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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 12, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 37 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To develop profitable business models for electric vehicle charging, it is necessary to understand user preferences. The interplay of physical assets, digital assets, and brand image, as well as cooperation and interaction with other actors in the network, defines both the performance of service provision and the focal company's power position in the network. This paper analyzes previous literature to develop a conceptual framework that links a firm's resources, the surrounding value network, and user preferences. Findings from two EV charging projects are summarized to illustrate user preferences in this domain. Finally, four case studies from the EV charging market are presented to illustrate the framework and provide a better understanding of business model dynamics. View this paper.
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Review
Research Progress and Prospects of Vehicle Driving Behavior Prediction
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020088 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Autonomous driving technology is vital for intelligent transportation systems. Vehicle driving behavior prediction is the foundation and core of autonomous driving. A detailed review of the existing research on vehicle driving behavior prediction can improve the understanding of the current progress of research [...] Read more.
Autonomous driving technology is vital for intelligent transportation systems. Vehicle driving behavior prediction is the foundation and core of autonomous driving. A detailed review of the existing research on vehicle driving behavior prediction can improve the understanding of the current progress of research on autonomous driving and provide references for follow-up researchers. This paper primarily reviews and analyzes the control models of autonomous driving, prejudgment methods, on-road and intersection traffic decision-making, and shortcomings of the research about the prediction of individual intelligent vehicle driving behavior, the prediction on movements of vehicles connected via the Internet, and prediction of driving behavior in a mixed traffic environment. The deficiencies in the research on vehicle driving behavior prediction are as follows: (1) there are numerous limitations in the intelligent application scenarios of individual intelligent vehicles; (2) although the Internet of Vehicles is a significant developmental trend, the training and test datasets are not rich enough; and (3) as the research of mixed traffic flow is still in the initial stages, the comfort brought by autonomous driving in hybrid driving environments is not being considered. In addition to the above analyses and comments, the future research prospects of vehicle driving behavior prediction are discussed as well. Full article
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Article
Sun, Wind and Waves: EV Fossil Fuel Use and Emissions on an Isolated, Oil-Dependent Hawaiian Island
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020087 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Electric power grids in remote communities around the world tend to be highly oil-dependent, unlike large, interconnected grids. Consequently, self-contained power grids such as the Hawaiian Islands’ have become testbeds for aggressive renewable energy integration (PV, wind, and ocean energy) and transportation electrification. [...] Read more.
Electric power grids in remote communities around the world tend to be highly oil-dependent, unlike large, interconnected grids. Consequently, self-contained power grids such as the Hawaiian Islands’ have become testbeds for aggressive renewable energy integration (PV, wind, and ocean energy) and transportation electrification. However, there remains a lack of critical analysis for remote communities to determine the benefits of transitioning from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (EVs). This case study examines the impacts of this transition to EVs and renewable power generation on fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions on the oil-dependent Island of Oahu, Hawaii. Average passenger EVs were found to consume seven times less fossil fuel (the equivalent of 66 gallons of gasoline (GGe), than their gasoline-powered counterparts (455 gallons) in 2020. Average EVs also cut emissions in half, (2 MTCO2 versus 4 MTCO2). Several renewable power and EV transition scenarios were modeled to assess impacts out to 2050. Fossil fuel use and emissions plummet with more clean power and increasing EV numbers. By 2045, in the most ambitious scenario, all gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles (passenger and freight) will consume a total of 8.8 billion GGe, and EVs 0.090 billion GGe (1%). ICE CO2 emissions will total 80 MMT, and EVs 4.4 MMT (5.5%). By 2050, the anticipated transition to electric passenger and freight vehicles combined with renewable power will lead to 99% less fossil fuel consumed, and 93% less CO2 emitted. Full article
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Article
Electrification Opportunities in the Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Segment in Canada
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020086 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The medium- and heavy-duty (MD/HD) vehicle sector is a large emitter of greenhouse gases. It will require drastic emissions reductions to realize a net-zero carbon future. This study conducts fourteen short feasibility investigations in the Canadian context to evaluate the merits of battery [...] Read more.
The medium- and heavy-duty (MD/HD) vehicle sector is a large emitter of greenhouse gases. It will require drastic emissions reductions to realize a net-zero carbon future. This study conducts fourteen short feasibility investigations in the Canadian context to evaluate the merits of battery electric or hydrogen fuel cell alternatives to conventional city buses, inter-city buses, school buses, courier vehicles (step vans), refuse trucks, long-haul trucks and construction vehicles. These “clean transportation alternatives” were evaluated for practicality, economics, and emission reductions in comparison to their conventional counterparts. Conclusions were drawn on which use cases would be best suited for accelerating the transformation of the MD/HD sector. Full article
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Article
Optimal Control Strategy for Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Dynamic Programming
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020085 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
In this paper, the dynamic programming algorithm is applied to the control strategy design of parallel hybrid electric vehicles. Based on MATLAB/Simulink software, the key component model and controller model of the parallel hybrid system are established, and an offline simulation platform is [...] Read more.
In this paper, the dynamic programming algorithm is applied to the control strategy design of parallel hybrid electric vehicles. Based on MATLAB/Simulink software, the key component model and controller model of the parallel hybrid system are established, and an offline simulation platform is built. Based on the platform, the global optimal control strategy based on the dynamic programming algorithm is studied. The torque distribution rules and shifting rules are analyzed, and the optimal control strategy is adopted to design the control strategy, which effectively improves the fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel consumption rate of this parallel hybrid electric vehicle is based on china city bus cycle (CCBC) condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Modeling and Simulation Technology of E-Mobility)
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Article
Future Cost Benefits Analysis for Electrified Vehicles from Advances Due to U.S. Department of Energy Targets
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020084 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (DOE-VTO) supports research and development (R&D), as well as deployment of efficient and sustainable transportation technologies, that will improve energy efficiency and fuel economy and enable America to use less petroleum. To accelerate the creation [...] Read more.
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (DOE-VTO) supports research and development (R&D), as well as deployment of efficient and sustainable transportation technologies, that will improve energy efficiency and fuel economy and enable America to use less petroleum. To accelerate the creation and adoption of new technologies, DOE-VTO has developed specific targets for a wide range of powertrain technologies (e.g., engine, battery, electric machine, lightweighting, etc.). This paper quantifies the impact of VTO R&D on vehicle energy consumption and cost compared to expected historical improvements across vehicle classes, powertrains, component technologies and timeframes. We have implemented a large scale simulation process to develop and simulate tens of thousands of vehicles on U.S. standard driving cycles using Autonomie, a vehicle simulation tool developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Results demonstrate significant additional reductions in both cost and energy consumption due to the existence of VTO R&D targets compared to predicted historical trends. It is observed that, over time, the fuel consumption of different electrified vehicles is expected to decrease by 40–50% and a reduction of 45–55% for vehicle manufacturing costs owing to significant improvements through various VTO R&D targets. Full article
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Article
Performance Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Model under Skid Control Technique
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020083 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
The rapid development of skid control safety applications in Electric Vehicles and modern vehicles calls for a more detailed assessment of the application-related design parameters. One of the main significant parameters in the design of such applications is the skid number threshold. The [...] Read more.
The rapid development of skid control safety applications in Electric Vehicles and modern vehicles calls for a more detailed assessment of the application-related design parameters. One of the main significant parameters in the design of such applications is the skid number threshold. The tire-road skid number is one of the most important variables that influences the sliding control system in modern vehicles. Most of the available studies in the academic literature have focused on testing the sliding mode controller based on estimating the driving forces of vehicles. However, the design of skid control application based on the pavement surface skid conditions is yet to be investigated. In order to fill the gap, this paper proposes a set of British Pendulum Numbers (BPN) for roadway surface treatments under two different weather conditions to enhance the design of the skid control application. The study results concluded that it is critical to accommodate for the lowest skid numbers range between BPN 22.63 and 31.94 for the sand treatment under snow pavement surface and the fog treatment under dry pavement surface, respectively. The results of this study can be beneficial to the automotive industry and transportation agencies when deciding to fine-tune the parameters of the skid control applications in modern vehicle technologies. Full article
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Article
Flexible Charging of Electric Vehicles: Results of a Large-Scale Smart Charging Demonstration
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020082 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Flexible charging can be applied to avoid peak loads on the electricity grid by curbing demand of electric vehicle chargers as well as matching charging power with availability of sustainable energy. This paper presents results of a large-scale demonstration project “Flexpower” where time-dependent [...] Read more.
Flexible charging can be applied to avoid peak loads on the electricity grid by curbing demand of electric vehicle chargers as well as matching charging power with availability of sustainable energy. This paper presents results of a large-scale demonstration project “Flexpower” where time-dependent charging profiles are applied to 432 public charging stations in the city of Amsterdam between November 2019 and March 2020. The charging current on Flexpower stations is reduced during household peak consumption hours (18:00–21:00), increased during the night-time, and dynamically linked to solar intensity levels during the day. The results show that the EV contribution to the grid peak load can be reduced by 1.2 kW per charging station with very limited user impact. The increased charging current during sunny conditions does not lead to a significantly higher energy transfer during the day because of lack of demand and technical limitations in the vehicles. A simulation model is presented based on empirical power measurements over a wide range of conditions combining the flexibility provided by simulations with the power of real-world data. The model was validated by comparing aggregated results to actual measurements and was used to evaluate the impact of different smart charging profiles in the Amsterdam context. Full article
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Article
A Utility Roadmap for Expanding Customer Adoption of Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020081 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Portland General Electric (PGE) is one of only a few electric utilities in the United States actively conducting evaluations of their pilots in support of transportation electrification (TE). This article offers insights into PGE’s efforts to provide EV-related outreach and education to its [...] Read more.
Portland General Electric (PGE) is one of only a few electric utilities in the United States actively conducting evaluations of their pilots in support of transportation electrification (TE). This article offers insights into PGE’s efforts to provide EV-related outreach and education to its customers. The article also examines interest in and use of PGE’s public charging infrastructure, particularly among transportation network company (TNC) drivers. The authors conducted an analysis of utilization data from PGE’s public charging stations to examine usage and the effectiveness of a peak pricing surcharge during peak electricity demand periods. The research pulls from additional data sources including (1) online customer surveys, (2) ride-and-drive intercept surveys, (3) and an online focus group. Findings illuminate the utility’s experience after three years of implementation and provide concrete guidance for other utilities seeking to expand customer adoption of EVs, while also exploring how pricing mechanisms can be effective at managing increased system load associated with increased EV charging. Findings also highlight the barriers environmental justice communities face with EVs and provide insights into how utilities can address misconceptions and increase awareness of the benefits of EVs for these groups. Full article
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Article
Study on Modulation Strategy of Electronic Converters Based on Improved D-NPC Topology for Full Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020080 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
The battery is the only power source of full electric vehicles, and the converter plays a key role in power and signal conversion; therefore, the stability and reliability of the converter determine the performance of the whole vehicle system. In order to improve [...] Read more.
The battery is the only power source of full electric vehicles, and the converter plays a key role in power and signal conversion; therefore, the stability and reliability of the converter determine the performance of the whole vehicle system. In order to improve the overall performance of the converter and optimize the function of the ID-NPC (improved diode neutral-point-clamped) topology with power allocation, the two-level topology is improved, and it is also a part of the ID-NPC topology. Based on the ID-NPC topology, the converter level can switch according to the proposed three-level and two-level modulation conversion strategies, which extends the fault-tolerant function of the converter. Finally, a simulation and experimental platform is built to verify the function of the improved topology and the feasibility of the proposed modulation strategy. Full article
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Article
Characteristics and Experiences of Ride-Hailing Drivers with Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020079 - 22 May 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Electrification of transportation network companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, can produce social and environmental benefits from reduced vehicle emissions and enhanced implementation of renewable electricity as well as private benefits to drivers via reduced vehicle fuel and maintenance costs compared to [...] Read more.
Electrification of transportation network companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, can produce social and environmental benefits from reduced vehicle emissions and enhanced implementation of renewable electricity as well as private benefits to drivers via reduced vehicle fuel and maintenance costs compared to conventional vehicles. We conducted a survey of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) drivers on the Uber platform in the US. This paper describes these drivers and their experiences to further understanding of motivations for and barriers to PEV adoption among TNC drivers. The TNC-PEV drivers in this sample clearly recognized, and were largely motivated by, economic benefits of fuel and maintenance savings, thus, increased net earnings, associated with using a PEV to provide ride-hailing services rather than a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Most drivers reported charging their PEV every day, most often at home and overnight. This is true even of those with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can run on gas if not charged. Increased electric driving range topped the list of drivers’ wishes to better support PEVs on TNCs, and range limitations topped the list of reasons why PHEV drivers did not opt for a battery electric vehicle (BEV; that runs exclusively on electricity). The second most common wish among all PEV drivers was for more charger locations. Full article
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Article
Analysis and Prediction of Electromobility and Energy Supply by the Example of Stuttgart
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020078 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
This paper seeks to identify bottlenecks in the energy grid supply regarding different market penetration of battery electric vehicles in Stuttgart, Germany. First, medium-term forecasts of electric and hybrid vehicles and the corresponding charging infrastructure are issued from 2017 to 2030, resulting in [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to identify bottlenecks in the energy grid supply regarding different market penetration of battery electric vehicles in Stuttgart, Germany. First, medium-term forecasts of electric and hybrid vehicles and the corresponding charging infrastructure are issued from 2017 to 2030, resulting in a share of 27% electric vehicles by 2030 in the Stuttgart region. Next, interactions between electric vehicles and the local energy system in Stuttgart were examined, comparing different development scenarios in the mobility sector. Further, a travel demand model was used to generate charging profiles of electric vehicles under consideration of mobility patterns. The charging demand was combined with standard household load profiles and a load flow analysis of the peak hour was carried out for a quarter comprising 349 households. The simulation shows that a higher charging capacity can lead to a lower transformer utilization, as charging and household peak load may fall temporally apart. Finally, it was examined whether the existing infrastructure is suitable to meet future demand focusing on the transformer reserve capacity. Overall, the need for action is limited; only 10% of the approximately 560 sub-grids were identified as potential weak points. Full article
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Article
Impact of Relaxation Time on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Characterization of the Most Common Lithium Battery Technologies—Experimental Study and Chemistry-Neutral Modeling
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020077 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 415
Abstract
In electrified vehicle applications, understanding the battery characteristics is of great importance as it is the state-of-art principal energy source. The key battery parameters can be identified by one of the robust and nondestructive characterization techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). However, [...] Read more.
In electrified vehicle applications, understanding the battery characteristics is of great importance as it is the state-of-art principal energy source. The key battery parameters can be identified by one of the robust and nondestructive characterization techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). However, relaxing the battery cell before performing the EIS method is crucial for the characterization results to be standardized. In this study, the three most common and commercially available lithium-ion technologies (NMC/graphite, LFP/graphite, NCA/LTO) are investigated at 15–45 °C temperature, in the range of 20–80% state of charge (SoC) and in fresh and aged state of health (SoH) conditions. The analysis shows that the duration of the relaxation time before impedance measurement has an impact on the battery’s nonlinear behavior. A rest time of 2 h can be proposed, irrespective of battery health condition, considering neutral technology-based impedance measurement. An impedance growth in ohmic and charge transfer characteristics was found, due to aging, and the effect of rest periods was also analyzed from an electrochemical standpoint. This experimental data was fitted to develop an empirical model, which can predict the nonlinear dynamics of lithium technologies with a 4–8% relative error for longer rest time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in World Electric Vehicle Journal in 2021)
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Article
Experimental Validation and Parameter Study of a 2D Geometry-Based, Flexible Designed Thermal Motor Model for Different Cooled Traction Motor Drives
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020076 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
For identifying new improvement potentials for electric traction motors, accurate models are needed. In this paper, a geometry-based 2D lumped parameter thermal network model for different electric traction motor and cooling concepts is studied and validated. In the second section, the design and [...] Read more.
For identifying new improvement potentials for electric traction motors, accurate models are needed. In this paper, a geometry-based 2D lumped parameter thermal network model for different electric traction motor and cooling concepts is studied and validated. In the second section, the design and functionality of the thermal model is explained. In the third section, the best fit of the literature correlations for describing the different heat transfer mechanisms was identified and a parameter study of the heat transfer coefficients was carried out and discussed. In the last section, the model is validated with measurement results from six different electric traction motors and drives units. For validation measurement results of stationary operating points, peak operating points and drive cycles are used. Based on the validation results, a model error of less than 10% is achieved for the most motor components in the different cooling concepts and traction motor designs. Inaccuracies and deviations are discussed and suggestions for improvement are made. Full article
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Article
Electric Truck Economic Feasibility Analysis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020075 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
The technical feasibility of electrified powertrains has already been demonstrated through several simulation and prototyping efforts. The economic feasibility of advanced powertrains for trucks has not yet been fully analyzed as it depends on a very large number of parameters. There are several [...] Read more.
The technical feasibility of electrified powertrains has already been demonstrated through several simulation and prototyping efforts. The economic feasibility of advanced powertrains for trucks has not yet been fully analyzed as it depends on a very large number of parameters. There are several examples of battery or fuel-cell-powered trucks used by fleets, but most of these vehicles are either part of technical demonstrations or incentivized by government agencies. Wider acceptance of trucks with advanced electrified powertrains will be possible when they achieve performance and economic parity with conventional vehicles. This paper examines the sensitivity of total ownership cost (TCO) for medium and heavy-duty electric trucks with respect to battery and fuel costs. The results will help identify cost targets for battery packs for various types of trucks and will also highlight use cases where we are likely to see early adoption of these technologies. Full article
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Article
Sensorless Control Strategy of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on an Improved Sliding Mode Observer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020074 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 463
Abstract
This paper analyzes the problems and the reasons of high frequency chattering, phase delay, unmanageable with low-speed rotation in the traditional SMO control strategy of the sensor-less control strategy of a permanent magnet synchronous motor based on the traditional sliding mode observer. Aiming [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the problems and the reasons of high frequency chattering, phase delay, unmanageable with low-speed rotation in the traditional SMO control strategy of the sensor-less control strategy of a permanent magnet synchronous motor based on the traditional sliding mode observer. Aiming at the shortcomings of the above-mentioned traditional SMO control strategy, an improved SMO control strategy is presented by replacing the signum function in the traditional synovial observer with the sigmoid function to reduce the high frequency chattering of the system. Meanwhile, the proposed improved SMO control strategy introduces an adaptive filter to eliminate harmonics and chattering, and adaptively compensates the estimated back-EMF value to reduce the estimation error caused by the phase delay. The improved SMO strategy was tested through Matlab/Simulink simulation and real experiments respectively. The results verified that the improved SMO strategy can significantly reduce chattering and phase delay and achieve good control performance at low speeds, as well as maintain good performance at full speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Permanent Magnet Machines and Drives for Electric Vehicles)
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Article
Agent-Based Modeling Framework for Electric Vehicle Adoption Transition in Indonesia
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020073 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Currently, the adoption of electric vehicles (EV) draws much attention, as the environmental issue of reducing carbon emission is increasing worldwide. However, different countries face different challenges during this transition, particularly developing countries. This research aims to create a framework for the transition [...] Read more.
Currently, the adoption of electric vehicles (EV) draws much attention, as the environmental issue of reducing carbon emission is increasing worldwide. However, different countries face different challenges during this transition, particularly developing countries. This research aims to create a framework for the transition to EV in Indonesia through Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). The framework is used as the conceptual design for ABM to investigate the effect of agents’ decision-making processes at the microlevel into the number of adopted EV at the macrolevel. The cluster analysis is equipped to determine the agents’ characteristics based on the categories of the innovation adopters. There are 11 significant variables and four respondents’ clusters: innovators, early majority, late majority, and the uncategorized one. Moreover, Twitter data analytics are utilized to investigate the information engagement coefficient based on the agents’ location. The agents’ characteristics which emerged from this analysis framework will be used as the fundamental for investigating the effect of agents’ specific characteristics and their interaction through ABM for further research. It is expected that this framework will enable the discovery of which incentive scheme or critical technical features effectively increase the uptake of EV according to the agents’ specific characteristics. Full article
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Article
Evaluating China’s Passenger Vehicle Market under the Vehicle Policies of 2021–2023
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020072 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
China is well known for its determination on large-scale vehicle electrification, which currently is mainly driven by fuel economy and electric vehicle policies mixed with the extensive charging infrastructure support and monetary incentives from the government. This study adopted the New Energy and [...] Read more.
China is well known for its determination on large-scale vehicle electrification, which currently is mainly driven by fuel economy and electric vehicle policies mixed with the extensive charging infrastructure support and monetary incentives from the government. This study adopted the New Energy and Oil Consumption Credits (NEOCC) model 2020 version, a vehicle policy analysis tool developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in order to systematically quantify the potential impacts of the “Passenger Cars Corporate Average Fuel Consumption and New Energy Vehicle Credit Regulation”, which is a revised version released in June 2020 for the timeframe 2021–2023, the so-called dual credit policy (2021–2023). It was found that, under the dual credit policy (2021–2023), the sales of hybrid electric vehicles could reach 0.91 million by the end of 2023, which would increase much faster than they did in 2018–2020. The annual sales share of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could reach 11.7%, and the PEV stocks could achieve 11.70 million by the end of 2023 if it keeps the expansion to the level of how it was in 2017. In addition, the BEVs with long electric range (such as 400 km) and the plug-in hybrid electric SUVs could be the most popular PEV types. Full article
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Article
What Increases Consumers’ Purchase Intention of Battery Electric Vehicles from Chinese Electric Vehicle Start-Ups? Taking NIO as an Example
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020071 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 629
Abstract
As environmental and energy issues are becoming more and more serious, China has seen the birth of a number of electric vehicle start-ups (EVSUs). Although there has been a dozen or so studies about consumers’ purchase intention of battery electric vehicles, few of [...] Read more.
As environmental and energy issues are becoming more and more serious, China has seen the birth of a number of electric vehicle start-ups (EVSUs). Although there has been a dozen or so studies about consumers’ purchase intention of battery electric vehicles, few of them were about electric vehicle start-ups. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the factors that influence consumers’ purchase intention of electric vehicles from Chinese electric vehicle start-ups (CEVSUs). This study establishes a theoretical model of the factors that influence consumers’ purchase intentions of electric vehicles from CEVSUs through brand identity, brand image, brand awareness, and perceived risk. The analysis results of 332 valid questionnaires show that the factors that affect consumers’ purchase intention of electric vehicles from CEVSUs include brand identity, brand image, and perceived risk. Brand image will be affected by brand recognition, brand awareness, and perceived risk. The perceived risk will be affected by brand awareness and brand identity. Brand awareness will be affected by brand identity, but brand awareness will not directly affect purchase decisions. The conclusions of this study can be used as a reference for the government, consumers, or practitioners in the electric vehicle industry to promote the sales of electric vehicles to achieve low-carbon transportation, and also to help Chinese start up brands to take a larger share of the domestic market. Full article
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Article
Proposed Model of Sustainable Resource Management for Smart Grid Utilization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020070 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Automation and modernization of the grid with the availability of micro-grids including non-conventional sources of energy are the main constituent of smart grid technology. Most energy demand is fulfilled by fossil fuel-based power plants. Inadequacy of fuel resources, higher operating costs, and ever-increasing [...] Read more.
Automation and modernization of the grid with the availability of micro-grids including non-conventional sources of energy are the main constituent of smart grid technology. Most energy demand is fulfilled by fossil fuel-based power plants. Inadequacy of fuel resources, higher operating costs, and ever-increasing carbon emissions are the primary constraints of fossil fuels-operated power plants. Sustainable energy resource utilization in meeting energy demand is thought to be a preferred solution for reducing carbon emissions and is also a sustainable economic solution. This research effort discusses an accurate mathematical modeling and simulation implementation of a sustainable energy resource model powered by solar, grid, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and focuses on the energy management of the model. In the proposed model, despite energy resources being sustainable, consumer side sustainability is achieved by using electrical charging vehicles (ECVs) to be integrated with sustainable resources. The proposed energy resource management (ERM) strategy is evaluated by simulating different operating conditions with and without distributed energy resources exhibiting the effectiveness of the proposed model. PEMFC is incorporated in the model to control fluctuations that have been synchronized with other energy resources for the distribution feeder line. In this proposed model, PEMFC is synchronized with grid and solar energy sources for both DC and AC load with ERM of all sources, making the system effective and reliable for consumer-based load and ECVs utilization. Full article
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Retraction
Retraction: Roche et al. An Accessible Pre-Design Calculation Tool to Support the Definition of EV Components. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 101–113
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020069 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The journal retracts the article, “An accessible pre-design calculation tool to support the definition of EV components” [...] Full article
Retraction
Retraction: Kwon et al. Cooperative Control Algorithm for Friction and Regenerative Braking Systems Considering Temperature Characteristics. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 287–298
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020068 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The journal retracts the article, ”Cooperative control algorithm for friction and regenerative braking systems considering temperature characteristics” [...] Full article
Article
Comparing Options to Electrify Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Findings of German Pilot Projects
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020067 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
While the electrification of passenger vehicles is in full swing, for the decarbonization of heavy-duty trucks still various challenges exist. Especially the high energy consumption in combination with high daily driving ranges makes battery electric operation much more difficult than for passenger cars. [...] Read more.
While the electrification of passenger vehicles is in full swing, for the decarbonization of heavy-duty trucks still various challenges exist. Especially the high energy consumption in combination with high daily driving ranges makes battery electric operation much more difficult than for passenger cars. Accordingly, a broad set of different drivetrains is discussed, inter alia hydrogen trucks, catenary hybrid trucks and synthetic fuels. One main advantage of the direct use of electricity in trucks is the high energy efficiency. Still, for heavy duty trucks different concepts for electrification do exist. Here, we compare battery electric trucks with a fast charging option, full electric catenary trucks and battery swap trucks. For a broad perspective, we use seven different comparative dimensions ranging from total cost of ownership to more qualitative but not less important aspects such as necessity of standardization, which would reduce manufacturer’s decision-making freedom. We base our comparison on findings from German pilot projects. While battery electric trucks or battery swap are advantageous since they can be operated in niche operations and thus allow a demand driven rollout of charging infrastructure, catenary infrastructure needs high investments upfront which entails financial risks, but allows for lowest cost if utilized to capacity. Full article
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Retraction
Retraction: Loiselle-Lapointe et al. Chevrolet Volt On-Road Test Programs in Canada Part 1: Effects of Drive Cycle, Ambient Temperature and Accessory Usage on Energy Consumption and Electric Range. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 142–153
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020066 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The journal retracts the article, “Chevrolet Volt on-road test programs in Canada part 1: Effects of drive cycle, ambient temperature and accessory usage on energy consumption and electric range” [...] Full article
Retraction
Retraction: Jang et al. Lateral Handling Improvement with Dynamic Curvature Control for an Independent Rear Wheel Drive EV. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 238–243
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020065 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The journal retracts the article, “Lateral handling improvement with dynamic curvature control for an independent rear wheel drive EV” [...] Full article
Concept Paper
Engineering Project: The Method to Solve Practical Problems for the Monitoring and Control of Driver-Less Electric Transport Vehicles in the Underground Mines
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020064 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
With the continuous development of Artificial Intelligence technology and Internet of Things engineering, more and more driver-less vehicles have been developed and put into industrial production. The birth of driver-less vehicles undoubtedly brings new vitality to a large amount of industries, particularly in [...] Read more.
With the continuous development of Artificial Intelligence technology and Internet of Things engineering, more and more driver-less vehicles have been developed and put into industrial production. The birth of driver-less vehicles undoubtedly brings new vitality to a large amount of industries, particularly in transportation. For the mining industry, transportation is undoubtedly an extremely important link in the whole production process. If the driver-less vehicles can be applied to the underground mines, it can not only improve the production and transportation capacity of the whole mine but also can reduce the occurrence of many mine safety accidents. ZigBee WSN technology can play a greater role in the narrow environment such as underground mines according to the relevant literature; this concept paper, similar to an engineering project plan, mainly tries to integrate the ZigBee WSN technology and the communication-based train control (CBTC) system to explore the possibility of the driver-less vehicles to be used in the underground mines, which aims to solve practical engineering problems for the engineering projects. As the mining engineers, we put forward the concept of this integrated system in this concept paper, but we need to continue to work hard for the future of the underground mines. This concept paper serves as a guide to Tossing out a brick to get a jade gem, and it has a few implications for the development of underground mine transportation. Full article
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Article
Standardisation of UK Electric Vehicle Charging Protocol, Payment and Charge Point Connection
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020063 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 551
Abstract
Standardisation is fundamental to ensuring that new technologies develop and grow unhindered by manufacturer-led standards. Dismissing this vital issue can have a detrimental effect on society regarding adopting new technologies, particularly when government targets and regulations are crucial for their success. We have [...] Read more.
Standardisation is fundamental to ensuring that new technologies develop and grow unhindered by manufacturer-led standards. Dismissing this vital issue can have a detrimental effect on society regarding adopting new technologies, particularly when government targets and regulations are crucial for their success. We have witnessed competing global industries struggle for dominance, such as Betamax versus VHS, where each had a similar user outcome, but the confusion of differing formats slowed growth. We analyse emerging standards for electric vehicle rapid charging and investigate how standardisation challenges affect stakeholders by reviewing the existing literature on single-mode and polymodal harmonisation. By assimilating existing evidence, we then develop a new understanding of the science behind multi-model standardisation (MMS) approaches. Our literature review reveals three primary standardisation issues: (1) charge connections, (2) car to charger communication protocols, and (3) charge payment methods. We then analyse each mode type’s benefit, observing how each example contributes to the overall outcome, and suggest that their impact depends on car to charger handshake timing and intuitive user interaction. Using a structured survey of 282 respondents, we analyse end-user satisfaction for factors affecting growth in the EV sector and compare these findings with the factors identified during our literature review. We consequently articulate a programme for future research to understand EV rapid charger standardisation better, proposing recommendations for vested stakeholders that embrace sponsors in societal, technological and scientific transformation. Full article
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Review
Who Is Liable When a Driverless Car Crashes?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020062 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will revolutionize mobility in the future. However, accidents will still happen and it will affect the practices of today’s tort laws. This work discusses all those aspects which should be considered in order to find out who is liable, i.e., [...] Read more.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will revolutionize mobility in the future. However, accidents will still happen and it will affect the practices of today’s tort laws. This work discusses all those aspects which should be considered in order to find out who is liable, i.e., an operator, owner, manufacturer, government entity, software provider, network provider, original equipment manufacturer (OEM), etc., as traditional tort rules will not help to find out the liability in case of an AV accident. The work comprehensively discusses different liabilities ranging from legal, civil, operator, criminal, moral, product, insurance, etc., to find out who is liable in case of an AV accident, as compared to the existing literature which generally discusses one or two aspects only. The work also presents the current state of legislation and discusses legal challenges to the lawmakers, insurance companies, consumer, and manufacturers, etc. The future mobility models and different scenarios of AV accidents have also been discussed in terms of legal liability and third party insurance claims. The role of regulatory bodies and different challenges has also been discussed along with recommendations. Finally, the work also proposes a new novel liability attribute model with a particular focus on ethical issues. The research proposes that liability should be attributed in such a way that it benefits everyone and everybody feels justified in case of an AV accident. The research also concludes that product liability will be the major issue in terms of insurance issues and the manufacturer should be held liable for product failure unless other evidence favors the manufacturer. Full article
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Article
Advanced Control Method of 5-Phase Dual Concentrated Winding PMSM for Inverter Integrated In-Wheel Motor
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020061 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
This paper presents some techniques for driving novel 5 phase dual winding PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) for the in-wheel motor. The motor realizes winding change over characteristics that can expand driving area from high-torque mode to high-speed mode due to the dual [...] Read more.
This paper presents some techniques for driving novel 5 phase dual winding PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) for the in-wheel motor. The motor realizes winding change over characteristics that can expand driving area from high-torque mode to high-speed mode due to the dual winding construction. However, the dual winding structure makes a high-current ripple due to high coupling between windings. The paper proposes some control methods to reduce the current ripple, including inverter career ripple. The paper also presents harmonics current injection, such as the 3rd harmonics current injection method, to reduce the torque ripple and generate higher torque. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Permanent Magnet Machines and Drives for Electric Vehicles)
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Article
Leveraging User Preferences to Develop Profitable Business Models for Electric Vehicle Charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020060 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
To design profitable business models for electric vehicle (EV) charging it is necessary to understand user preferences. For this purpose, prior literature is analyzed to develop a conceptual framework linking a company’s assets, the surrounding value network, and user preferences. Then, survey insights [...] Read more.
To design profitable business models for electric vehicle (EV) charging it is necessary to understand user preferences. For this purpose, prior literature is analyzed to develop a conceptual framework linking a company’s assets, the surrounding value network, and user preferences. Then, survey insights from two EV charging projects (ultra-E, SLAM) are summarized to illustrate user preferences in this area. Based on this data, the framework is eventually visualized by applying it to four case studies from the EV charging market. Based on the case studies, the following six key findings are derived: 1. Companies that have a very strong position in one of the three resource classes that define the quality-of-service provision (physical assets, digital assets, brand image) demand a higher price for fast charging. 2. Utility companies leverage their existing customer base. 3. New to the industry firms leverage their brand image to enter the market. 4. Selling below cost is not sustainable. 5. Sharp price distinctions reflect the power balance within the value network. 6. Power plays may result in a fragmented market. Full article
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Article
Improving the Autonomy of a Mid-Drive Motor Electric Bicycle Based on System Efficiency Maps and Its Performance
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020059 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Around the world, the e-bike has evolved from a recreational and sports object to an increasingly used means of transportation. Due to this, improving aspects such as range and energy efficiency has become very relevant. This article presents experimental models for the components’ [...] Read more.
Around the world, the e-bike has evolved from a recreational and sports object to an increasingly used means of transportation. Due to this, improving aspects such as range and energy efficiency has become very relevant. This article presents experimental models for the components’ efficiency of a mid-drive motor e-bike (charger; battery; and controller, motor, and reduction gears subsystem), and integrates them with previously elaborated models for the chain transmission system, thus generating an overall efficiency map of the e-bike. The range of the electric bicycle is analyzed by integrating the efficiency map of the system and its performance mathematical model, aiming to determine the per unit of distance battery energy consumption. The above-mentioned calculations are applied to develop a management strategy that can determine the optimal assistance level and chain transmission ratio, maximizing range and leaving speed unaffected. The driving strategy was compared against other driving techniques using computational analysis, this allowed for the observation of the proposed strategy improving the system’s range by reducing the battery energy consumption. Full article
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