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Open AccessArticle

Protective Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Extract against Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats Fed High-Fat and High-Choline Diets

Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082448
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
Choline is converted to trimethylamine by gut microbiota and further oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by hepatic flavin monooxygenases. Positive correlation between TMAO and chronic diseases has been reported. Polyphenols in black raspberry (BR), especially anthocyanins, possess various biological activities. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of BR extract on the level of choline-derived metabolites, serum lipid profile, and inflammation markers in rats fed high-fat and high-choline diets. Forty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: CON (AIN-93G diet), HF (high-fat diet), HFC (HF + 1.5% choline water), and HFCB (HFC + 0.6% BR extract). Serum levels of TMAO, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and cecal trimethylamine (TMA) level were significantly higher in the HFC than in the HFCB. BR extract decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and protein expression of NF-κB and COX-2 in liver tissue. These results suggest that consistent intake of BR extract might alleviate hypercholesterolemia and hepatic inflammation induced by excessive choline with a high-fat diet via lowering elevated levels of cecal TMA and serum TMAO in rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: black raspberry; excessive choline; TMAO; hypercholesterolemia; hepatic inflammation black raspberry; excessive choline; TMAO; hypercholesterolemia; hepatic inflammation
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Lim, T.; Ryu, J.; Lee, K.; Park, S.Y.; Hwang, K.T. Protective Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Extract against Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats Fed High-Fat and High-Choline Diets. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2448.

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