Next Article in Journal
Effects of Time-Restricted Feeding during Ramadan on Dietary Intake, Body Composition and Metabolic Outcomes
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Multi-Strain Probiotics on Immune Responses and Metabolic Balance in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Mice
Open AccessArticle

Pycnogenol® Supplementation Attenuates Memory Deficits and Protects Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons via Antioxidative Role in a Gerbil Model of Transient Forebrain Ischemia

1
Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24252, Korea
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Research Institute of Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Gangnung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon 25457, Korea
4
Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24289, Korea
5
Division of Food Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea
6
Department of Emergency Medicine, and Institute of Medical Sciences, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24289, Korea
7
Department of Biological Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea
8
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea
9
Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 38066, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-firsts: Bora Kim 1 and Tae-Kyeong Lee 2 have contributed equally to this article.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082477
Received: 1 July 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 17 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
Pycnogenol® (an extract of the bark of French maritime pine tree) is used for dietary supplement and known to have excellent antioxidative efficacy. However, there are few reports on neuroprotective effect of Pycnogenol® supplementation and its mechanisms against ischemic injury following transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) in gerbils. Now, we examined neuroprotective effect and its mechanisms of Pycnogenol® in the gerbils with 5-min TFI, which evokes a significant death (loss) of pyramidal cells located in the cornu ammonis (CA1) region of gerbil hippocampus from 4–5 days post-TFI. Gerbils were pretreated with 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg of Pycnogenol® once a day for 7 days before TFI surgery. Treatment with 50 mg/kg, not 30 or 40 mg/kg, of Pycnogenol® potently protected learning and memory, as well as CA1 pyramidal cells, from ischemic injury. Treatment with 50 mg/kg Pycnogenol® significantly enhanced immunoreactivity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases and catalase) in the pyramidal cells before and after TFI induction. Furthermore, the treatment significantly reduced the generation of superoxide anion, ribonucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the pyramidal cells. Moreover, interestingly, its neuroprotective effect was abolished by administration of sodium azide (a potent inhibitor of SODs and catalase activities). Taken together, current results clearly indicate that Pycnogenol® supplementation can prevent neurons from ischemic stroke through its potent antioxidative role. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidation; antioxidant enzymes; free radicals; ischemia-reperfusion injury; neuroprotection; oxidative stress antioxidation; antioxidant enzymes; free radicals; ischemia-reperfusion injury; neuroprotection; oxidative stress
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, B.; Lee, T.-K.; Park, C.W.; Kim, D.W.; Ahn, J.H.; Sim, H.; Lee, J.-C.; Yang, G.E.; Kim, J.D.; Shin, M.C.; Cho, J.H.; Ryoo, S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Won, M.-H.; Park, J.H. Pycnogenol® Supplementation Attenuates Memory Deficits and Protects Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons via Antioxidative Role in a Gerbil Model of Transient Forebrain Ischemia. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2477.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop