Next Article in Journal
Effects of Short-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Blood Amino Acid Levels in Young Men
Next Article in Special Issue
Dynamics of Structural and Functional Changes in Gut Microbiota during Treatment with a Microalgal β-Glucan, Paramylon and the Impact on Gut Inflammation
Previous Article in Journal
Natural Sources, Pharmacokinetics, Biological Activities and Health Benefits of Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Their Metabolites
Previous Article in Special Issue
Streptococcus thermophilus: To Survive, or Not to Survive the Gastrointestinal Tract, That Is the Question!
Open AccessReview

Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics

1
Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082189
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
As an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota can lead to the development of several diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes, cancer, among others), the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to alter the gut microbiome has attracted recent interest. Postbiotics include any substance released by or produced through the metabolic activity of the microorganism, which exerts a beneficial effect on the host, directly or indirectly. As postbiotics do not contain live microorganisms, the risks associated with their intake are minimized. Here, we provided a critical review of postbiotics described in the literature, including their mechanisms of action, clinical characteristics, and potential therapeutic applications. We detailed the pleiotropic effects of postbiotics, including their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. Although the use of postbiotics is an attractive strategy for altering the microbiome, further study into its efficacy and safety is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; inflammation; microbiome; postbiotic; prebiotic; probiotic bacteria; inflammation; microbiome; postbiotic; prebiotic; probiotic
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Żółkiewicz, J.; Marzec, A.; Ruszczyński, M.; Feleszko, W. Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2189.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop