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Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2189;
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
As an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota can lead to the development of several diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes, cancer, among others), the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to alter the gut microbiome has attracted recent interest. Postbiotics include any substance released by or produced through the metabolic activity of the microorganism, which exerts a beneficial effect on the host, directly or indirectly. As postbiotics do not contain live microorganisms, the risks associated with their intake are minimized. Here, we provided a critical review of postbiotics described in the literature, including their mechanisms of action, clinical characteristics, and potential therapeutic applications. We detailed the pleiotropic effects of postbiotics, including their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. Although the use of postbiotics is an attractive strategy for altering the microbiome, further study into its efficacy and safety is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; inflammation; microbiome; postbiotic; prebiotic; probiotic bacteria; inflammation; microbiome; postbiotic; prebiotic; probiotic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Żółkiewicz, J.; Marzec, A.; Ruszczyński, M.; Feleszko, W. Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2189.

AMA Style

Żółkiewicz J, Marzec A, Ruszczyński M, Feleszko W. Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2189.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Żółkiewicz, Jakub, Aleksandra Marzec, Marek Ruszczyński, and Wojciech Feleszko. 2020. "Postbiotics—A Step Beyond Pre- and Probiotics" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2189.

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