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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of a Multivitamin and Mineral Supplement on Immune Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

1
Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
3
Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4
Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Animal & Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082447
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Function and Nutrient Supplementation)
Older adults are at increased risk for vitamin and mineral deficiencies that contribute to age-related immune system decline. Several lines of evidence suggest that taking a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement (MVM) could improve immune function in individuals 55 and older. To test this hypothesis, we provided healthy older adults with either an MVM supplement formulated to improve immune function (Redoxon® VI, Singapore) or an identical, inactive placebo control to take daily for 12 weeks. Prior to and after treatment, we measured (1) their blood mineral and vitamin status (i.e., vitamin C, zinc and vitamin D); (2) immune function (i.e., whole blood bacterial killing activity, neutrophil phagocytic activity, and reactive oxygen species production); (3) immune status (salivary IgA and plasma cytokine/chemokine levels); and (4) self-reported health status. MVM supplementation improved vitamin C and zinc status in blood and self-reported health-status without altering measures of immune function or status or vitamin D levels, suggesting that healthy older adults may benefit from MVM supplementation. Further development of functional assays and larger study populations should improve detection of specific changes in immune function after supplementation in healthy older adults. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02876315. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin C; zinc; vitamin D; multivitamin; placebo; randomized clinical trial; immune; illness vitamin C; zinc; vitamin D; multivitamin; placebo; randomized clinical trial; immune; illness
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Fantacone, M.L.; Lowry, M.B.; Uesugi, S.L.; Michels, A.J.; Choi, J.; Leonard, S.W.; Gombart, S.K.; Gombart, J.S.; Bobe, G.; Gombart, A.F. The Effect of a Multivitamin and Mineral Supplement on Immune Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2447.

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