The synergistic anti-obesity effect of paraprobiotic heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (HLAB) and prebiotics has not been studied. To determine the anti-obesity properties of prebiotic polyphenol-rich wine grape seed flour (GSF) and paraprobiotic HLAB, C57BL/6J mice were administered a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFrD) with 5% microcrystalline cellulose (CON), HFFrD supplemented with 2.5% GSF, HFFrD with orally administered HLAB, or HFFrD with a combination of GSF and orally administered HLAB (GSF+HLAB) for 8 weeks. Compared with the CON group, the GSF and HLAB groups both showed significant reductions in HFFrD-induced body weight gain and adipose tissue weights (p
< 0.05). Interestingly, combined supplementation with GSF and HLAB revealed statistically significant synergistic effects on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, and plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (p
< 0.05). The synergistic action was significantly related to a decreased adipocyte gene expression in fatty acid synthesis and inflammation metabolism. In conclusion, the combination of prebiotic GSF and paraprobiotic kefir HLAB is potentially useful, as natural food ingredients, in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related diseases, especially for immunocompromised individuals.
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