospitalization of both confirmed and suspected animals of an infectious disease. This study targets the BICU dog population to [...] Read more.
The teaching hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Lisbon hosts a Biological Isolation and Containment Unit (BICU) for the hospitalization of both confirmed and suspected animals of an infectious disease. This study targets the BICU dog population to identify and characterize the most frequent infectious diseases recorded in a 7-year period. Several epidemiologic factors were analyzed for their significance to triage infected cases. During the study period, 534 dogs were admitted, of which 263 (49.3%) had a confirmed infectious disease diagnosis: parvovirosis (49.4%; n = 130); leptospirosis (21.7%; n = 57); multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection; (10.6%; n = 28), and canine distemper (9.9%; n = 26). Several potential risk factors for these diseases were identified: age under 2 years old (p < 0.001), incomplete vaccination for parvovirosis (p < 0.001), age ≥ 10 years old (p < 0.001), and the presence of concomitant disorders for MDR-infected cases (p = 0.03). Logistic regression models were constructed to classify cases and controls. The sensitivity and specificity estimates were very high (>0.83) for parvovirosis, MDR, and distemper infections. A lower sensitivity (0.77) was obtained for identifying cases with leptospirosis. In conclusion, infectious diseases are frequent, hence, it is essential to decrease their occurrence through effective preventive measures such as vaccination. The constructed logistic models can also help in triaging admitted dogs with a potential infectious disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop