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Aspects of Dietary Diversity Changes across Adulthood in Racially Diverse Adults

Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, 021 CSB, 26N College Ave, Newark, DE 19716, USA
College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, STAR, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 251 Bayview Blvd. Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Department of Medical and Molecular Sciences, University of Delaware, 303A Willard Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2455;
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 August 2020 / Published: 15 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Knowledge of various aspects of dietary diversity (DD)—an essential healthful dietary component—across adulthood is limited. This study examined three DD aspects over time in racially diverse adults. Participants were from the National Institute on Aging, Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. DD measures were calculated at baseline (N = 2177), and first and second examination follow-ups (N = 2140 and N = 2066, respectively) using two 24-h recalls. The count was based on the consumption of ≥50% of an equivalent from 21 food groups. Evenness was derived using the Berry-Index adjusted by the food’s health value; dissimilarity, by Mahalanobis Distance. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted to test changes in DD across adulthood, adjusting for sex, race, poverty status and education as fixed effects, and adjusting for smoking, age and energy as time-dependent variables. Only dissimilarity showed significant interactions of time × race (p = 0.0005), and time × poverty status (p = 0.0325), indicating a slower rate of increase over time in dissimilarity scores among Whites compared with African–Americans and those with income >125% poverty versus <125% poverty. A significant interaction between time×energy (p < 0.0001) was noted for both evenness and dissimilarity scores. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the differential change in dissimilarity scores by race and income over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary diversity; count; evenness; dissimilarity; African–American; adults dietary diversity; count; evenness; dissimilarity; African–American; adults
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rawal, R.; Kuczmarski, M.F.; Cotugna, N.; Brewer, B.C.; Beydoun, M.A.; Hughes, V.C.; Zonderman, A.B.; Evans, M.K. Aspects of Dietary Diversity Changes across Adulthood in Racially Diverse Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2455.

AMA Style

Rawal R, Kuczmarski MF, Cotugna N, Brewer BC, Beydoun MA, Hughes VC, Zonderman AB, Evans MK. Aspects of Dietary Diversity Changes across Adulthood in Racially Diverse Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2455.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rawal, Rita, Marie F. Kuczmarski, Nancy Cotugna, Benjamin C. Brewer, May A. Beydoun, Virginia C. Hughes, Alan B. Zonderman, and Michele K. Evans 2020. "Aspects of Dietary Diversity Changes across Adulthood in Racially Diverse Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2455.

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