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Vet. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 61 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fosfomycin is an old antibiotic with a renewed interest as an alternative agent, due to its broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. However, resistant strains emerge worldwide among humans and animals. References of relevant isolates associated with companion animals, even though limited, are undoubtedly a matter of concern. Since Fosfomycin is not routinely used by veterinarians, the detection of resistant isolates in canine and feline samples indicates that their dissemination among humans, pets, and the environment is possibly reinforced by other factors. Concerning the origin, the species, and the resistance patterns of these bacteria, useful conclusions can be drawn, regarding the presence, the spreading, and the causes of Fosfomycin resistance among companion animals and between them and their environment. View this paper
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15 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Are They Thinking Differently? The Perceptions and Differences in Medical Disputes between Veterinarians and Clients
by Zih-Fang Chen, Yi-Hsin Elsa Hsu, Jih-Jong Lee and Chung-Hsi Chou
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050367 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Medical disputes in veterinary practices are widespread; yet, a limited amount of research has been conducted to investigate the factors contributing to medical disputes. This study examined veterinarians’ and clients’ perceptions regarding risk factors and possible solutions to medical disputes. A total of [...] Read more.
Medical disputes in veterinary practices are widespread; yet, a limited amount of research has been conducted to investigate the factors contributing to medical disputes. This study examined veterinarians’ and clients’ perceptions regarding risk factors and possible solutions to medical disputes. A total of 245 respondents from Taiwan, including 125 veterinarians and 120 clients, completed an electronic self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire in 2022. The questionnaire covered six dimensions: medical skills, complaint management, the attitudes of stakeholders during interactions, medical expenses, clients’ perspectives, and communication modes. The results highlighted significant differences in the perceptions of risk factors for inducing medical disputes and possible solutions between clients and veterinarians in veterinary practice. First, young veterinarians and clients perceived medical skills as the highest risk factor for inducing medical disputes, while experienced veterinarians disagreed (p < 0.001). In addition, veterinarians with medical dispute experience identified stakeholders’ attitudes during interactions as the top contributing factor. Second, regarding possible solutions, all veterinarians preferred offering clients cost estimates and cultivating empathy and compassion towards them. On the other hand, clients underscored the importance of obtaining informed consent for treatments and expenses and suggested that veterinarians should supply comprehensive written information to facilitate this process. This study underlies the importance of understanding stakeholders’ perceptions to mitigate medical disputes and advocates for improved communication education and training for young veterinarians. These findings provide valuable insights for veterinarians and clients, contributing to preventing and managing medical disputes in veterinary practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medical Education: Challenges and Perspectives)
28 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Use in Canadian Cow–Calf Herds
by Jayce D. Fossen, John R. Campbell, Sheryl P. Gow, Nathan Erickson and Cheryl L. Waldner
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050366 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
Despite growing concern surrounding antimicrobial use (AMU) and the importance of cow–calf herds to the Canadian livestock industry, surveillance of AMU in cow–calf herds to inform antimicrobial stewardship programs has been sporadic. Producers from the Canadian Cow–Calf Surveillance Network (87%, 146/168) provided data [...] Read more.
Despite growing concern surrounding antimicrobial use (AMU) and the importance of cow–calf herds to the Canadian livestock industry, surveillance of AMU in cow–calf herds to inform antimicrobial stewardship programs has been sporadic. Producers from the Canadian Cow–Calf Surveillance Network (87%, 146/168) provided data and almost all reported AMU in at least one animal (99%, 145/146 herds) in 2019–2020. The most common reasons for AMU were treatment of respiratory disease in nursing calves in 78% of herds and neonatal diarrhea in 67% of herds, as well as for lameness in cows in 83% of herds. However, most herds treated <5% of animals for these reasons. Less than 2.5% of herds treated more than 30% of calves for either bovine respiratory disease or neonatal diarrhea and no herds treated more than 30% of cows for lameness. The most frequently reported antimicrobial was oxytetracycline in 81% of herds, followed by florfenicol in 73% of herds. Antimicrobials with very high importance to human health, such as ceftiofur, were used at least once by 20% of herds but were only used in >30% of nursing calves from one herd. Similarly, while 56% of herds used macrolides at least once, within-herd use was the highest in nursing calves where <4% of herds reported use in >30% of animals. Herds using artificial insemination and calving in the winter were more likely (p = 0.05) to treat >5% of nursing calves for respiratory disease, suggesting the importance of vaccination programs for herds at risk. Overall, AMU was similar to previous Canadian studies; however, the percentage of herds using macrolides had increased from a comparable study in 2014. Full article
15 pages, 20667 KiB  
Article
Secondary Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (HP-PRRSV2) Infection Augments Inflammatory Responses, Clinical Outcomes, and Pathogen Load in Glaesserella-parasuis-Infected Piglets
by Zhixin Guan, Linlin Pang, Yan Ouyang, Yifeng Jiang, Junjie Zhang, Yafeng Qiu, Zongjie Li, Beibei Li, Ke Liu, Donghua Shao, Zhiyong Ma and Jianchao Wei
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050365 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Glaesserella parasuis (Gps), Gram-negative bacteria, are a universal respiratory-disease-causing pathogen in swine that colonize the upper respiratory tract. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (HP-PRRSV2HP-PRRSV2) and Gps coinfections are epidemics in China, but little is known about the influence of concurrent [...] Read more.
Glaesserella parasuis (Gps), Gram-negative bacteria, are a universal respiratory-disease-causing pathogen in swine that colonize the upper respiratory tract. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (HP-PRRSV2HP-PRRSV2) and Gps coinfections are epidemics in China, but little is known about the influence of concurrent coinfection on disease severity and inflammatory responses. Herein, we studied the effects of secondary HP-PRRS infection on clinical symptoms, pathological changes, pathogen load, and inflammatory response of Gps coinfection in the upper respiratory tract of piglets. All coinfected piglets (HP-PRRSV2 + Gps) displayed fever and severe lesions in the lungs, while fever was present in only a few animals with a single infection (HP-PRRSV2 or Gps). Additionally, HP-PRRSV2 and Gps loading in nasal swabs and blood and lung tissue samples was significantly increased in the coinfected group. Necropsy data showed that coinfected piglets suffered from severe lung damage and had significantly higher antibody titers of HP-PRRSV2 or Gps than single-infected piglets. Moreover, the serum and lung concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) were also significantly higher in coinfected piglets than in those infected with HP-PRRSV2 or Gps alone. In conclusion, our results show that HP-PRRSV2 promotes the shedding and replication of Gps, and their coinfection in the upper respiratory tract aggravates the clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses, causing lung damage. Therefore, in the unavoidable situation of Gps infection in piglets, necessary measures must be made to prevent and control secondary infection with HP-PRRSV2, which can save huge economic losses to the pork industry. Full article
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17 pages, 2702 KiB  
Article
Effects of Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens Larvae) Meal on the Production Performance and Cecal Microbiota of Hens
by Yan Yan, Jinjin Zhang, Xiaochen Chen and Zhanbin Wang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050364 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
The effects of Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a feed supplement on production performance and cecal microflora were studied in 900 Hy-line Brown laying hens. Laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups. Each group had five replicates, and [...] Read more.
The effects of Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a feed supplement on production performance and cecal microflora were studied in 900 Hy-line Brown laying hens. Laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups. Each group had five replicates, and each replicate had 45 hens. The control group was fed with a corn–soybean-based diet, and the experimental groups were fed with 1% HILM, 2% HILM, or 3% HILM. Results were as follows: (1) With the increase in HILM level, the laying rate increased linearly (p ≤ 0.05), and the feed/egg and cracked-egg rate decreased linearly (p ≤ 0.05). (2) Community composition analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in each group were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which accounted for more than 97% of 16S rRNA gene sequence of the total cecal bacteria. (3) Alpha diversity analysis at the operational taxonomic unit classification level showed that the HILM-addition groups had higher community richness and community diversity than the control group. (4) Principal co-ordinates analysis showed that the cecum samples in each group were significantly separated (p ≤ 0.05). At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in the HILM addition groups was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.001), and the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the HILM addition groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary HILM supplementation had a significant effect on the production performance and cecal microflora of laying hens at the late laying period under the conditions of this experiment but had no adverse effect on the intestinal dominant flora. Full article
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11 pages, 571 KiB  
Article
Serum Bicarbonate Deficiency in Dogs with Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease
by Ilaria Lippi, Francesca Perondi, Eleonora Gori, Alessio Pierini, Lucrezia Bernicchi and Veronica Marchetti
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050363 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Serum bicarbonate deficiency is a disorder frequently found in human patients with acute (AKI) and chronic (CKD) kidney disease, due to abnormalities in kidney generation and reabsorption of bicarbonate. Although alkali supplementation is usually performed in both humans and veterinary CKD patients, data [...] Read more.
Serum bicarbonate deficiency is a disorder frequently found in human patients with acute (AKI) and chronic (CKD) kidney disease, due to abnormalities in kidney generation and reabsorption of bicarbonate. Although alkali supplementation is usually performed in both humans and veterinary CKD patients, data regarding the frequency of bicarbonate disorders in AKI and CKD dogs are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the frequency and the severity of bicarbonate deficiency of dogs affected by AKI, acute chronic kidney disease (ACKD), and CKD, and to investigate its possible association with the IRIS grade/stage as well as with disorders of calcium phosphate metabolism. A retrospective evaluation of the serum biochemical panels of all dogs with diagnoses of AKI, ACKD, and CKD referred to the nephrology and urology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Pisa, between January 2014 and January 2022, was performed. Bicarbonate deficiency was defined as serum bicarbonate < 22 mmol/L and classified as moderate (between 18 and 22 mmol/L) or severe (<18 mmol/L). Serum bicarbonate deficiency was found in 397/521 dogs (76%), of which 142/397 (36%) showed moderate deficiency, and 255/397 (64%) severe deficiency. Dogs with AKI and ACKD showed a significantly higher frequency of bicarbonate deficiency (p = 0.004) and severe forms compared to CKD dogs (p = 0.02). In AKI and ACKD dogs, a negative linear correlation was found between serum bicarbonate and serum creatinine, urea, and phosphate. The frequency of bicarbonate deficiency was higher in the later stages of the disease in both AKI (p = 0.01), ACKD (p = 0.0003), and CKD dogs (p = 0.009). Dogs with serum CaxP ≥ 70 mg2/dL2 showed a higher frequency of bicarbonate deficiency (p = 0.01) and showed severe forms (p = 0.01) compared to dogs with CaxP < 70 mg2/dL2. Serum bicarbonate deficiency seems to be a very frequent disorder in both AKI, ACKD, and CKD dogs, with an increasing frequency and severity in more advanced stages of kidney disease. The higher frequency and severity of bicarbonate deficiency in AKI and ACKD may be caused by a more severe and sudden loss of kidney function, or extra-renal factors. Finally, the association between frequency and severity of bicarbonate deficiency and abnormal CaxP may suggest a potential connection between metabolic acidosis and bone mineral disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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13 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Enteric Virome of Cats with Acute Gastroenteritis
by Federica Di Profio, Vittorio Sarchese, Paola Fruci, Giovanni Aste, Vito Martella, Andrea Palombieri and Barbara Di Martino
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050362 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Viruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in cats, chiefly in younger animals. Enteric specimens collected from 29 cats with acute enteritis and 33 non-diarrhoeic cats were screened in PCRs and reverse transcription (RT) PCR for a large panel of enteric [...] Read more.
Viruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in cats, chiefly in younger animals. Enteric specimens collected from 29 cats with acute enteritis and 33 non-diarrhoeic cats were screened in PCRs and reverse transcription (RT) PCR for a large panel of enteric viruses, including also orphan viruses of recent identification. At least one viral species, including feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline enteric coronavirus (FCoV), feline chaphamaparvovirus, calicivirus (vesivirus and novovirus), feline kobuvirus, feline sakobuvirus A and Lyon IARC polyomaviruses, was detected in 66.1% of the samples.. Co-infections were mainly accounted for by FPV and FCoV and were detected in 24.2% of the samples. The virome composition was further assessed in eight diarrhoeic samples, through the construction of sequencing libraries using a sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) protocol. The libraries were sequenced on Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing platform. A total of 41 contigs (>100 nt) were detected from seven viral families infecting mammals, included Parvoviridae, Caliciviridae, Picornaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Anelloviridae, Papillomaviridae and Paramyxoviridae, revealing a broad variety in the composition of the feline enteric virome. Full article
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25 pages, 24606 KiB  
Article
Paleopathological Changes in Animal Bones from Croatian Archaeological Sites from Prehistory to New Modern Period
by Tajana Trbojević Vukičević, Kim Korpes, Martina Đuras, Zoran Vrbanac, Ana Javor and Magdalena Kolenc
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050361 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
A special part of archaeology, so-called archaeozoopathology or veterinary paleopathology is dedicated to studies of paleopathological changes in animal remains and contributes to the knowledge of ancient veterinary medicine and the history of diseases. In our study, we analyze paleopathological changes determined by [...] Read more.
A special part of archaeology, so-called archaeozoopathology or veterinary paleopathology is dedicated to studies of paleopathological changes in animal remains and contributes to the knowledge of ancient veterinary medicine and the history of diseases. In our study, we analyze paleopathological changes determined by gross observation and diagnostic imaging in the animal material originating from eight archaeological sites in Croatia. A standard archaeozoological analysis was carried out and specimens with visually detected macrostructural changes were radiographed. In total, 50 animal remains with altered macrostructure were identified in the archaeozoological material excavated from 2010 to 2022 at eight archaeological sites in Croatia. According to the taxonomic analysis, most of the bones with macrostructural changes originated from cattle (N = 27, 54% of the total number of bones with macrostructural changes), followed by the bones of small ruminants (N = 12, 24%) and pigs (N = 8, 16%). The horse, carnivore and chicken were represented with one bone each (2%). Radiological examination showed that three samples (6%) had a regular bone macrostructure, i.e., no pathological changes were visible upon radiological examination. The majority (64%) of pathologically altered bones are a consequence of keeping/working, followed by traumatic causes (20%). Changes in the oral cavity were found in 10% of specimens. Our study showed that gross examination will continue to be the primary method for the identification of pathologically altered remains in archaeozoological material. However, diagnostic imaging techniques such as radiography should be implemented to confirm or exclude suspected alterations and to help the classification of the specimen by etiology. Full article
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24 pages, 16247 KiB  
Article
Alteration of the Gut Microbiota in Pigs Infected with African Swine Fever Virus
by Young-Seung Ko, Dongseob Tark, Sung-Hyun Moon, Dae-Min Kim, Taek Geun Lee, Da-Yun Bae, Sun-Young Sunwoo, Yeonsu Oh and Ho-Seong Cho
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050360 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
The factors that influence the pathogenicity of African swine fever (ASF) are still poorly understood, and the host’s immune response has been indicated as crucial. Although an increasing number of studies have shown that gut microbiota can control the progression of diseases caused [...] Read more.
The factors that influence the pathogenicity of African swine fever (ASF) are still poorly understood, and the host’s immune response has been indicated as crucial. Although an increasing number of studies have shown that gut microbiota can control the progression of diseases caused by viral infections, it has not been characterized how the ASF virus (ASFV) changes a pig’s gut microbiome. This study analyzed the dynamic changes in the intestinal microbiome of pigs experimentally infected with the high-virulence ASFV genotype II strain (N = 4) or mock strain (N = 3). Daily fecal samples were collected from the pigs and distributed into the four phases (before infection, primary phase, clinical phase, and terminal phase) of ASF based on the individual clinical features of the pigs. The total DNA was extracted and the V4 region of the 16 s rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced on the Illumina platform. Richness indices (ACE and Chao1) were significantly decreased in the terminal phase of ASF infection. The relative abundances of short-chain-fatty-acids-producing bacteria, such as Ruminococcaceae, Roseburia, and Blautia, were decreased during ASFV infection. On the other hand, the abundance of Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes increased. Furthermore, predicted functional analysis using PICRUSt resulted in a significantly reduced abundance of 15 immune-related pathways in the ASFV-infected pigs. This study provides evidence for further understanding the ASFV–pig interaction and suggests that changes in gut microbiome composition during ASFV infection may be associated with the status of immunosuppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Swine Viral Diseases)
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18 pages, 3416 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Imaging Methods and Population Pattern in Dogs with Spinal Diseases in Three Periods between 2005 and 2022: A Retrospective Study
by Jakub Fuchs, Michal Domaniža, Mária Kuricová, Tomáš Lipták and Valent Ledecký
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050359 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1564
Abstract
The aim of this study was the long-term comparison of the imaging methods used in dogs with neurologic diseases related to the spine and spinal cord. We also compared the occurrence of neurological diseases according to the localization, gender, age, and breed. As [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the long-term comparison of the imaging methods used in dogs with neurologic diseases related to the spine and spinal cord. We also compared the occurrence of neurological diseases according to the localization, gender, age, and breed. As the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increased over the years, resulting in increased diagnostic and therapeutic success rates, the study was divided into three time periods (2005–2014, 2015–2018, and 2019–2022). Our results suggest changes in the population structure of the dogs studied and changes in the use of diagnostic methods that directly or indirectly influence the choice and success rate of therapy. Our results may be of interest to owners, breeders, practicing veterinarians, and insurance companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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15 pages, 360 KiB  
Review
Colostrum Composition, Characteristics and Management for Buffalo Calves: A Review
by Daria Lotito, Eleonora Pacifico, Sara Matuozzo, Nadia Musco, Piera Iommelli, Fabio Zicarelli, Raffaella Tudisco, Federico Infascelli and Pietro Lombardi
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050358 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
In this review, the composition, characteristics, and management of dairy buffalo calves were examined and compared with bovines. The neonatal period is critical for buffalo calves and is characterized by a high mortality rate (more than 40%). The early intake of high-quality colostrum [...] Read more.
In this review, the composition, characteristics, and management of dairy buffalo calves were examined and compared with bovines. The neonatal period is critical for buffalo calves and is characterized by a high mortality rate (more than 40%). The early intake of high-quality colostrum (IgG > 50 mg/mL) is the one way to improve the immune system of calves (serum IgG > 10 mg/mL after 12 h), thus increasing their chances of survival. Mainly in intensive farms, the availability of high-quality colostrum is necessary; thus, good quality colostrum is often stored to provide newborn calves which cannot be fed by their mothers. Also, the manipulation of the immunological status of animals through vaccination has been depicted since the quality of colostrum tended to be influenced by vaccination against pathogens. Buffalo breeding is constantly expanding in Italy, mainly thanks to the Mozzarella cheese production that represents the excellence of the “Made in Italy” and is exported worldwide. Indeed, high calf mortality rates directly affect the profitability of the business. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to examine specific research on buffalo colostrum that, compared with other species, are scarce. Improving the knowledge of buffalo colostrum, in terms of characteristics and management, is critical to guarantee buffalo newborns’ health in order to reduce their mortality rate. Importantly, considering the knowledge on cattle valid also for buffalo is a widespread, and often erroneous, habit in several fields, including colostrum feeding. Therefore, the two species were compared in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
14 pages, 1964 KiB  
Article
Veterinary Education and Training on Non-Traditional Companion Animals, Exotic, Zoo, and Wild Animals: Concepts Review and Challenging Perspective on Zoological Medicine
by Jaime Espinosa García-San Román, Óscar Quesada-Canales, Manuel Arbelo Hernández, Soraya Déniz Suárez and Ayoze Castro-Alonso
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050357 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2579
Abstract
The role of veterinarians is becoming more significant and necessary to support the welfare and health not only of non-traditional companion animals and wildlife animals, but also of humans and the environment. The importance of the One Health/One World concept and its social [...] Read more.
The role of veterinarians is becoming more significant and necessary to support the welfare and health not only of non-traditional companion animals and wildlife animals, but also of humans and the environment. The importance of the One Health/One World concept and its social impact is increasing significantly, accompanied by the notoriety of new emerging and reemerging zoonoses. This paper aims to review and anchor the main concepts and professional applications of zoological medicine, which has been extensively discussed and adapted in recent decades. In addition, we analyse the main social demands, training, and educational needs and the perception of veterinary professionals relating to this specialised veterinary discipline. Our final goal is to reinforce the use of the term zoological medicine and contribute to highlight the need to foster and underpin specific educational policies and programs on this matter in the veterinary curricula. Zoological medicine should be the appropriate and agreed-upon term in the academic language concerning the veterinary medicine of pets, wild, or zoo species, excluding traditional domestic animals, and integrating the principles of ecology and conservation, applied to both natural and artificial environments. This discipline has suffered an intense evolution covering applications in private clinics, zoos, bioparks, and wildlife. All this implies current and future challenges for the veterinary profession that can only be addressed with greater and better attention from multiple perspectives, especially the education and training of professionals to improve and specialise in their professional scope of services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medical Education: Challenges and Perspectives)
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11 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Sero-Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in the Northern Border Regions of Pakistan
by Munib Ullah, Yanmin Li, Kainat Munib, Hanif Ur Rahman and Zhidong Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050356 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
The present cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the distribution and risk factors of FMD in Pakistan’s northern border regions. About 385 serum samples were compiled from small ruminants (239) and large ruminants (146) and tested using 3ABC-Mab-bELISA. An overall apparent seroprevalence [...] Read more.
The present cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the distribution and risk factors of FMD in Pakistan’s northern border regions. About 385 serum samples were compiled from small ruminants (239) and large ruminants (146) and tested using 3ABC-Mab-bELISA. An overall apparent seroprevalence of 67.0% was documented. The highest seroprevalence of 81.1% was reported in the Swat, followed by 76.6% in Mohmand, 72.7% in Gilgit, 65.6% in Shangla, 63.4% in Bajaur, 46.6% in Chitral and lowest 46.5% in Khyber region. Statistically significant variations in seroprevalence of 51.5%, 71.8%, 58.3%, and 74.4% were recorded in sheep, goats, cattle, and buffaloes, respectively. From the different risk factors investigated, age, sex, species of animal, seasons, flock/herd size, farming methods, outbreak location, and nomadic animal movement were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the seroprevalence of FMD. It was concluded that proper epidemiological study, risk-based FMD surveillance in small ruminants, vaccination strategy, control measures for transboundary animal movement, collaborations, and awareness programs need to be practiced in the study regions to investigate the newly circulating virus strains in large and small ruminants and associated factors for the wide seroprevalence to plan proper control policies to bound the consequence of FMD in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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12 pages, 2833 KiB  
Case Report
Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia in a Normoproteinemic Dog with Atypical Bimorphic Plasmacytoid Differentiation and Monoclonal Gammopathy
by Maud Guerlin, Kévin Mourou, Valeria Martini, Nicolas Soetart, Stefano Comazzi, Catherine Trumel and Fanny Granat
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050355 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 3187
Abstract
A 2-year-old neutered female Small Munsterlander dog was presented for an insect bite. Physical examination revealed a poor body condition, a peripheral lymphadenomegaly, and suspected splenomegaly. A complete blood count (Sysmex XN-V) revealed marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and abnormal dot plots. An abnormal [...] Read more.
A 2-year-old neutered female Small Munsterlander dog was presented for an insect bite. Physical examination revealed a poor body condition, a peripheral lymphadenomegaly, and suspected splenomegaly. A complete blood count (Sysmex XN-V) revealed marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and abnormal dot plots. An abnormal monomorphic lymphoid population and marked rouleaux formation were noted on the blood smear. Lymph node aspirates contained an atypical bimorphic population of lymphocytes, either with a plasmacytoid or a blastic appearance. This double population was also found in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, tonsils, and other tissues. Peripheral blood and lymph node clonality assays revealed clonal BCR gene rearrangement. Flow cytometry revealed a mixed population of small-sized B-cells (CD79a+ CD21+ MHCII+) and medium-sized B-cells (CD79a+ CD21− MHCII−) in lymph nodes and a dominant population of small-sized mature B-cells (CD21+ MHCII+) in peripheral blood. Though normoproteinemic, serum protein electrophoresis revealed an increased α2-globulin fraction with an atypical restricted peak, identified as monoclonal IgM by immunofixation. Urine protein immunofixation revealed a Bence-Jones proteinuria. A diagnosis of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia was made. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the dog was euthanized 12 months after the initial presentation due to marked clinical degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Round Cell Tumors of Animals)
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11 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
Influenza A Virus Weakens the Immune Response of Mice to Toxoplasma gondii, Thereby Aggravating T. gondii Infection
by Junpeng Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Jinxuan Li, Lingyu Sun, Xiao Chen, Ziyu Chu, Zhenzhao Zhang, Hongxia Wu, Xiaomin Zhao, Hongmei Li and Xiao Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050354 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1391
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the T. gondii type II strain (Pru) and respiratory viral infections, specifically focusing on the co-infection with PR8 (influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34). In this study, we found that the number of T. gondii (Pru) in the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the T. gondii type II strain (Pru) and respiratory viral infections, specifically focusing on the co-infection with PR8 (influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34). In this study, we found that the number of T. gondii (Pru) in the lungs of co-infected mice was significantly higher and lesions were more severe than those in the group infected with T. gondii (Pru) alone, whereas IAV (influenza A virus) copy numbers of co-infected and PR8 alone infected groups were negligible, suggesting that infection with IAV increased the pathogenicity of T. gondii (Pru) in mice. The invasion and proliferation assays demonstrated no significant effect of co-infection on T. gondii (Pru) infection or replication in vitro. To further explore the factors causing the altered pathogenicity of T. gondii (Pru) caused by co-infection, we found that decreased expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 in the co-infected group were associated with the early immune responses against T. gondii (Pru), which affected the division of T. gondii (Pru). Moreover, the significant decrease in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio indicated a weakened long-term immune killing ability of the host against T. gondii (Pru) following IAV infection. In conclusion, a T. gondii type II strain (Pru) could not be properly cleared by the host immune system after IAV infection, resulting in toxoplasmosis and even death in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunological Study of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animals)
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11 pages, 1099 KiB  
Article
Portovenography Findings Following Partial Polypropylene Versus Thin Film Band Attenuation of a Single Congenital Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: A Prospective Randomized Study in Dogs
by Victoria Lipscomb, Mickey Tivers, Anne Kummeling and Freek van Sluijs
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050353 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
The objective was to conduct a prospective, randomized study to compare mesenteric portovenogram findings following partial polypropylene suture versus thin film band extrahepatic portosystemic shunt attenuation in dogs. Dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts that could not tolerate complete acute shunt closure received a [...] Read more.
The objective was to conduct a prospective, randomized study to compare mesenteric portovenogram findings following partial polypropylene suture versus thin film band extrahepatic portosystemic shunt attenuation in dogs. Dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts that could not tolerate complete acute shunt closure received a partial attenuation with either a polypropylene suture or synthetic polymer thin film band. At a routine second surgery three months after shunt patency, missed shunt branches and/or development of multiple acquired shunts were assessed using intra-operative mesenteric portovenography. Twenty-four dogs were enrolled, 12 received partial polypropylene suture ligation, and 12 received partial thin film band shunt attenuation. Intra-operative mesenteric portovenography three months later demonstrated that nine dogs (75%) in the thin film band group had achieved complete shunt closure versus two dogs (16.7%) in the polypropylene suture group, which was significantly different (p = 0.004). No dogs in the polypropylene suture group and two dogs (16.7%) in the thin film band group developed multiple acquired shunts. This is the first study directly comparing follow-up intra-operative mesenteric portovenography imaging findings between two methods of partial portosystemic shunt attenuation in dogs. The study provides accurate information on the rates of complete anatomical shunt closure and development of multiple acquired shunts following partial shunt attenuation with either synthetic polymer thin film band or polypropylene suture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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13 pages, 2896 KiB  
Article
Current Situation of Bacterial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Pet Rabbits in Spain
by Mercedes Fernández, Biel Garcias, Inma Duran, Rafael A. Molina-López and Laila Darwich
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050352 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Research on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pet rabbits is very scarce. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current state of AMR in rabbits attended to in veterinary clinics distributed in Spain. Records of 3596 microbiological results of [...] Read more.
Research on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pet rabbits is very scarce. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current state of AMR in rabbits attended to in veterinary clinics distributed in Spain. Records of 3596 microbiological results of clinical cases submitted from 2010 to 2021 were analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. (15.8%), Pseudomonas spp. (12.7%), Pasteurella spp. (10%), Bordetella spp. (9.6%) and Streptococcus spp. (6.8%) were the most frequently diagnosed agents. Enterobacteriaceae, principally Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, accounted for about 18% of the cases and showed the highest proportion of multi-drug resistance (MDR) isolates, with 48%, 57.5% and 36% of MDR, respectively. Regarding the antimicrobial susceptibility testing for a number of antimicrobial categories/families, the largest proportion of isolates showing resistance to a median of five antimicrobial categories was observed in P. aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkolderia spp. In contrast, infections caused by Staphylococcus, Streptococcus spp. and Pasteurella multocida were highly sensitive to conventional antimicrobials authorized for veterinary use (categories D and C). The emergence of AMR major nosocomial opportunistic pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia and K. pneumoniae in pet rabbits can represent a serious public health challenge. Consequently, collaboration between veterinarians and human health professionals is crucial in the fight against antimicrobial resistance, to optimize, rationalize and prudently use antimicrobial therapies in domestic animals and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use in Companion Animals)
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9 pages, 531 KiB  
Brief Report
Evaluation of the Immune Response to Transport Stress in the Aosta Valley Breed
by Giulia Pagliasso, Martina Moriconi, Francesca Fusi, Nicoletta Vitale, Mario Vevey, Alessandro Dondo, Elisabetta Razzuoli and Stefania Bergagna
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050351 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Transportation is a recurring event in a farm animal’s life, and it is considered one of the main stressors with possible negative repercussions for both the health and welfare of farm animals. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect [...] Read more.
Transportation is a recurring event in a farm animal’s life, and it is considered one of the main stressors with possible negative repercussions for both the health and welfare of farm animals. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of transportation on some blood variables of 45 young bulls moved from their original farms to a livestock collection centre. Transportation took no more than 8 h and was carried out between January and March 2021. Blood samples were taken before transportation (T0), upon arrival at the collection centre (T1), and 7 days after arrival (T2). Samples were processed for blood cell count, clinical chemistry analyses, serum protein electrophoresis, and the evaluation of innate immunity parameters. The results showed a typical stress leukogram with neutrophilia and changes in the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. No significant alterations were observed in either serum proteins or pro-inflammatory cytokines. Significant, albeit transient, alterations were observed in some clinical chemistry parameters after transportation, which could be accounted for by stressful conditions such as the transportation itself and handling and mixing with other animals. Our results indicated that the adopted transportation conditions only slightly affected the blood variables under study with no significant impact on animal welfare. Full article
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13 pages, 3944 KiB  
Article
Integration of Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Analyse the Mechanism of Action of Oregano Essential Oil in the Treatment of Bovine Mastitis
by Guangjie Cao, Jing Liu, Huan Liu, Xiaojie Chen, Na Yu, Xiubo Li and Fei Xu
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050350 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
The active components, potential targets, and mechanisms of action of oregano essential oil in the treatment of bovine mastitis disease were investigated using network pharmacology and molecular docking approaches. The TCMSP and literature databases were examined for the main compounds in oregano essential [...] Read more.
The active components, potential targets, and mechanisms of action of oregano essential oil in the treatment of bovine mastitis disease were investigated using network pharmacology and molecular docking approaches. The TCMSP and literature databases were examined for the main compounds in oregano essential oil. Afterward, the physical, chemical, and bioavailability characteristics of the components were evaluated. The PubChem, BATMAN, PharmMapper, and Uniprot databases were utilized to predict the target genes of the major components of oregano essential oil. Via the databases of DrugBank, OMIM, GeneCards, TTD, and DisGenet, the disease targets of bovine mastitis were discovered. We analyzed common targets and built protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks using the STRING database. Key genes were analyzed, obtained, and compound–target–pathway–disease visualization networks were created using Cytoscape. For the GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, the DAVID database was utilized. Molecular docking via Autodock Tools was utilized to evaluate the reliability of the interactions between oregano essential oil and hub targets. Thymol, carvacrol, and p-cymene are the three major components found in oregano essential oil. The potential targets (TNF, TLR4, ALB, IL-1β, TLR2, IL-6, IFNG, and MyD88) were screened according to the visual network. The enrichment analysis suggested that the major signaling pathways in network pharmacology may include PI3K-Akt, MAPK, IL-17, and NF-κ B. Molecular docking analysis shows that thymol had good docking activity with TNF, IL-6, and MyD88, carvacrol had good docking activity with TNF, and p-cymene had good docking activity with ALB. This study clarified the mechanism of action of oregano essential oil in the treatment of bovine mastitis, thus providing data supporting the potential for the use of oregano essential oil in the development of new therapeutics for bovine mastitis. Full article
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9 pages, 12963 KiB  
Communication
A Novel Breast Cancer Xenograft Model Using the Ostrich Chorioallantoic Membrane—A Proof of Concept
by Marta Pomraenke, Robert Bolney, Thomas Winkens, Olga Perkas, David Pretzel, Bernhard Theis, Julia Greiser and Martin Freesmeyer
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050349 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay has attracted scientific attention in cancer research as an alternative or complementary method for in vivo animal models. Here, we present a xenograft model based on the ostrich (struthio camelus) CAM assay for the first time. [...] Read more.
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay has attracted scientific attention in cancer research as an alternative or complementary method for in vivo animal models. Here, we present a xenograft model based on the ostrich (struthio camelus) CAM assay for the first time. The engraftment of 2 × 106 breast cancer carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells successfully lead to tumor formation. Tumor growth monitoring was evaluated in eight fertilized eggs after xenotransplantation. Cancer cells were injected directly onto the CAM surface, close to a well-vascularized area. Histological analysis confirmed the epithelial origin of tumors. The CAM of ostrich embryos provides a large experimental surface for the xenograft, while the comparably long developmental period allows for a long experimental window for tumor growth and treatment. These advantages could make the ostrich CAM assay an attractive alternative to the well-established chick embryo model. Additionally, the large size of ostrich embryos compared to mice and rats could help overcome the limitations of small animal models. The suggested ostrich model is promising for future applications, for example, in radiopharmaceutical research, the size of the embryonal organs may compensate for the loss in image resolution caused by physical limitations in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
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13 pages, 1204 KiB  
Review
Outlook of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Challenges to Their Clinical Application in Horses
by Valeria Petrova and Ekaterina Vachkova
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050348 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Adipose tissue is recognized as the major endocrine organ, potentially acting as a source of mesenchymal stem cells for various applications in regenerative medicine. Athletic horses are often exposed to traumatic injuries, resulting in severe financial losses. The development of adipose-derived stem cells’ [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is recognized as the major endocrine organ, potentially acting as a source of mesenchymal stem cells for various applications in regenerative medicine. Athletic horses are often exposed to traumatic injuries, resulting in severe financial losses. The development of adipose-derived stem cells’ regenerative potential depends on many factors. The extraction of stem cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue is non-invasive, non-traumatic, cheaper, and safer than other sources. Since there is a lack of unique standards for identification, the isolated cells and applied differentiation protocols are often not species-specific; therefore, the cells cannot reveal their multipotent properties, so their stemness features remain questionable. The current review discusses some aspects of the specificity of equine adipose stem cells concerning their features, immunophenotyping, secretome profile, differentiation abilities, culturing conditions, and consequent possibilities for clinical application in concrete disorders. The presented new approaches elucidate the possibility of the transition from cell-based to cell-free therapy with regenerative purposes in horses as an alternative treatment to cellular therapy. In conclusion, their clinical benefits should not be underestimated due to the higher yield and the physiological properties of adipose-derived stem cells that facilitate the healing and tissue regeneration process and the ability to amplify the effects of traditional treatments. More profound studies are necessary to apply these innovative approaches when treating traumatic disorders in racing horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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28 pages, 42282 KiB  
Review
Chronic Progressive Lymphedema in Belgian Draft Horses: Understanding and Managing a Challenging Disease
by Marieke Brys, Edwin Claerebout and Koen Chiers
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050347 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5849
Abstract
Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) in draft horses is characterized by increased dermal thickness and fibrosis, with the development of skinfolds and nodules, hyperkeratosis, and ulcerations on the distal limbs of affected horses. Secondary bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections frequently complicate and aggravate the [...] Read more.
Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) in draft horses is characterized by increased dermal thickness and fibrosis, with the development of skinfolds and nodules, hyperkeratosis, and ulcerations on the distal limbs of affected horses. Secondary bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections frequently complicate and aggravate the lesions, as well as the progression of this disease. CPL has a particularly high prevalence of up to 85.86% in the Belgian draft horse breed. Due to the disease’s progressive and incurable nature, affected horses are often euthanized prematurely. The treatment options are solely symptomatic, aimed at improving the horse’s quality of life. Despite the severity of this condition, many uncertainties about its etiology and pathogenesis still remain to date. The established scientific research on CPL is rather limited, although there is an urgent need for strategies to tackle this disease. This review summarizes the available knowledge, serving as a guideline for practitioners, and provides perspectives for future research programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Animal Dermatology)
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17 pages, 2784 KiB  
Review
Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Dogs and Cats: Treatment, Complications and Prognosis
by Alexandros O. Konstantinidis, Katerina K. Adamama-Moraitou, Michail N. Patsikas and Lysimachos G. Papazoglou
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050346 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5822
Abstract
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are a common vascular anomaly of the liver in dogs and cats. Clinical signs of CPSS are non-specific and may wax and wane, while laboratory findings can raise the clinical suspicion for CPSS, but they are also not specific. [...] Read more.
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are a common vascular anomaly of the liver in dogs and cats. Clinical signs of CPSS are non-specific and may wax and wane, while laboratory findings can raise the clinical suspicion for CPSS, but they are also not specific. Definitive diagnosis will be established by evaluation of liver function tests and diagnostic imaging. The aim of this article is to review the management, both medical and surgical, complications, and prognosis of CPSS in dogs and cats. Attenuation of the CPSS is the treatment of choice and may be performed by open surgical intervention using ameroid ring constrictors, thin film banding, and partial or complete suture ligation or by percutaneous transvenous coil embolization. There is no strong evidence to recommend one surgical technique over another. Medical treatment strategies include administration of non-absorbable disaccharides (i.e., lactulose), antibiotics, and dietary changes, and are indicated for pre-surgical stabilization or when surgical intervention is not feasible. After CPSS attenuation, short- and long-term post-surgical complications may be seen, such as post-operative seizures and recurrence of clinical signs, respectively. Prognosis after surgical attenuation of CPSS is generally favorable for dogs and fair for cats. Full article
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19 pages, 15158 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Changes Reveal the Immunomodulatory Function of Casein Phosphopeptide-Selenium Chelate in Beagle Dogs
by Wencan Wang, Ling Xu, Yong Cao, Guo Liu, Qianru Lin and Xin Mao
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050345 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Casein phosphopeptide-selenium chelate (CPP-Se) is an organic compound produced by the chelation of casein phosphopeptide with selenium. This compound showed the ability to modulate canine immune response in our previous study; but its effect on the peripheral blood transcriptome and serum metabolome was [...] Read more.
Casein phosphopeptide-selenium chelate (CPP-Se) is an organic compound produced by the chelation of casein phosphopeptide with selenium. This compound showed the ability to modulate canine immune response in our previous study; but its effect on the peripheral blood transcriptome and serum metabolome was unknown. This study aims to reveal the potential mechanism behind the immunomodulatory function of CPP-Se. We have identified 341 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CPP-Se groups as compared to the control group which comprised 110 up-regulated and 231 down-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis found that DEGs were mainly involved in immune-related signaling pathways. Moreover, the immune-related DEGs and hub genes were identified. Similarly, metabolomics identified 53 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) in the CPP-Se group, of which 17 were up-regulated and 36 were down-regulated. The pathways mainly enriched by DEMs were primary bile acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and other amino acids metabolic pathways. Combined analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic data showed that the DEGs and DEMs were commonly enriched in fatty acid biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolic pathways. Taken together, our findings provided a theoretical basis for further understanding of the immunomodulatory function of CPP-Se as well as a scientific reference for the future use of CPP-Se in pet foods as a dietary supplement to modulate the immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet on Small Animal Health)
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11 pages, 3843 KiB  
Case Report
Loggerhead Sea Turtle as Possible Source of Transmission for Zoonotic Listeriosis in the Marine Environment
by Silva Rubini, Matilde Baruffaldi, Roberta Taddei, Giulia D’Annunzio, Erika Scaltriti, Martina Tambassi, Ilaria Menozzi, Giulia Bondesan, Sandro Mazzariol, Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Corazzola, Federica Savini, Valentina Indio, Andrea Serraino and Federica Giacometti
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050344 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogen isolated from different host species including fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, but it is rarely a pathogenic microorganism to marine reptiles. In particular, only two cases of fatal disseminated listeriosis have been described in the loggerhead sea turtle [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogen isolated from different host species including fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, but it is rarely a pathogenic microorganism to marine reptiles. In particular, only two cases of fatal disseminated listeriosis have been described in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). In this study, we describe a lethal case of L. monocytogenes infection in a loggerhead sea turtle. The turtle was found alive, stranded on a beach in North-eastern Italy, but perished soon after being rescued. The autoptic examination revealed that heart, lung, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder were disseminated with multiple, firm, 0.1–0.5 mm sized, nodular, white-green lesions. Microscopically, these lesions corresponded with heterophilic granulomas with Gram+ bacteria within the necrotic center. Furthermore, the Ziehl–Neelsen stain was negative for acid-fast organisms. Colonies isolated from heart and liver were tested through MALDI-TOF for species identification, revealing the presence of L. monocytogenes. Whole Genome Sequencing on L. monocytogenes isolates was performed and the subsequent in silico genotyping revealed the belonging to Sequence Type 6 (ST 6); the virulence profile was evaluated, showing the presence of pathogenicity islands commonly observed in ST 6. Our results further confirm that L. monocytogenes should be posed in differential diagnosis in case of nodular lesions of loggerhead sea turtles; thus, given the zoonotic potential of the microorganism, animals should be treated with particular caution. In addition, wildlife animals can play an active role as carriers of possibly pathogenetic and virulent strains and contribute to the distribution of L. monocytogenes in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sea Turtle Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation)
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14 pages, 839 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Dogs
by Telma de Sousa, Andreia Garcês, Augusto Silva, Ricardo Lopes, Nuno Alegria, Michel Hébraud, Gilberto Igrejas and Patricia Poeta
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050343 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6170
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic bacterium that can cause serious infections in both humans and animals, including dogs. Treatment of this bacterium is challenging because some strains have developed multi-drug resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance patterns and biofilm production [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic bacterium that can cause serious infections in both humans and animals, including dogs. Treatment of this bacterium is challenging because some strains have developed multi-drug resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance patterns and biofilm production of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from dogs. The study found that resistance to various β-lactam antimicrobials was widespread, with cefovecin and ceftiofur showing resistance in 74% and 59% of the isolates tested, respectively. Among the aminoglycosides, all strains showed susceptibility to amikacin and tobramycin, while gentamicin resistance was observed in 7% of the tested isolates. Furthermore, all isolates carried the oprD gene, which is essential in governing the entry of antibiotics into bacterial cells. The study also investigated the presence of virulence genes and found that all isolates carried exoS, exoA, exoT, exoY, aprA, algD, and plcH genes. This study compared P. aeruginosa resistance patterns worldwide, emphasizing regional understanding and responsible antibiotic use to prevent multi-drug resistance from emerging. In general, the results of this study emphasize the importance of the continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in veterinary medicine. Full article
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24 pages, 1021 KiB  
Review
Review of Canine Lymphoma Treated with Chemotherapy—Outcomes and Prognostic Factors
by Peter Bennett, Peter Williamson and Rosanne Taylor
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050342 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7571
Abstract
While canine lymphoma is a relatively common and important disease seen by veterinarians, there are limited comprehensive reviews of the literature regarding the remission and survival times following chemotherapy, and the associated prognostic factors. This comprehensive thematic review covers the available veterinary literature [...] Read more.
While canine lymphoma is a relatively common and important disease seen by veterinarians, there are limited comprehensive reviews of the literature regarding the remission and survival times following chemotherapy, and the associated prognostic factors. This comprehensive thematic review covers the available veterinary literature covering treatment outcomes and identified prognostic factors. A lack of standardised approaches to evaluate and report the outcomes was identified, including factors that would alter the duration of responses by weeks, or occasionally months. After publication of the suggested reporting criteria, this has improved but is still not uniformly applied. The prognostic factors included for evaluation varied from as few as three to seventeen, with over 50 studies using only univariate analysis. Individual papers reported much longer outcomes than others, but assessing the outcomes overall, there has been minimal change over the last 40 years. This supports the belief that novel approaches for lymphoma therapy will be required to substantively improve outcomes. Full article
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17 pages, 6451 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Profile Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes for the Melanin Pigmentation of Skin in Tengchong Snow Chickens
by Xiannian Zi, Xuehai Ge, Yixuan Zhu, Yong Liu, Dawei Sun, Zijian Li, Mengqian Liu, Zhengrong You, Bo Wang, Jiajia Kang, Tengfei Dou, Changrong Ge and Kun Wang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050341 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Tengchong Snow chickens are one of the most precious, black-boned chickens in Yunnan province and usually produce black meat. However, we found a small number of white meat traits in the chicken population during feeding. In order to determine the pattern of melanin [...] Read more.
Tengchong Snow chickens are one of the most precious, black-boned chickens in Yunnan province and usually produce black meat. However, we found a small number of white meat traits in the chicken population during feeding. In order to determine the pattern of melanin deposition and the molecular mechanism of formation in the Tengchong Snow chicken, we measured the luminance value (L value) and melanin content in the skin of black meat chickens (Bc) and white meat chickens (Wc) using a color colorimeter, ELISA kit, and enzyme marker. The results showed that the L value of skin tissues in black meat chickens was significantly lower than that of white meat chickens, and the L value of skin tissues gradually increased with an increase in age. The melanin content of skin tissues in black meat chickens was higher than that of white meat chickens, and melanin content in the skin tissues gradually decreased with an increase in age, but this difference was not significant (p > 0.05); the L value of skin tissues in black meat chickens was negatively correlated with melanin content, and the correlation coefficient was mostly above −0.6. In addition, based on the phenotypic results, we chose to perform the comparative transcriptome profiling of skin tissues at 90 days of age. We screened a total of 44 differential genes, of which 32 were upregulated and 12 were downregulated. These DEGs were mainly involved in melanogenesis, tyrosine metabolism and RNA transport. We identified TYR, DCT, and EDNRB2 as possible master effector genes for skin pigmentation in Tengchong Snow black meat chickens through DEGs analysis. Finally, we measured the mRNA of TYR, DCT, MC1R, EDNRB2, GPR143, MITF, and TYRP1 genes through a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and found that the mRNA of all the above seven genes decreased with increasing age. In conclusion, our study initially constructed an evaluation system for the black-boned traits of Tengchong Snow chickens and found key candidate genes regulating melanin deposition, which could provide an important theoretical basis for the selection and breeding of black-boned chickens. Full article
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11 pages, 2181 KiB  
Article
SpaceSheep: Satellite Communications for Ovine Smart Grazing
by Pedro Gonçalves and Daniel Corujo
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050340 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
The application of IoT-based methods to support pastoralism allows the smart optimization of livestock operations and improves the efficiency of the activity. The use of autonomous animal control mechanisms frees the shepherd to carry out other tasks. However, human intervention is still needed [...] Read more.
The application of IoT-based methods to support pastoralism allows the smart optimization of livestock operations and improves the efficiency of the activity. The use of autonomous animal control mechanisms frees the shepherd to carry out other tasks. However, human intervention is still needed in cases such as system failure, the bad or unpredicted behavior of the animals, or even in cases of danger, the welfare of the animal. This study documents the enhancement of an alarm generation system, initially developed within the scope of the SheepIT project, to monitor animal behavior and equipment, which warns the human operator of the occurrence of undesirable events that require intervention. Special attention was given to the use of case scenarios in places without Internet access, such as rural areas. Therefore, the system was integrated with a satellite interface, as a way of guaranteeing the timely delivery of the alarm messages. To ensure an acceptable operating cost, the system was further optimized in terms of message encoding, considering the cost of this type of communication. This study assessed the overall performance of the system, evaluated its scalability, and compared the efficiency gains from the optimization, as well as the performance of the satellite link. Full article
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14 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Anaplasma spp. in Dogs from Hainan Province/Island, China
by Yang Lin, Sa Zhou, Archana Upadhyay, Jianguo Zhao, Chenghong Liao, Qingfeng Guan, Jinhua Wang and Qian Han
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050339 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Anaplasmosis is a serious infection which is transmitted by ticks and mosquitos. There are very few reports and studies that have been carried out to understand the prevalence, distribution, and epidemiological profile of Anaplasma spp. infection in dogs in Hainan province/island. In the [...] Read more.
Anaplasmosis is a serious infection which is transmitted by ticks and mosquitos. There are very few reports and studies that have been carried out to understand the prevalence, distribution, and epidemiological profile of Anaplasma spp. infection in dogs in Hainan province/island. In the present study, we have tried to understand the prevalence, distribution, and occurrence of Anaplasma spp. infections in dogs (n = 1051) in Hainan Island/Province to establish a surveillance-based study. The confirmed positive samples by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were subjected to capillary sequencing for further strain-specific confirmation, followed by the construction of phylogenetic trees to determine their genetic relations. Various statistical tools were used to analyze related risk factors. There were three species of Anaplasma detected from the Hainan region; namely, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. platys. The overall prevalence of Anaplasma is 9.7% (102/1051). A. phagocytopihum was prevalent in 1.0% of dogs (11/1051), A. bovis was found in 2.7% of dogs (28/1051), and A. platys in 6.0% of dogs (63/1051). Our surveillance-based study conducted to understand the occurrence and distribution pattern of Anaplasma spp. in Hainan will help in designing effective control measures along with management strategies so as to treat and control the infection in the area. Full article
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15 pages, 8480 KiB  
Article
Comparative Serum Proteome Analysis Indicates a Negative Correlation between a Higher Immune Level and Feed Efficiency in Pigs
by Siran Zhu, Jinglei Si, Huijie Zhang, Wenjing Qi, Guangjie Zhang, Xueyu Yan, Ye Huang, Mingwei Zhao, Yafen Guo, Jing Liang and Ganqiu Lan
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10050338 - 10 May 2023
Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Identifying and verifying appropriate biomarkers is instrumental in improving the prediction of early-stage pig production performance while reducing the cost of breeding and production. The main factor that affects the production cost and environmental protection cost of the pig industry is the feed [...] Read more.
Identifying and verifying appropriate biomarkers is instrumental in improving the prediction of early-stage pig production performance while reducing the cost of breeding and production. The main factor that affects the production cost and environmental protection cost of the pig industry is the feed efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to detect the differentially expressed proteins in the early blood index determination serum between high-feed efficiency and low-feed efficiency pigs and to provide a basis for further identification of biomarkers using the isobaric tandem mass tag and parallel reaction monitoring approach. In total, 350 (age, 90 ± 2 d; body weight, 41.20 ± 4.60 kg) purebred Yorkshire pigs were included in the study, and their serum samples were obtained during the early blood index determination. The pigs were then arranged based on their feed efficiency; 24 pigs with extreme phenotypes were grouped as high-feed efficiency and low-feed efficiency, with 12 pigs in each group. A total of 1364 proteins were found in the serum, and 137 of them showed differential expression between the groups with high- and low-feed efficiency, with 44 of them being upregulated and 93 being downregulated. PRM (parallel reaction monitoring) was used to verify 10 randomly chosen differentially expressed proteins. The proteins that were differentially expressed were shown to be involved in nine pathways, including the immune system, digestive system, human diseases, metabolism, cellular processing, and genetic information processing, according to the KEGG and GO analyses. Moreover, all of the proteins enriched in the immune system were downregulated in the high-feed efficiency pigs, suggesting that a higher immune level may not be conducive to improving feed efficiency in pigs. This study provides insights into the important feed efficiency proteins and pathways in pigs, promoting the further development of protein biomarkers for predicting and improving porcine feed efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet on Small Animal Health)
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