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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 324 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota can lead to the development of several diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes, cancer, among others), the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to alter the gut microbiome has attracted recent interest. Postbiotics include any substance released by or produced through the metabolic activity of the microorganism, which exerts a beneficial effect on the host, directly or indirectly. Here, we provided a critical review of postbiotics described in the literature, including their mechanisms of action, clinical characteristics, and potential therapeutic applications. We detailed the pleiotropic effects of postbiotics, including their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. Although the use of postbiotics is an attractive strategy for altering the microbiome, further study into its efficacy and safety is [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Lithium Levels in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Metabolic and Dietary Correlates
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082489 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Initial evidence suggests that lithium might affect life expectancy and the risk for different disease conditions, but most studies were conducted in patients on lithium medication. Little is known about the association of blood lithium levels within the physiological range with cardiometabolic risk [...] Read more.
Initial evidence suggests that lithium might affect life expectancy and the risk for different disease conditions, but most studies were conducted in patients on lithium medication. Little is known about the association of blood lithium levels within the physiological range with cardiometabolic risk factors and diet. We measured plasma lithium in a community-based sample from Northern Germany (samples taken between 2010 and 2012). All participants (aged 25–82 years) underwent standardized examinations and completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Of several variables tested, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was statistically significantly (inversely) associated with lithium levels, mainly in individuals with slightly impaired renal function (eGFR < 75 mL/min/1.73 m2). Besides, lithium levels were positively associated with age and alcohol intake. Using reduced rank regression, we identified a dietary pattern explaining 8.63% variation in plasma lithium levels. Higher lithium levels were associated with higher intakes of potatoes, leafy vegetables, root vegetables, fruits, tea, beer, wine and dietetic products and lower intakes of pasta, rice, pork, chocolate, sweets, soft drinks, other alcoholic beverages, sauces and snacks. Our observations suggest that plasma lithium levels are associated inversely with kidney function, particularly in individuals with slightly impaired renal function, and positively with age and alcohol intake. Lithium at physiological levels was moderately related to an exploratory dietary pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forgotten Dietary Minerals and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency and Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in a Cohort of Older Adults: Potential for Limiting the Death Toll during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic?
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082488 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 13543
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic goes along with increased mortality from acute respiratory disease. It has been suggested that vitamin D3 supplementation might help to reduce respiratory disease mortality. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic goes along with increased mortality from acute respiratory disease. It has been suggested that vitamin D3 supplementation might help to reduce respiratory disease mortality. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood levels of 30–50 and <30 nmol/L, respectively, and their association with mortality from respiratory diseases during 15 years of follow-up in a cohort of 9548 adults aged 50–75 years from Saarland, Germany. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were common (44% and 15%, respectively). Compared to those with sufficient vitamin D status, participants with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency had strongly increased respiratory mortality, with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.1 (1.3–3.2) and 3.0 (1.8–5.2) overall, 4.3 (1.3–14.4) and 8.5 (2.4–30.1) among women, and 1.9 (1.1–3.2) and 2.3 (1.1–4.4) among men. Overall, 41% (95% confidence interval: 20–58%) of respiratory disease mortality was statistically attributable to vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are common and account for a large proportion of respiratory disease mortality in older adults, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D3 supplementation could be helpful to limit the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition within and beyond Corona Virus)
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Open AccessReview
A Paradoxical Vasodilatory Nutraceutical Intervention for Prevention and Attenuation of Migraine—A Hypothetical Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082487 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Studies suggest that migraine pain has a vascular component. The prevailing dogma is that peripheral vasoconstriction activates baroreceptors in central, large arteries. Dilatation of central vessels stimulates nociceptors and induces cortical spreading depression. Studies investigating nitric oxide (NO) donors support the indicated hypothesis [...] Read more.
Studies suggest that migraine pain has a vascular component. The prevailing dogma is that peripheral vasoconstriction activates baroreceptors in central, large arteries. Dilatation of central vessels stimulates nociceptors and induces cortical spreading depression. Studies investigating nitric oxide (NO) donors support the indicated hypothesis that pain is amplified when acutely administered. In this review, we provide an alternate hypothesis which, if substantiated, may provide therapeutic opportunities for attenuating migraine frequency and severity. We suggest that in migraines, heightened sympathetic tone results in progressive central microvascular constriction. Suboptimal parenchymal blood flow, we suggest, activates nociceptors and triggers headache pain onset. Administration of NO donors could paradoxically promote constriction of the microvasculature as a consequence of larger upstream central artery vasodilatation. Inhibitors of NO production are reported to alleviate migraine pain. We describe how constriction of larger upstream arteries, induced by NO synthesis inhibitors, may result in a compensatory dilatory response of the microvasculature. The restoration of central capillary blood flow may be the primary mechanism for pain relief. Attenuating the propensity for central capillary constriction and promoting a more dilatory phenotype may reduce frequency and severity of migraines. Here, we propose consideration of two dietary nutraceuticals for reducing migraine risk: L-arginine and aged garlic extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Young Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and 5-Year Change in BMI: Lessons Learned from the Timing of Consumption
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082486 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are an already known risk factor for weight gain in childhood. To identify windows of opportunity for public health interventions, insight into the consumption behavior of SSBs is needed. We investigated whether total SSB consumption was related to body mass [...] Read more.
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are an already known risk factor for weight gain in childhood. To identify windows of opportunity for public health interventions, insight into the consumption behavior of SSBs is needed. We investigated whether total SSB consumption was related to body mass index (BMI) change and overweight and compared whether the timing of consumption over the day differed between low and high consumers. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort, a cohort embedded within the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO), height and weight were measured by trained nurses at age 5/6 years (y) and 10/11 y (N = 1257). BMI was standardized for age and sex (BMI-z). In the food pattern questionnaire completed by parents at age 5/6 y, beverages were assessed for seven time segments (breakfast, morning, lunch at school, lunch at home, afternoon, dinner, and evening). Linear and logistic regression analyses were adjusted for potential confounders (sex, baseline BMI-z, parental BMI, parental education level, maternal age at birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy). The median daily SSB consumption frequency ranged from 1.9 times per day (1.5–2.0, 25th–75th percentile) in the lowest quartile to 4.9 times per day (4.6–5.5) in the highest quartile. In the highest compared to the lowest quartile of SSB consumption frequency, the confounder-adjusted odds ratio for overweight incidence was 3.12 (95% CI, 1.60–6.07). The difference in consumption between quartile 1 and quartile 4 occurred mainly during main meals and in the evening, e.g., at breakfast (31% vs. 98%, p < 0.001), lunch at home (32% vs. 98%, p < 0.001), and dinner (17% vs. 72%, p < 0.001). These drinking occasions characterizing high SSB consumers mostly occurred in the home environment, where parental influence on dietary behaviors is profound. Therefore, these results exposed a window of opportunity, leading to the advice for parents to offer their children sugar-free drinks to quench thirst with main meals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weight Outcomes of Kids: What Can Parents Do?)
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Open AccessReview
Beneficial Effects of Vitamin K Status on Glycemic Regulation and Diabetes Mellitus: A Mini-Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082485 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dysfunctional insulin secretion. Glycemic control remains a crucial contributor to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as the prevention or delay in the onset [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dysfunctional insulin secretion. Glycemic control remains a crucial contributor to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as the prevention or delay in the onset of diabetes-related complications. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in the regulation of the glycemic status. Supplementation of vitamin K may reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and improve insulin sensitivity. This mini-review summarizes the recent insights into the beneficial effects of vitamin K and its possible mechanism of action on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status, thereby suppressing the progression of diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Environmental Impact of the Athlete’s Plate Nutrition Education Tool
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082484 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Periodized nutrition is necessary to optimize training and enhance performance through the season. The Athlete’s Plate (AP) is a nutrition education tool developed to teach athletes how to design their plates depending on training load (e.g., volume × intensity), from easy (E), moderate [...] Read more.
Periodized nutrition is necessary to optimize training and enhance performance through the season. The Athlete’s Plate (AP) is a nutrition education tool developed to teach athletes how to design their plates depending on training load (e.g., volume × intensity), from easy (E), moderate (M) to hard (H). The AP was validated, confirming its recommendations according to international sports nutrition guidelines. However, the AP had significantly higher protein content than recommended (up to 2.9 ± 0.5 g·kg−1·d−1; p < 0.001 for H male). The aim of this study was to quantify the environmental impact (EnvI) of the AP and to evaluate the influence of meal type, training load, sex and registered dietitian (RD). The nutritional contents of 216 APs created by 12 sport RDs were evaluated using Computrition Software (Hospitality Suite, v. 18.1, Chatsworth, CA, USA). The EnvI of the AP was analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) expressed by the total amount of food on the AP, kg, and kcal, according to the Swiss Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment (SALCA) methodology. Higher EnvI is directly associated with higher training load when the total amount of food on the plate is considered for E (5.7 ± 2.9 kg CO2 eq/day); M (6.4 ± 1.5 kg CO2 eq/day); and H (8.0 ± 2.1 kg CO2 eq/day). Global warming potential, exergy and eutrophication are driven by animal protein and mainly beef, while ecotoxicity is influenced by vegetable content on the AP. The EnvI is influenced by the amount of food, training load and sex. This study is the first to report the degree of EnvI in sports nutrition. These results not only raise the need for sustainability education in sports nutrition in general, but also the urgency to modify the AP nutrition education tool to ensure sports nutrition recommendations are met, while not compromising the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Peptide Release after Simulated Infant In Vitro Digestion of Dry Heated Cow’s Milk Protein and Transport of Potentially Immunoreactive Peptides across the Caco-2 Cell Monolayer
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082483 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Dry heating of cow’s milk protein, as applied in the production of “baked milk”, facilitates the resolution of cow’s milk allergy symptoms upon digestion. The heating and glycation-induced changes of the protein structure can affect both digestibility and immunoreactivity. The immunological consequences may [...] Read more.
Dry heating of cow’s milk protein, as applied in the production of “baked milk”, facilitates the resolution of cow’s milk allergy symptoms upon digestion. The heating and glycation-induced changes of the protein structure can affect both digestibility and immunoreactivity. The immunological consequences may be due to changes in the peptide profile of the digested dry heated milk protein. Therefore, cow’s milk protein powder was heated at low temperature (60 °C) and high temperature (130 °C) and applied to simulated infant in vitro digestion. Digestion-derived peptides after 10 min and 60 min in the intestinal phase were measured using LC-MS/MS. Moreover, digests after 10 min intestinal digestion were applied to a Caco-2 cell monolayer. T-cell epitopes were analysed using prediction software, while specific immunoglobin E (sIgE) binding epitopes were identified based on the existing literature. The largest number of sIgE binding epitopes was found in unheated samples, while T-cell epitopes were equally represented in all samples. Transport of glycated peptide indicated a preference for glucosyl lysine and lactosyl-lysine-modified peptides, while transport of peptides containing epitope structures was limited. This showed that the release of immunoreactive peptides can be affected by the applied heating conditions; however, availability of peptides containing epitopes might be limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Nutrition and Food Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Administration of Sargassum horneri Improves the HDM/DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082482 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The present study investigated the protective effects of Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) ethanol extract (SHE) against atopic dermatitis (AD), known as an abnormal immune response in house dust mite (HDM)/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-stimulated NC/Nga mice. The oral administration of SHE attenuated the AD [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the protective effects of Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) ethanol extract (SHE) against atopic dermatitis (AD), known as an abnormal immune response in house dust mite (HDM)/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-stimulated NC/Nga mice. The oral administration of SHE attenuated the AD symptoms, including the skin dermatitis severity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and ear edema in HDM/DNCB-stimulated mice. Moreover, the histological analysis revealed that SHE improved epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, and reduced the dermal infiltrations of mast cells and eosinophils. Moreover, SHE downregulated the expression levels of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ) and chemokines (Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), Eotaxin, and Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)) by decreasing the expression levels of atopic initiators (IL-25 and IL-33) in HDM/DNCB-stimulated skin. The oral administration of SHE decreased the spleen size, reducing expression levels of AD-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, and TARC) by regulating the expressions of Tbx21 (T-bet), GATA Binding Protein 3 (GATA-3), and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Moreover, SHE significantly attenuated the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2a levels in HDM/DNCB-stimulated mice. Collectively, these results suggest that S. horneri could be an ingredient of functional food against abnormal immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Snapshot of European Children’s Eating Habits: Results from the Fourth Round of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI)
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082481 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
Consuming a healthy diet in childhood helps to protect against malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This cross-sectional study described the diets of 132,489 children aged six to nine years from 23 countries participating in round four (2015–2017) of the WHO European Childhood Obesity [...] Read more.
Consuming a healthy diet in childhood helps to protect against malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This cross-sectional study described the diets of 132,489 children aged six to nine years from 23 countries participating in round four (2015–2017) of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). Children’s parents or caregivers were asked to complete a questionnaire that contained indicators of energy-balance-related behaviors (including diet). For each country, we calculated the percentage of children who consumed breakfast, fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks or soft drinks “every day”, “most days (four to six days per week)”, “some days (one to three days per week)”, or “never or less than once a week”. We reported these results stratified by country, sex, and region. On a daily basis, most children (78.5%) consumed breakfast, fewer than half (42.5%) consumed fruit, fewer than a quarter (22.6%) consumed fresh vegetables, and around one in ten consumed sweet snacks or soft drinks (10.3% and 9.4%, respectively); however, there were large between-country differences. This paper highlights an urgent need to create healthier food and drink environments, reinforce health systems to promote healthy diets, and continue to support child nutrition and obesity surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Obesity and Nutrition Promotion Intervention)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthocyanin-Enriched Riceberry Rice Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes by Downregulating Adipogenic Transcription Factors and Their Targeting Genes
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2480; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082480 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Riceberry rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a new pigmented variety of rice from Thailand. Despite its high anthocyanin content, its effect on adipogenesis and adipocyte function remains unexplored. We investigated whether Riceberry rice extract (RBE) impacted cell proliferation by examining viability and [...] Read more.
Riceberry rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a new pigmented variety of rice from Thailand. Despite its high anthocyanin content, its effect on adipogenesis and adipocyte function remains unexplored. We investigated whether Riceberry rice extract (RBE) impacted cell proliferation by examining viability and cell cycle, using preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. To test RBE’s effect on adipocyte formation, cells were cultured in adipogenic medium supplemented with extract and adipocyte number and triglyceride levels were quantified. Furthermore, Akt1 phosphorylation along with RT-qPCR and intracellular calcium imaging were performed to obtain an insight into its mechanism of action. The effect of RBE on adipocyte function was investigated using glucose uptake and lipolysis assays. Treatment of cells with RBE decreased preadipocyte number without cytotoxicity despite inducing cell cycle arrest (p < 0.05). During adipogenic differentiation, RBE supplementation reduced adipocyte number and triglyceride accumulation by downregulating transcription factors (e.g., PPARγ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPβ) and their target genes (p < 0.05). The Akt1 phosphorylation was decreased by RBE but insignificance, however, the extract failed to increase intracellular calcium signals. Finally, the treatment of adipocytes with RBE reduced glucose uptake by downregulating Glut4 mRNA expression and enhanced isoproterenol-induced lipolysis (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that RBE could potentially be used in the treatment of obesity by inhibiting adipocyte formation and proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological Characteristics of Soluble Fibres during Chemically Simulated Digestion and their Suitability for Gastroparesis Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082479 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Dietary fibres are an integral part of a balanced diet. Consumption of a high-fibre diet confers many physiological and metabolic benefits. However, fibre is generally avoided by individuals with gastrointestinal motility disorders like gastroparesis due to increased likelihood of exacerbated symptoms. Low-viscosity soluble [...] Read more.
Dietary fibres are an integral part of a balanced diet. Consumption of a high-fibre diet confers many physiological and metabolic benefits. However, fibre is generally avoided by individuals with gastrointestinal motility disorders like gastroparesis due to increased likelihood of exacerbated symptoms. Low-viscosity soluble fibres have been identified as a possible source of fibre tolerable for these individuals. The aim of this study is to determine the rheological properties of 10 common commercially available soluble fibres in chemically simulated digestive conditions and evaluate their suitability for individuals with mild to moderate gastroparesis, a gastric motility disorder. Rheological testing under neutral condition (distilled water pH 7) and chemically simulated gastric digestion were evaluated to determine the yield point and relative viscosity of each fibre. Our results reveal two rheological categories of soluble fibres; pseudoplastic and dilatant. Simulated digestion was shown to significantly alter the yield-points of psyllium husk, iota-carrageenan, beta-glucan, apple-fibre pectin, and inulin. Gum Arabic and partially hydrolysed guar gum showed the lowest viscosities and were not affected under simulated digestion, characteristics that make them potential candidate fibres for patients with gastroparesis. Altogether, our results demonstrate that digestion can have a significant impact on fibre viscosity and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the suitability of fibres for patients with gastric motility disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Modifications and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Time-Restricted Feeding during Ramadan on Dietary Intake, Body Composition and Metabolic Outcomes
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082478 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Ramadan fasting is a form of time-restricted feeding which combines a fast and feast period daily for a duration of one month every year. During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and drink consumption from dawn till sunset and this change in the meal [...] Read more.
Ramadan fasting is a form of time-restricted feeding which combines a fast and feast period daily for a duration of one month every year. During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and drink consumption from dawn till sunset and this change in the meal schedule and frequency results in significant changes to the composition of the diet, such as energy and nutrient intake. These changes in dietary habits and their corresponding effects on cardiometabolic disease risk are compiled in this review. Ramadan fasting shows limited benefits to body composition via reductions in body mass in both healthy and obese individuals, although the results are often found to be transient and heterogeneous. There is, however, a more consistent improvement in blood lipid profile during Ramadan fasting, which often lasts beyond the Ramadan period. The results for glucose homeostasis, on the contrary, are more conflicting and inconclusive. The heterogeneity in the findings from the various studies can be generally attributed to cultural variations in dietary habits, differences in the duration of fasting due to seasonal/climatic differences at various geographical locations, age, gender and socioeconomic status, as well as other health and lifestyle factors of the various study populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Diet and Lifestyle Is a Key Strategy for Lifelong Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Pycnogenol® Supplementation Attenuates Memory Deficits and Protects Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons via Antioxidative Role in a Gerbil Model of Transient Forebrain Ischemia
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082477 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Pycnogenol® (an extract of the bark of French maritime pine tree) is used for dietary supplement and known to have excellent antioxidative efficacy. However, there are few reports on neuroprotective effect of Pycnogenol® supplementation and its mechanisms against ischemic injury following [...] Read more.
Pycnogenol® (an extract of the bark of French maritime pine tree) is used for dietary supplement and known to have excellent antioxidative efficacy. However, there are few reports on neuroprotective effect of Pycnogenol® supplementation and its mechanisms against ischemic injury following transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) in gerbils. Now, we examined neuroprotective effect and its mechanisms of Pycnogenol® in the gerbils with 5-min TFI, which evokes a significant death (loss) of pyramidal cells located in the cornu ammonis (CA1) region of gerbil hippocampus from 4–5 days post-TFI. Gerbils were pretreated with 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg of Pycnogenol® once a day for 7 days before TFI surgery. Treatment with 50 mg/kg, not 30 or 40 mg/kg, of Pycnogenol® potently protected learning and memory, as well as CA1 pyramidal cells, from ischemic injury. Treatment with 50 mg/kg Pycnogenol® significantly enhanced immunoreactivity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases and catalase) in the pyramidal cells before and after TFI induction. Furthermore, the treatment significantly reduced the generation of superoxide anion, ribonucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the pyramidal cells. Moreover, interestingly, its neuroprotective effect was abolished by administration of sodium azide (a potent inhibitor of SODs and catalase activities). Taken together, current results clearly indicate that Pycnogenol® supplementation can prevent neurons from ischemic stroke through its potent antioxidative role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Multi-Strain Probiotics on Immune Responses and Metabolic Balance in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082476 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of developing gastric cancer. Even though the prevalence of H. pylori infection has been decreased in many regions, the development of antibiotic resistance strains has increased the difficulty of eradicating H. pylori. [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of developing gastric cancer. Even though the prevalence of H. pylori infection has been decreased in many regions, the development of antibiotic resistance strains has increased the difficulty of eradicating H. pylori. Therefore, exploring alternative approaches to combat H. pylori infection is required. It is well-known that probiotic therapy can improve H. pylori clearance. In this study, H. pylori-infected mice were treated with Lactobacillus fermentum P2 (P2), L. casei L21 (L21), L. rhamnosus JB3 (JB3), or a mixture including the aforementioned three (multi-LAB) for three days. All the lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) treatments decreased H. pylori loads in the stomach and vacA gene expression, H. pylori specific immunoglobulin (Ig) A, and IgM levels in stomach homogenates, as well as serum levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-1 beta. The multi-LAB and JB3 treatments further restored the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities suppressed by H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection decreased serum concentrations of 15 kinds of amino acids as well as palmitic acid. The multi-LAB treatment was able to recover the serum levels of alanine, arginine, aspartate, glycine, and tryptophan, which are all important in modulating immune functions. In addition, butyric acid, valeric acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid levels were increased. In this study, multi-LAB revealed its ability to adjust the composition of metabolites to improve health. To date, the mechanisms underlying how LAB strains crosstalk with the host are not fully understood. Identifying the mechanisms which are regulated by LABs will facilitate the development of effective therapies for infection in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Long-Term Aronia melanocarpa Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Vascular Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy, Middle-Aged Individuals
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082475 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Cognitive decline is associated with lifestyle-related factors such as overweight, blood pressure, and dietary composition. Studies have reported beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on cognition in older adults and children. However, the effect of anthocyanin-rich Aronia melanocarpa extract (AME) on cognition is unknown. [...] Read more.
Cognitive decline is associated with lifestyle-related factors such as overweight, blood pressure, and dietary composition. Studies have reported beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on cognition in older adults and children. However, the effect of anthocyanin-rich Aronia melanocarpa extract (AME) on cognition is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of long-term supplementation with AME on cognitive performance, mood, and vascular function in healthy, middle-aged, overweight adults. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel study, 101 participants either consumed 90 mg AME, 150 mg AME, or placebo for 24 weeks. The grooved pegboard test, number cross-out test, and Stroop test were performed as measures for psychomotor speed, attention, and cognitive flexibility. Mood was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was determined, and vascular function was assessed by carotid ultrasounds and blood pressure measurements. AME improved psychomotor speed compared to placebo (90 mg AME: change = −3.37; p = 0.009). Furthermore, 150 mg AME decreased brachial diastolic blood pressure compared to 90 mg AME (change = 2.44; p = 0.011), but not compared to placebo. Attention, cognitive flexibility, BDNF, and other vascular parameters were not affected. In conclusion, AME supplementation showed an indication of beneficial effects on cognitive performance and blood pressure in individuals at risk of cognitive decline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PHAGE-2 Study: Supplemental Bacteriophages Extend Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04 Benefits on Gut Health and Microbiota in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082474 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Probiotics are increasingly used by consumers and practitioners to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress and improve gut function. Here, we sought to determine whether the addition of supplemental bacteriophages (PreforPro) could enhance the effects of a common probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. [...] Read more.
Probiotics are increasingly used by consumers and practitioners to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress and improve gut function. Here, we sought to determine whether the addition of supplemental bacteriophages (PreforPro) could enhance the effects of a common probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) on GI health. A total of 68 participants were enrolled in a 4-week, randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where primary outcomes included self-assessments of GI health, a daily stool log, and 16s rRNA analysis of gut microbial populations. We observed within-group improvements in GI inflammation (p = 0.01) and a trending improvement in colon pain (p = 0.08) in individuals consuming B. lactis with PreforPro, but not in the group consuming only the probiotic. There was also a larger increase in Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid-producing microbial taxa detected in the stool of participants taking PreforPro with B. lactis compared to the probiotic alone. Overall, these results suggest the addition of PreforPro as a combination therapy may alter gut ecology to extend the GI benefits of consuming B. lactis or other probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessEditorial
Food in Chronic Pain: Friend or Foe?
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082473 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
While many still consider food to be innocuous, ongoing research demonstrates food’s role, both harmful and protective, in chronic pain [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Chronic Pain)
Open AccessEditorial
What Does Influence the Neonatal Microbiome?
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082472 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 978
Abstract
This editorial aims to provide a concise summary of the factors involved in the dynamics of microbiome establishment and maturation. At the same time, it briefly updates the current knowledge and opens new questions in this regard. Many factors act as drivers of [...] Read more.
This editorial aims to provide a concise summary of the factors involved in the dynamics of microbiome establishment and maturation. At the same time, it briefly updates the current knowledge and opens new questions in this regard. Many factors act as drivers of the microbiota’s development at both pre- and post-natal levels (e.g., maternal factors, antibiotic usage, type of delivery, dietary pattern, post-natal feeding type, etc.). However, it is interesting to research into its real impact, the relationship between these external modulators, and how to modulate them. The are great opportunities for new research in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
Open AccessArticle
Losing Weight after Menopause with Minimal Aerobic Training and Mediterranean Diet
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082471 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
Objective: It is a common belief that menopausal women have greater difficulty losing weight. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet (MD) to promote weight loss in postmenopausal women. All participants were prescribed a hypocaloric traditional [...] Read more.
Objective: It is a common belief that menopausal women have greater difficulty losing weight. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet (MD) to promote weight loss in postmenopausal women. All participants were prescribed a hypocaloric traditional MD, tailored to the individual. Subjects were asked not to begin any kind of physical activity. Body composition was measured at the beginning and after 8 weeks of treatment. In total, 89 women (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years, BMI 30.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, fat mass 31.6 ± 10.5 kg) were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of fertile women over 45 years of age, the second group consisted of those diagnosed as menopausal. All women had an improvement in body composition (fat mass −2.3 ± 2.1 kg, p < 0.001; protein −0.1 ± 0.7 kg, p = 0.190) and blood pressure values. No differences were found between the two groups except for a higher reduction of low-density lipoprotein in the menopausal group (p = 0.035). A positive significant correlation between plant to animal protein ratio and fat-free mass variation was found in the menopausal group. These data suggest that a high adherence to a traditional MD would enable menopausal women to lose fat mass and maintain muscle mass with no significant difference to younger women. Fat mass reduction provides menopausal women with improved cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
The Intake of a Cafeteria Diet in Nursing Rats Alters the Breast Milk Concentration of Proteins Important for the Development of Offspring
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082470 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
We aimed to analyse the effects of maternal intake of an unbalanced diet during lactation in the composition and the levels of proteins present in milk. Milk samples from control nursing dams (C-dams) or from nursing dams fed a cafeteria diet during lactation [...] Read more.
We aimed to analyse the effects of maternal intake of an unbalanced diet during lactation in the composition and the levels of proteins present in milk. Milk samples from control nursing dams (C-dams) or from nursing dams fed a cafeteria diet during lactation (CAF-dams) were obtained. We conducted a proteomic approach to identify significantly altered proteins in breast milk of C- and CAF-dams, and evaluated the levels of leptin, adiponectin and irisin for their implication in energy homeostasis. One-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), revealed that the bands that presented a lower intensity in CAF-dams than control contain some caseins (α-S1-casein, α-S2-casein like B, and β-casein), α-lactalbumin and haptoglobin. Leptin and adiponectin levels were greater in the breast milk of CAF-dams than in controls, while levels of irisin were lower. In summary, the relative concentration of bioactive peptides was influenced by maternal diet consumption during lactation; these changes at early stages of life could influence the phenotypic traits of the offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Adipose Tissue)
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Open AccessArticle
Lower Postprandial Thermogenic Response to an Unprocessed Whole Food Meal Compared to an Iso-Energetic/Macronutrient Meal Replacement in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082469 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
In contrast to ultra-processed foods that are associated with increased weight gain and obesity risk, nutritionally engineered dietary supplements, including meal replacement (MR) bars and shakes, are generally promoted as healthy. Limited data is available comparing the metabolic and hunger responses of whole [...] Read more.
In contrast to ultra-processed foods that are associated with increased weight gain and obesity risk, nutritionally engineered dietary supplements, including meal replacement (MR) bars and shakes, are generally promoted as healthy. Limited data is available comparing the metabolic and hunger responses of whole food (WF) versus MR meals. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the thermic effect (TEM), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), hunger/taste ratings, and glucose response of two different breakfast meals containing MR and WF products in young healthy women. Eight volunteers completed two iso-caloric (529 kcals)/macronutrient (50% carbohydrates; 26% fat; 24% protein) test meals in a single-blind, randomized crossover design: (1) whole food meal; or (2) meal replacement. TEM was significantly higher following MR compared with WF (percent mean difference: 7.76 ± 3.78%; absolute mean difference: 0.053 ± 0.026 kcal/minute, p = 0.048), whereas WF substrate utilization demonstrated lower carbohydrate oxidation (RER) than MR (mean difference: −0.024 ± 0.008, p = 0.005). No differences existed for blood glucose response and feelings of hunger, desire to eat, and satiety among trials. Consumption of an MR meal increases postprandial thermogenesis and RER compared to a WF meal, which may impact weight control and obesity risk over the long-term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Diet and Lifestyle Is a Key Strategy for Lifelong Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Traditional Korean Diet with a Low Dietary Inflammatory Index Increases Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 and Decreases Pro-Inflammatory NF-κB in a Small Dietary Intervention Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082468 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Chronic low-grade inflammation may increase the risk of chronic disease, while diets rich in anti-inflammatory components may reduce it. To determine the anti-inflammatory properties of the traditional Korean diet (K-diet) that comprises high amounts of vegetables, fiber and phytochemicals, moderate amounts of legumes, [...] Read more.
Chronic low-grade inflammation may increase the risk of chronic disease, while diets rich in anti-inflammatory components may reduce it. To determine the anti-inflammatory properties of the traditional Korean diet (K-diet) that comprises high amounts of vegetables, fiber and phytochemicals, moderate amounts of legumes, and low amounts of animal fat, ten obese women aged 50–60 years were randomly assigned to the K-diet or control diet group. The control diet was a Westernized Korean diet commonly consumed in Korea, which is high in animal fat and protein. Subjects were housed in metabolic unit-like conditions during the 2-week intervention. Plasma was collected before and after the intervention to measure inflammatory cytokines using ELISA. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) was calculated based on nutrients and food intake. The DII score for the K-diet was lower than that of the control diet (−0.94 ± 1.39 vs. 1.04 ± 1.61, p < 0.001). In the K-diet group, anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 levels increased (4.45 ± 0.34 pg/mL vs. 5.94 ± 0.33 pg/mL, p = 0.0102), whereas pro-inflammatory nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels decreased (7.70 ± 0.62 pg/mL vs. 2.71 ± 0.49 pg/mL, p = 0.0015), but not in the control group. In the K-diet group, NF-κB levels negatively correlated with IL-10 levels (r = −0.794, p = 0.006). The K-diet has anti-inflammatory properties, and IL-10 and NF-κB are putative inflammatory markers for K-diet studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Total Fat and Fatty Acids, and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Results of the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082467 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
We aimed to determine the usual intake of total fat, fatty acids (FAs), and their main food sources in a representative cohort of the Spanish pediatric population aged 1 to <10 years (n = 707) who consumed all types of milk and [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the usual intake of total fat, fatty acids (FAs), and their main food sources in a representative cohort of the Spanish pediatric population aged 1 to <10 years (n = 707) who consumed all types of milk and an age-matched cohort who consumed adapted milk over the last year (including follow-on formula, toddler’s milk, growing-up milk, and fortified and enriched milks) (n = 741) who were participants in the EsNuPI study (in English, Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population). Dietary intake, measured through two 24 h dietary recalls, was compared to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN-FAO) recommendations. Both cohorts showed a high intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), according to FAO recommendations, as there are no numerical recommendations for SFAs at EFSA. Also, low intake of essential fatty acids (EFAs; linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA)) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) of the n-3 series, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were observed according to EFSA and FAO recommendations. The three main sources of total fat and different FAs were milk and dairy products, oils and fats, and meat and meat products. The consumption of adapted milk was one of the main factors associated with better adherence to the nutritional recommendations of total fat, SFAs, EFAs, PUFAs; and resulted as the main factor associated with better adherence to n-3 fatty acids intake recommendations. Knowledge of the dietary intake and food sources of total fat and FAs in children could help in designing and promoting effective and practical age-targeted guidelines to promote the consumption of EFA- and n-3 PUFA-rich foods in this stage of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
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Open AccessReview
Machine Learning Models to Predict Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082466 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
The prevalence of childhood and adolescence overweight an obesity is raising at an alarming rate in many countries. This poses a serious threat to the current and near-future health systems, given the association of these conditions with different comorbidities (cardiovascular diseases, type II [...] Read more.
The prevalence of childhood and adolescence overweight an obesity is raising at an alarming rate in many countries. This poses a serious threat to the current and near-future health systems, given the association of these conditions with different comorbidities (cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) and even death. In order to design appropriate strategies for its prevention, as well as understand its origins, the development of predictive models for childhood/adolescent overweight/obesity and related outcomes is of extreme value. Obesity has a complex etiology, and in the case of childhood and adolescence obesity, this etiology includes also specific factors like (pre)-gestational ones; weaning; and the huge anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal changes that during this period the body suffers. In this way, Machine Learning models are becoming extremely useful tools in this area, given their excellent predictive power; ability to model complex, nonlinear relationships between variables; and capacity to deal with high-dimensional data typical in this area. This is especially important given the recent appearance of large repositories of Electronic Health Records (EHR) that allow the development of models using datasets with many instances and predictor variables, from which Deep Learning variants can generate extremely accurate predictions. In the current work, the area of Machine Learning models to predict childhood and adolescent obesity and related outcomes is comprehensively and critically reviewed, including the latest ones using Deep Learning with EHR. These models are compared with the traditional statistical ones that used mainly logistic regression. The main features and applications appearing from these models are described, and the future opportunities are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Obesity and Nutrition Promotion Intervention)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effects of Heat-Killed Kefir Paraprobiotics and Flavonoid-Rich Prebiotics on Western Diet-Induced Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082465 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
The synergistic anti-obesity effect of paraprobiotic heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (HLAB) and prebiotics has not been studied. To determine the anti-obesity properties of prebiotic polyphenol-rich wine grape seed flour (GSF) and paraprobiotic HLAB, C57BL/6J mice were administered a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFrD) [...] Read more.
The synergistic anti-obesity effect of paraprobiotic heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (HLAB) and prebiotics has not been studied. To determine the anti-obesity properties of prebiotic polyphenol-rich wine grape seed flour (GSF) and paraprobiotic HLAB, C57BL/6J mice were administered a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFrD) with 5% microcrystalline cellulose (CON), HFFrD supplemented with 2.5% GSF, HFFrD with orally administered HLAB, or HFFrD with a combination of GSF and orally administered HLAB (GSF+HLAB) for 8 weeks. Compared with the CON group, the GSF and HLAB groups both showed significant reductions in HFFrD-induced body weight gain and adipose tissue weights (p < 0.05). Interestingly, combined supplementation with GSF and HLAB revealed statistically significant synergistic effects on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, and plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (p < 0.05). The synergistic action was significantly related to a decreased adipocyte gene expression in fatty acid synthesis and inflammation metabolism. In conclusion, the combination of prebiotic GSF and paraprobiotic kefir HLAB is potentially useful, as natural food ingredients, in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related diseases, especially for immunocompromised individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Zinc in Selected Female Reproductive System Disorders
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082464 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
Zinc is an essential microelement that plays many important functions in the body. It is crucial for the regulation of cell growth, hormone release, immunological response and reproduction. This review focuses on its importance in the reproductive system of women of reproductive and [...] Read more.
Zinc is an essential microelement that plays many important functions in the body. It is crucial for the regulation of cell growth, hormone release, immunological response and reproduction. This review focuses on its importance in the reproductive system of women of reproductive and postmenopausal ages, not including its well described role in pregnancy. Only recently, attention has been drawn to the potential role of zinc in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), dysmenorrhea, or endometriosis. This review is mainly based on 36 randomized, controlled studies on reproductive, pre- and post-menopausal populations of women and on research trying to explain the potential impact of zinc and its supplementation in the etiology of selected female reproductive system disorders. In women with PCOS, zinc supplementation has a positive effect on many parameters, especially those related to insulin resistance and lipid balance. In primary dysmenorrhea, zinc supplementation before and during each menstrual cycle seems to be an important factor reducing the intensity of menstrual pain. On the other hand, little is known of the role of zinc in endometriosis and in postmenopausal women. Therefore, further studies explaining the potential impact of zinc and its supplementation on female reproductive system would be highly advisable and valuable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Coffee Consumption among Adults in the United States by Demographic Variables and Purchase Location: Analyses of NHANES 2011–2016 Data
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082463 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Coffee, obtained from various sources, is consumed by most United States adults. The present analyses of one and two 24-h dietary recalls for 14,865 persons aged ≥20 years in the 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2011–2016) aimed to identify socio-demographic [...] Read more.
Coffee, obtained from various sources, is consumed by most United States adults. The present analyses of one and two 24-h dietary recalls for 14,865 persons aged ≥20 years in the 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2011–2016) aimed to identify socio-demographic predictors of coffee consumption and to examine whether coffee purchase locations differed by population sub-group. Given the emphasis on food and beverage consumption patterns, the relation between coffee consumption and compliance with the Dietary Guidelines of Americans was also examined. Coffee was consumed by 59% of the sample (n = 8551). Survey-adjusted mean intake among consumers was 544.7 g/day. Percent consumers and mean amounts consumed were highest among adults aged 51–70 years (p < 0.001), higher income groups (p < 0.001), and non-Hispanic Whites (p < 0.001). About 74% of coffee consumers obtained their coffee from stores, 9.8% from fast food restaurants, 4.3% from convenience stores, and 4.2% from someone else. Coffee source locations also varied by age, education, income, and race/ethnicity. Coffee consumers had significantly higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015) and higher Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF9.3) scores in energy-adjusted models and significantly higher HEI 2015 scores in multivariable models. In multivariable models, coffee consumers had diets with less added sugar (p < 0.001) but slightly more fat (of all types, including monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), saturated and solid fats), cholesterol, and alcohol. Their diets had more potassium and magnesium (p < 0.001) but less vitamin C (p < 0.001). Mean caffeine consumption was 233 mg/day for consumers and 72.3 mg/day for non-consumers. Coffee consumption patterns in the US vary across socio-demographic groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Sinensetin Induces Autophagic Cell Death through p53-Related AMPK/mTOR Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082462 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Sinensetin (SIN) has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism by which SIN promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell death remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the induction of cell death by SIN and its [...] Read more.
Sinensetin (SIN) has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism by which SIN promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell death remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the induction of cell death by SIN and its underlying mechanism in HepG2 cells, an HCC cell line. We found that SIN significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells, whereas the proliferation rate of Thle2, human liver epithelial cells, was unaffected by SIN. SIN-treated HepG2 cells were not affected by apoptotic cell death; instead, autophagic cell death was induced through the p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Inhibition of p53 degradation led to both autophagy and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. p53 translocation led to SIN-induced autophagy, whereas p53 translocation inhibited SIN-induced apoptosis. However, SIN showed apoptosis in the p53-mutant Hep3B cell line. Molecular docking simulation of the p53 core domain showed effective binding with SIN, which was found significant compared with the known p53 activator, RITA. Collectively, these data suggest that SIN may be a potential anti-cancer agent targeting autophagic cell death in human liver cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of both Pro- and Synbiotics in Liver Surgery and Transplantation with Special Focus on the Gut–Liver Axis—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082461 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The gut-liver axis is of upmost importance for the development of infections after surgery. Further bacterial translocation due to surgery-related dysbiosis is associated with limited detoxification function of the liver compromising outcome of surgical therapy. After liver surgery, about 30% of patients develop [...] Read more.
The gut-liver axis is of upmost importance for the development of infections after surgery. Further bacterial translocation due to surgery-related dysbiosis is associated with limited detoxification function of the liver compromising outcome of surgical therapy. After liver surgery, about 30% of patients develop a bacterial infection, with the risk of bacteremia or even sepsis-associated liver failure and mortality in >40%. The potential benefit of pro-/synbiotics given before surgery is still under debate. Thus, a systematic literature search on trials comparing patients with or without supplementation and outcome after liver resection or transplantation was performed. Our search strategy revealed 12 relevant studies on perioperative administration of pro-/synbiotics in liver surgery. The pro-/synbiotic combinations and concentrations as well as administration timeframes differed between studies. Five studies were performed in liver transplantation and 7 in liver resection. All studies but one reported lower infection rates (pooled RR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.31–0.67) with pro-/synbiotics. Liver function was assessed after LT/LR in 3 and 5 studies, respectively. Pro-/synbiotics improved function in 1/3 and 2/5 studies, respectively. Concluding, perioperative pro-/synbiotics clearly reduce infection after liver surgery. However, standard protocols with both well-defined probiotic strain preparations and administration timeframes are pending. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Breakfast Characteristics and Their Association with Energy, Macronutrients, and Food Intake in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082460 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Breakfast plays an important role in health because it has been associated with overall health, which includes a high daily nutrient intake and a low risk of chronic diseases. For this reason, we investigated the associations between breakfast consumption and daily energy, macronutrients, [...] Read more.
Breakfast plays an important role in health because it has been associated with overall health, which includes a high daily nutrient intake and a low risk of chronic diseases. For this reason, we investigated the associations between breakfast consumption and daily energy, macronutrients, and food and beverage consumption. We systematically searched peer-reviewed articles in three datasets (Pubmed, Scopus, and Cochrane). Two independent reviewers evaluated 3188 studies against the inclusion criteria using the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS) critical appraisal and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) methodologies. The meta-analysis was performed by comparing results based on type of breakfast consumed (ready to eat cereal breakfasts or other types of breakfasts). Ultimately, 38 studies were included in the review and 7 of them in the energy and macronutrients intake meta-analysis. In the Systematic Review, breakfast consumers had higher energy intake (EI), fibre intake, and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of soft drinks than breakfast skippers. In the Meta-Analysis, breakfast consumers had a higher carbohydrates intake (MD, −8.21; 95%CI: −11.37, −5.05) and fibre intake (MD, −8.43; 95%CI: −12.63, −4.23) than breakfast skippers. However, breakfast consumers had a lower fat intake (MD, 4.59; 95%CI: 2.04, 7.15). Our review suggests that breakfast consumption is associated with better macronutrient intake and healthier food and beverage consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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