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Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Total Fat and Fatty Acids, and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Results of the EsNuPI Study

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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Av. del Conocimiento 12, 3 ª pta, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), c/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 1ªpta, 28010 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, Camino de Purchil 66, 18004 Granada, Spain
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix,” Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
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Pediatric Department, University of Navarra Clinic, Calle Marquesado de Sta. Marta, 1, 28027 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, crta. Boadilla km. 5.3, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II University of Granada, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española (Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population) (EsNuPI).
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082467
Received: 8 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 16 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
We aimed to determine the usual intake of total fat, fatty acids (FAs), and their main food sources in a representative cohort of the Spanish pediatric population aged 1 to <10 years (n = 707) who consumed all types of milk and an age-matched cohort who consumed adapted milk over the last year (including follow-on formula, toddler’s milk, growing-up milk, and fortified and enriched milks) (n = 741) who were participants in the EsNuPI study (in English, Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population). Dietary intake, measured through two 24 h dietary recalls, was compared to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN-FAO) recommendations. Both cohorts showed a high intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), according to FAO recommendations, as there are no numerical recommendations for SFAs at EFSA. Also, low intake of essential fatty acids (EFAs; linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA)) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) of the n-3 series, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were observed according to EFSA and FAO recommendations. The three main sources of total fat and different FAs were milk and dairy products, oils and fats, and meat and meat products. The consumption of adapted milk was one of the main factors associated with better adherence to the nutritional recommendations of total fat, SFAs, EFAs, PUFAs; and resulted as the main factor associated with better adherence to n-3 fatty acids intake recommendations. Knowledge of the dietary intake and food sources of total fat and FAs in children could help in designing and promoting effective and practical age-targeted guidelines to promote the consumption of EFA- and n-3 PUFA-rich foods in this stage of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: EsNuPI study; dietary fats; fats; lipids; essential fatty acids; food sources; pediatric nutrition; spanish children; dairy products; fortified milk EsNuPI study; dietary fats; fats; lipids; essential fatty acids; food sources; pediatric nutrition; spanish children; dairy products; fortified milk
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Madrigal, C.; Soto-Méndez, M.J.; Leis, R.; Hernández-Ruiz, Á.; Valero, T.; Lara Villoslada, F.; Martínez de Victoria, E.; Moreno, J.M.; Ortega, R.M.; Ruiz-López, M.D.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á. Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Total Fat and Fatty Acids, and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Results of the EsNuPI Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2467.

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