Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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25 pages, 5918 KiB  
Article
Energy-Saving Impact and Optimized Control Scheme of Vertical Load on Distributed Electric Wheel Loader
by Wenlong Shen, Yunwu Han, Xiaotao Fei and Changying Ji
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040141 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
During the operation of a wheel loader, the external load acting on the bucket undergoes many changes, resulting in significant changes in the load ratio on the front and rear axles. For this reason, controlling a standard wheel loader is not trivial. In [...] Read more.
During the operation of a wheel loader, the external load acting on the bucket undergoes many changes, resulting in significant changes in the load ratio on the front and rear axles. For this reason, controlling a standard wheel loader is not trivial. In addition, in the case of a distributed electric wheel loader (DEWL), the operating control algorithm is often complex and is, therefore, the subject of optimization studies. This study compared the electric power consumption across different vertical loads, speeds, and travel directions for single-front, single-rear, and dual-motor configurations, both during transporting and pre-shoveling operations. The analysis led to the development of control rules based on energy-saving objectives. Under the shoveling condition, it was observed that vertical loads can lead to an insufficient driving force and skidding, necessitating the proposal of a new optimized control scheme. The results revealed that the optimal solution for transporting is the single-motor drive control scheme without a mechanical connection between the front and rear motor. With the single-motor control scheme, comparing the preferred controlled motor with the unselected motor under different loads, the average electrical power savings for forward, backward, and circling were at least 3.51%, 3.12%, and 0.34%, respectively. Under the pre-shoveling condition, the optimal control scheme was identified as the single rear motor control scheme, effectively reducing electrical power consumption. In response to the issues encountered during the shoveling condition, an economical solution involving the modification of the front axle transmission ratio has been proposed, along with an optimized control scheme based on vertical load variations. Full article
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33 pages, 13822 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Nationwide Benefits of Vehicle–Grid Integration during Distribution Network Planning and Power System Dispatching
by Giuliano Rancilio, Alessia Cortazzi, Giacomo Viganò and Filippo Bovera
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040134 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
The diffusion of electric vehicles is fundamental for transport sector decarbonization. However, a major concern about electric vehicles is their compatibility with power grids. Adopting a whole-power-system approach, this work presents a comprehensive analysis of the impacts and benefits of electric vehicles’ diffusion [...] Read more.
The diffusion of electric vehicles is fundamental for transport sector decarbonization. However, a major concern about electric vehicles is their compatibility with power grids. Adopting a whole-power-system approach, this work presents a comprehensive analysis of the impacts and benefits of electric vehicles’ diffusion on a national power system, i.e., Italy. Demand and flexibility profiles are estimated with a detailed review of the literature on the topic, allowing us to put forward reliable charging profiles and the resulting flexibility, compatible with the Italian regulatory framework. Distribution network planning and power system dispatching are handled with dedicated models, while the uncertainty associated with EV charging behavior is managed with a Monte Carlo approach. The novelty of this study is considering a nationwide context, considering both transmission and distribution systems, and proposing a set of policies suitable for enabling flexibility provision. The results show that the power and energy demand created by the spread of EVs will have localized impacts on power and voltage limits of the distribution network, while the consequences for transmission grids and dispatching will be negligible. In 2030 scenarios, smart charging reduces grid elements’ violations (−23%, −100%), dispatching costs (−43%), and RES curtailment (−50%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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21 pages, 3317 KiB  
Article
Towards Sustainable Transport in the Moroccan Context: The Key Determinants of Electric Cars Adoption Intention
by Omar Boubker, Marwan Lakhal, Youssef Ait Yassine and Hicham Lotfi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040136 - 27 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
In recent years, many countries have actively promoted sustainable mobility as part of their efforts to decarbonize transportation through automotive electrification. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence individuals’ interest in using electric cars (ECs) is crucial for guiding public opinion toward choosing this [...] Read more.
In recent years, many countries have actively promoted sustainable mobility as part of their efforts to decarbonize transportation through automotive electrification. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence individuals’ interest in using electric cars (ECs) is crucial for guiding public opinion toward choosing this sustainable mode of transportation. Consequently, the present study mobilized the theory of planned behavior and the technology acceptance model to interpret the various factors influencing the intention to adopt ECs in a developing country. Following the developed model, data were collected from individuals using cars in Morocco through an online questionnaire. Data analysis using structural equation modeling revealed a positive influence of relative advantage on both the perceived ease of use and green perceived usefulness. Furthermore, the perceived ease of use, green perceived usefulness, environmental concern, and social influence positively affected attitudes toward using ECs. Similarly, these results confirmed that green perceived usefulness and individual attitudes positively enhance ECs adoption intention. These findings contribute to the literature related to ECs adoption and offer guidance to policymakers on promoting ECs adoption in developing countries. Full article
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13 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Economic and Environmental Assessment of Technologies Optimizing the Execution of Long Trips for Electric Vehicles
by Léa D’amore, Daniele Costa and Maarten Messagie
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040128 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Further advances in hardware and software features are needed to optimize battery and thermal management systems to allow for the execution of longer trips in electric vehicles. This paper assesses the economic and environmental impacts of the following features: eco-charging, eco-driving, smart fast [...] Read more.
Further advances in hardware and software features are needed to optimize battery and thermal management systems to allow for the execution of longer trips in electric vehicles. This paper assesses the economic and environmental impacts of the following features: eco-charging, eco-driving, smart fast charging, predictive thermal powertrain and cabin conditioning, and an advanced heat pump system. A Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and externalities calculation is carried out on two passenger cars and one light commercial vehicle (LCV). The energy consumption data from the vehicles are based on experiments. The analysis shows more benefits for the LCV, while the smart fast-charging feature on the car shows a slight increase in TCO. However, negative results did not contribute significantly compared to the ability to install a smaller battery capacity for similar use. Full article
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21 pages, 3064 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimisation of a 5 MW Permanent Magnet Vernier Motor for Podded Ship Propulsion
by Nima Arish, Maarten J. Kamper and Rong-Jie Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030119 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The evolution of electric propulsion systems in the maritime sector has been influenced significantly by technological advancements in power electronics and machine design. Traditionally, these systems have employed surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) in podded configurations. However, the advent of permanent magnet [...] Read more.
The evolution of electric propulsion systems in the maritime sector has been influenced significantly by technological advancements in power electronics and machine design. Traditionally, these systems have employed surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) in podded configurations. However, the advent of permanent magnet Vernier motors (PMVMs), which leverage magnetic gearing effects, presents a novel approach with promising potential. This study conducts a comparative analysis between PMVMs and conventional PMSMs at a power level of 5 MW for podded ship propulsion, with a particular focus on the impact of gear ratios (Gr). An objective function was developed that integrates motor dimension constraints and the power factor (PF), a critical yet frequently neglected parameter in existing research. The findings indicate that PMVMs with lower Gr have lower mass and cost compared to those with higher Gr and traditional PMSMs, at a PF level of 0.7, which is high for Vernier machines. Moreover, PMVMs with lower Gr achieve efficiencies exceeding 99%, outperforming both their higher Gr counterparts and conventional PMSMs. The superior performance of PMVMs is attributed to lower current density and reduced copper loss, which contribute to their enhanced thermal performance. These details are elaborated on further in the paper. Consequently, these findings suggest that PMVMs with lower Gr are particularly well suited for high-power maritime propulsion applications, offering advantages in terms of compactness, efficiency (EF), cost-effectiveness, and thermal performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electrical Machine Design and Optimization Ⅱ)
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19 pages, 5620 KiB  
Article
A Study on Reducing Traffic Congestion in the Roadside Unit for Autonomous Vehicles Using BSM and PVD
by Sangmin Lee, Jinhyeok Oh, Minchul Kim, Myongcheol Lim, Keon Yun, Heesun Yun, Chanmin Kim and Juntaek Lee
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030117 - 18 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
With the rapid advancement of autonomous vehicles reshaping urban transportation, the importance of innovative traffic management solutions has escalated. This research addresses these challenges through the deployment of roadside units (RSUs), aimed at enhancing traffic flow and safety within the autonomous driving era. [...] Read more.
With the rapid advancement of autonomous vehicles reshaping urban transportation, the importance of innovative traffic management solutions has escalated. This research addresses these challenges through the deployment of roadside units (RSUs), aimed at enhancing traffic flow and safety within the autonomous driving era. Our research, conducted in diverse road settings such as straight and traffic circle roads, delves into the RSUs’ capacity to diminish traffic density and alleviate congestion. Employing vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, we can scrutinize its essential role in navigating autonomous vehicles, incorporating basic safety messages (BSMs) and probe vehicle data (PVD) to accurately monitor vehicle presence and status. This paper presupposes the connectivity of all vehicles, contemplating the integration of on-board units or on-board diagnostics in legacy vehicles to extend connectivity, albeit this aspect falls beyond the work’s current ambit. Our detailed experiments on two types of roads demonstrate that vehicle behavior is significantly impacted when density reaches critical thresholds of 3.57% on straight roads and 34.41% on traffic circle roads. However, it is important to note that the identified threshold values are not absolute. In our experiments, these thresholds represent points at which the behavior of one vehicle begins to significantly impact the flow of two or more vehicles. At these levels, we propose that RSUs intervene to mitigate traffic issues by implementing measures such as prohibiting lane changes or restricting entry to traffic circles. We propose a new message set in PVD for RSUs: road balance. Using this message, RSUs can negotiate between vehicles. This approach underscores the RSUs’ capability to actively manage traffic flow and prevent congestion, highlighting their critical role in maintaining optimal traffic conditions and enhancing road safety. Full article
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21 pages, 4453 KiB  
Article
A Digitalized Methodology for Co-Design Structural and Performance Optimization of Battery Modules
by Theodoros Kalogiannis, Md Sazzad Hosen, Joeri Van Mierlo, Peter Van Den Bossche and Maitane Berecibar
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030115 - 16 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
In this study, we present an innovative, fully automated, and digitalized methodology to optimize the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of Li-ion battery modules. Advancing on from today’s optimization schemes that rely on user experience and other limitations, the mechanical and thermal designs [...] Read more.
In this study, we present an innovative, fully automated, and digitalized methodology to optimize the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of Li-ion battery modules. Advancing on from today’s optimization schemes that rely on user experience and other limitations, the mechanical and thermal designs are optimized simultaneously in this study by coupling 3D multi-physical behavior models to multi-objective heuristic optimization algorithms. Heat generation at various loading and ambient conditions are estimated with a physics-based, fractional-order battery cell-level model, which is extrapolated to a module that further accounts for the interconnected cells’ heat transfer phenomena. Several key performance indicators such as the surface temperature increase, the temperature variations on the cells, and heat uniformity within the module are recorded. For the air-cooled study case, the proposed coupled framework performs more than 250 module evaluations in a relatively short time for the whole available electro-thermal-mechanical design space, thereby ensuring global optimal results in the final design. The optimal module design proposed by this method is built in this work, and it is experimentally evaluated with a module composed of 12 series-connected Li-ion NMC/C 43Ah prismatic battery cells. The performance is validated at various conditions, which is achieved by accounting the thermal efficiency and pressure drop with regard to power consumption improvements. The validations presented in this study verify the applicability and overall efficiency of the proposed methodology, as well as paves the way toward better energy and cost-efficient battery systems. Full article
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20 pages, 8187 KiB  
Article
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Cars, Trucks, and Buses
by Anne Magdalene Syré, Pavlo Shyposha, Leonard Freisem, Anton Pollak and Dietmar Göhlich
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030114 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Addressing the pressing challenge of global warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector is a critical imperative. Battery and fuel cell electric vehicles have emerged as promising solutions for curbing emissions in this sector. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive [...] Read more.
Addressing the pressing challenge of global warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector is a critical imperative. Battery and fuel cell electric vehicles have emerged as promising solutions for curbing emissions in this sector. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) for typical passenger vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, and city buses using either proton-exchange membrane fuel cells or Li-ion batteries with different cell chemistries. To ensure accuracy, we supplemented existing studies with data from the literature, particularly for the recycling phase, as database limitations were encountered. Our results highlight that fuel cell and battery systems exhibit large emissions in the production phase. Recycling can significantly offset some of these emissions, but a comparison of the technologies examined revealed considerable differences. Overall, battery electric vehicles consistently outperform fuel cell electric vehicles regarding absolute greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, we recommend prioritizing battery electric over fuel cell vehicles. However, deploying fuel cell electric vehicles could become attractive in a hydrogen economy scenario where other factors, e.g., the conversion and storage of surplus renewable electricity via electrolysis, become important. Full article
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18 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Reuse of Retired Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) for Electric Vehicles (EVs) from the Perspective of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) in Taiwan
by Yu-Sen Chuang, Hong-Ping Cheng and Chin-Chi Cheng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030105 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3481
Abstract
Over the last 50 years since Whittingham created the world’s first lithium-ion battery (LIB) in 1970, LIBs have continued to develop and have become mainstream for electric vehicle (EV) batteries. However, when an LIB for an EV reaches 80% of its state of [...] Read more.
Over the last 50 years since Whittingham created the world’s first lithium-ion battery (LIB) in 1970, LIBs have continued to develop and have become mainstream for electric vehicle (EV) batteries. However, when an LIB for an EV reaches 80% of its state of health (SOH), although it still retains about 80% of its capacity, it is no longer suitable for use in general EVs and must be retired. This is problematic because not only is a retired LIB still viable for use and not totally obsolete, if not properly disposed of, a retired LIB may cause environmental pollution on top of being a waste of resources. Therefore, the reuse of retired LIBs from EVs is increasingly important. This paper uses circular economy (CE) and extended producer responsibility (EPR) as a theoretical basis to deal with the disposal of retired LIBs from EVs in Taiwan from legal, technical, and economic perspectives, and hopes to provide suggestions for the reuse of retired LIBs from EVs in Taiwan. Full article
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20 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
Carbon Footprint Enhancement of an Agricultural Telehandler through the Application of a Fuel Cell Powertrain
by Valerio Martini, Francesco Mocera and Aurelio Somà
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030091 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
The growing awareness about climate change and environmental pollution is pushing the industrial and academic world to investigate more sustainable solutions to reduce the impact of anthropic activities. As a consequence, a process of electrification is involving all kind of vehicles with a [...] Read more.
The growing awareness about climate change and environmental pollution is pushing the industrial and academic world to investigate more sustainable solutions to reduce the impact of anthropic activities. As a consequence, a process of electrification is involving all kind of vehicles with a view to gradually substitute traditional powertrains that emit several pollutants in the exhaust due to the combustion process. In this context, fuel cell powertrains are a more promising strategy, with respect to battery electric alternatives where productivity and endurance are crucial. It is important to replace internal combustion engines in those vehicles, such as the those in the sector of Non-Road Mobile Machinery. In the present paper, a preliminary analysis of a fuel cell powertrain for a telehandler is proposed. The analysis focused on performance, fuel economy, durability, applicability and environmental impact of the vehicle. Numerical models were built in MATLAB/Simulink and a simple power follower strategy was developed with the aim of reducing components degradation and to guarantee a charge sustaining operation. Simulations were carried out regarding both peak power conditions and a typical real work scenario. The simulations’ results showed that the fuel cell powertrain was able to achieve almost the same performances without excessive stress on its components. Indeed, a degradation analysis was conducted, showing that the fuel cell system can achieve satisfactory durability. Moreover, a Well-to-Wheel approach was adopted to evaluate the benefits, in terms of greenhouse gases, of adopting the fuel cell system. The results of the analysis demonstrated that, even if considering grey hydrogen to feed the fuel cell system, the proposed powertrain can reduce the equivalent CO2 emissions of 69%. This reduction can be further enhanced using hydrogen from cleaner production processes. The proposed preliminary analysis demonstrated that fuel cell powertrains can be a feasible solution to substitute traditional systems on off-road vehicles, even if a higher investment cost might be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Energy Special Vehicle, Tractor and Agricultural Machinery)
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16 pages, 5735 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Low-Frequency Data Significance in Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Durability Development
by Mingfei Li, Fabian Kai-Dietrich Noering, Yekta Öngün, Michael Appelt and Roman Henze
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030088 - 28 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
The digitalization of the automotive industry presents significant potential for technical advantages, such as the online collection of customer driving data. These data can be used for customer-oriented development to improve the durability of components or systems. However, due to current limitations in [...] Read more.
The digitalization of the automotive industry presents significant potential for technical advantages, such as the online collection of customer driving data. These data can be used for customer-oriented development to improve the durability of components or systems. However, due to current limitations in data transfer, the sampling frequency is typically lower than that of classic dataloggers. This paper examines the importance of low-frequency data in the development of drivetrain durability and investigates the extent to which these data can be utilized for a drivetrain durability analysis. Real driving data were utilized as a database to demonstrate the impact of downsampling on data significance, with the deviation in damage serving as the criteria. The findings suggest that low-frequency data, when available in sufficient quantities, can provide valuable information for predicting durability in rollover and time at level classification. The deviation in the damage prediction is less than 2% for distances exceeding 5000 km. However, low-frequency data are not suitable for rainflow analysis. Finally, the database size was adjusted to assess the statistical stability of the durability prediction. A larger dataset typically reduces variance. The paper presents evidence for the quality and usability of cloud data in drivetrain durability design. Cloud data from a significant number of customer vehicles can be used for certain analyses of representative customer load collectives, which can reduce development time and costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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17 pages, 8007 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Assessment of Energy Consumption of Alternative Powertrains in Agricultural Tractors
by Antti Lajunen, Klaus Kivekäs, Vincent Freyermuth, Ram Vijayagopal and Namdoo Kim
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030086 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to develop simulation models for agricultural tractors with different powertrain technologies and evaluate the energy consumption in typical agricultural operations. Simulation models were developed for conventional, parallel hybrid electric, series hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid, and battery [...] Read more.
The objectives of this research were to develop simulation models for agricultural tractors with different powertrain technologies and evaluate the energy consumption in typical agricultural operations. Simulation models were developed for conventional, parallel hybrid electric, series hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid, and battery electric powertrains. Autonomie vehicle simulation software (version 2022) was used for the simulations and the tractor models were simulated in two tilling cycles and in a road transport cycle with a trailer. The alternative powertrains were configured to have at least the same tractive performance as the conventional, diesel engine-powered tractor model. The simulation results showed that the potential of the parallel and series hybrid powertrains to improve energy efficiency depends heavily on the tractor size and the operating cycle conditions. The fuel cell hybrid and battery electric powertrains have a higher potential to reduce energy consumption and emissions but still have inherent technical challenges for practical operation. The battery-powered electric tractor would require improvements in the storage energy density to have a comparable operational performance in comparison to other powertrains. The fuel cell hybrid tractor already provided an adequate operating performance but the availability of hydrogen and refueling infrastructure could be challenging to resolve in the farming context. Full article
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14 pages, 1994 KiB  
Systematic Review
Public Transport Decarbonization: An Exploratory Approach to Bus Electrification
by Paulo J. G. Ribeiro, Gabriel Dias and José F. G. Mendes
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030081 - 22 Feb 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2917
Abstract
In 2020, only 0.9% of buses running in European Union countries were electric, with 93.5% still being diesel-powered. The Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy set out by the European Commission targets a reduction of at least 55% in greenhouse gas emissions by 2023 [...] Read more.
In 2020, only 0.9% of buses running in European Union countries were electric, with 93.5% still being diesel-powered. The Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy set out by the European Commission targets a reduction of at least 55% in greenhouse gas emissions by 2023 and the achievement of climate neutrality by 2050. These targets will only be met by a shift to sustainable mobility, which comprises the introduction of electric vehicles in cities and the adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEV) for urban public transport. Thus, a literature review on “electrification of bus fleets” was conducted, focusing on the practices adopted for the replacement of polluting buses with electric-powered ones. A total of 62 documents were included in the final investigation, and their results were used to conduct a SWOT analysis. It is possible to conclude that BEBs are an important asset for cities to decarbonize the transport sector and that they are more cost-effective than diesel buses. On the other hand, some attention needs to be given to the generation of energy that will feed the charging of batteries because the use of fossil fuel energy sources can jeopardize the environmental benefits of BEBs. Full article
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19 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
BANULA—A Novel DLT-Based Approach for EV Charging with High Level of User Comfort and Role-Specific Data Transparency for All Parties Involved
by Daniel Stetter, Tobias Höpfer, Marc Schmid, Ines Sturz, Simon Falkenberger and Nadja Knoll
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030079 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The core goal of the BANULA research project is to combine customer-oriented and grid-compatible charging of electric vehicles. It addresses the current challenges of the e-mobility ecosystem from the perspective of grid operators and charging infrastructure users and creates added value for every [...] Read more.
The core goal of the BANULA research project is to combine customer-oriented and grid-compatible charging of electric vehicles. It addresses the current challenges of the e-mobility ecosystem from the perspective of grid operators and charging infrastructure users and creates added value for every mass market role involved. In the project, the idea of a virtual balancing group based on blockchain technology is implemented. Thereby, it enables extended data acquisition, a real-time data exchange between grid and market participants, proper balancing and grid node-specific load flow determination and, thus, load management. Full article
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23 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Heuristic Algorithms for Heterogeneous and Multi-Trip Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery
by Li Wang, Yifan Ding, Zhiyuan Chen, Zhiyuan Su and Yufeng Zhuang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020069 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
In light of the widespread use of electric vehicles for urban distribution, this paper delves into the electric vehicle routing problem (EVRP): specifically addressing multiple trips per vehicle, diverse vehicle types, and simultaneous pickup and delivery. The primary objective is to minimize the [...] Read more.
In light of the widespread use of electric vehicles for urban distribution, this paper delves into the electric vehicle routing problem (EVRP): specifically addressing multiple trips per vehicle, diverse vehicle types, and simultaneous pickup and delivery. The primary objective is to minimize the overall cost, which encompasses travel expenses, waiting times, recharging costs, and fixed vehicle costs. The focal problem is formulated as a heterogeneous and multi-trip electric vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery (H-MT-EVRP-PD). Additionally, we introduce two heuristic algorithms to efficiently approximate solutions within a reasonable computational time. The variable neighborhood search (VNS) algorithm and the adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS) algorithm are presented and compared based on our computational experiences with both. Through solving a series of large-scale real-world instances for the H-MT-EVRP-PD and smaller instances using an exact method, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Intelligent Vehicle Path Planning Algorithm)
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13 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Optimization of H2 Supply to the Refuelling Infrastructure for Long-Haul Trucks: Centralized versus Local H2 Production, and Using Transportation by Tanker Truck or Pipeline
by Nafisa Mahbub and Hajo Ribberink
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020057 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
In a simulation study, it was investigated how the costs of supplying H2 for the refuelling of long-haul trucks along highways in Canada can be minimized by optimizing the design of the refuelling infrastructure. Scenarios using local or centralized blue H2 production were [...] Read more.
In a simulation study, it was investigated how the costs of supplying H2 for the refuelling of long-haul trucks along highways in Canada can be minimized by optimizing the design of the refuelling infrastructure. Scenarios using local or centralized blue H2 production were evaluated using two different modes of H2 transportation (liquid H2 tanker trucks and pipelines). For each scenario, the average H2 supply costs were determined considering H2 production costs from facilities of different sizes and transportation costs for H2 that was not produced locally. Average H2 supply costs were 2.83 CAD/kg H2 for the scenario with local H2 production at each refuelling site, 3.22–3.27 CAD/kg H2 for scenarios using centralized H2 production and tanker truck transportation, and 2.92–2.96 CAD/kg H2 for centralized H2 production scenarios with pipeline transportation. Optimized scenarios using the cheaper transportation option (tanker truck or pipeline) for each highway segment had average H2 supply costs (2.82–2.88 CAD/kg H2) similar to those of using only local H2 production, with slightly lower costs for the scenario using the largest H2 production volumes. Follow-on research is recommended to include the impact of CO2 transportation (from blue H2 production) on the design of an optimum supply infrastructure. Full article
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16 pages, 8889 KiB  
Article
Reducing the Environmental Impact of Large Battery Systems with Conductive Electric Road Systems—A Technical Overview
by David Wenander and Mats Alaküla
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020059 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1627
Abstract
A radical transformation of the transport industry is required in order to achieve a fossil-fuel-free vehicle fleet and reach the greenhouse gas emissions goals. Electrification plays a crucial role in this radical process. An electric road system (ERS) is a road that supplies [...] Read more.
A radical transformation of the transport industry is required in order to achieve a fossil-fuel-free vehicle fleet and reach the greenhouse gas emissions goals. Electrification plays a crucial role in this radical process. An electric road system (ERS) is a road that supplies power to electric vehicles as they drive on it, offering numerous advantages. These include an extended driving range, decreased reliance on batteries, and increased flexibility and convenience for drivers, eliminating the need to stop for recharging. This paper highlights the transformative potential of ERS in revolutionizing the land transport sector. Through thorough testing with a conductive ERS demonstrator, the viability of the presented technology is validated. Essential aspects like power transfer, efficiency, safety, and environmental impact showcase ERS’s adaptability and scalability across diverse vehicle types. This study recommends widespread ERS support for battery electric vehicles, emphasizing the route toward a sustainable future. Full article
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9 pages, 1312 KiB  
Communication
Flexibility Potential of Smart Charging Electric Trucks and Buses
by Christian Will and Fabian Ocker
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020056 - 7 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
In addition to passenger vehicles, battery-electric trucks and buses could offer substantial flexibility to the energy system. Using a Bass diffusion model, we extrapolated the unidirectional charging needs and availability of trucks in five of eleven typical applications, as well as city buses, [...] Read more.
In addition to passenger vehicles, battery-electric trucks and buses could offer substantial flexibility to the energy system. Using a Bass diffusion model, we extrapolated the unidirectional charging needs and availability of trucks in five of eleven typical applications, as well as city buses, for Germany until 2040. Combined, these heavy-duty vehicles could provide up to 23 GW of down-regulating flexibility potential (i.e., in case of excess power supply) in 2040. The resulting revenues could contribute to reducing electricity costs for depot operators. These results illustrate the need to provide easy and automated market access to heavy-duty vehicle fleets. Full article
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12 pages, 8904 KiB  
Article
Comparison of EV Fast Charging Protocols and Impact of Sinusoidal Half-Wave Fast Charging Methods on Lithium-Ion Cells
by Sai Bhargava Althurthi, Kaushik Rajashekara and Tutan Debnath
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020054 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
In electric vehicle fast charging systems, it is important to minimize the effect of fast charging on the grid and it is also important to operate the charging system at high efficiencies. In order to achieve these objectives, in this paper, a sinusoidal [...] Read more.
In electric vehicle fast charging systems, it is important to minimize the effect of fast charging on the grid and it is also important to operate the charging system at high efficiencies. In order to achieve these objectives, in this paper, a sinusoidal half-wave DC current charging protocol and a sinusoidal half-wave pulsed current charging protocol are proposed for the fast charging of Li-ion batteries. A detailed procedure is presented for implementing the following proposed methods: (a) a pre-defined half-sine wave current function and (b) a pulsed half-sine wave current method. Unlike the conventional full-wave sinusoidal ripple current charging protocols, the proposed study does not utilize any sinusoidal full-wave ripple. The performance of these new charging methods on Ni-Co-Al-type Li-cells is studied and compared with the existing constant current and positive pulsed current charging protocols, which have been discussed in the existing literature. In addition, the changes in the electrochemical impedance spectrograph of each cell are examined to study the effects of the applied charging methods on the internal resistance of the Li cell. Finally, the test results are presented for 250 life cycles of charging at 2C (C: charging rate) and the degradation in cell capacities are compared among the four different methods for the Ni-Co-Al-type Li cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fast-Charging Station for Electric Vehicles: Challenges and Issues)
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20 pages, 5015 KiB  
Article
Systematic Evaluation of Possible Maximum Loads Caused by Electric Vehicle Charging and Heat Pumps and Their Effects on Common Structures of German Low-Voltage Grids
by Parnian Fakhrooeian, Volker Pitz and Birgit Scheppat
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020049 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1648
Abstract
In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of the effects of residential loads, electric vehicles (EVs), and electric heat pumps (HPs) on low-voltage (LV) grids in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Germany. Firstly, real data are used to determine the typical [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of the effects of residential loads, electric vehicles (EVs), and electric heat pumps (HPs) on low-voltage (LV) grids in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Germany. Firstly, real data are used to determine the typical structures for each LV grid region. Secondly, nine scenarios are defined with different levels of EV and HP penetration. Thirdly, the Low Voltage Load Flow Calculation in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory is performed for all scenarios while taking the simultaneity factor (SF) for each load type into consideration to calculate the minimum voltage and maximum loadings of transformer and lines in each grid; this allows for the grid’s potential bottlenecks to be identified. The network simulations are carried out with the consideration of charging powers of 11 kW and 22 kW in order to evaluate how an increasing EV load in the future may affect the grid’s parameters. To the best of our knowledge, no study in the literature has simultaneously addressed all of the aforementioned topics. The results of this study provide a useful framework that distribution system operators (DSOs) may apply to anticipate the forthcoming challenges and figure out when grid reinforcement will be required. Full article
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39 pages, 9920 KiB  
Article
Neural Sliding Mode Control of a Buck-Boost Converter Applied to a Regenerative Braking System for Electric Vehicles
by Jose A. Ruz-Hernandez, Ramon Garcia-Hernandez, Mario Antonio Ruz Canul, Juan F. Guerra, Jose-Luis Rullan-Lara and Jaime R. Vior-Franco
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020048 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2052
Abstract
This paper presents the design and simulation of a neural sliding mode controller (NSMC) for a regenerative braking system in an electric vehicle (EV). The NSMC regulates the required current and voltage of the bidirectional DC-DC buck–boost converter, an element of the auxiliary [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and simulation of a neural sliding mode controller (NSMC) for a regenerative braking system in an electric vehicle (EV). The NSMC regulates the required current and voltage of the bidirectional DC-DC buck–boost converter, an element of the auxiliary energy system (AES), to improve the state of charge (SOC) of the battery of the EV. The controller is based on a recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN) trained using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) as the tools to train the neural networks to obtain a higher SOC in the battery. The performance of the controller with the two training algorithms is compared with a proportional integral (PI) controller illustrating the differences and improvements obtained with the EKF and the UKF. Furthermore, robustness tests considering Gaussian noise and varying of parameters have demonstrated the outcome of the NSMC over a PI controller. The proposed controller is a new strategy with better results than the PI controller applied to the same buck–boost converter circuit, which can be used for the main energy system (MES) efficiency in an EV architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles)
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30 pages, 23629 KiB  
Article
Advanced Torque Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors for Electrical Hypercars
by Ettore Bianco, Sandro Rubino, Massimiliana Carello and Iustin Radu Bojoi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020046 - 1 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Nowadays, electric vehicles have gained significant attention as a promising solution to the environmental concerns associated with traditional combustion engine vehicles. With the increasing demand for high-performance hypercars, the need for advanced torque control strategies has become paramount. Field-Oriented Control using Current Vector [...] Read more.
Nowadays, electric vehicles have gained significant attention as a promising solution to the environmental concerns associated with traditional combustion engine vehicles. With the increasing demand for high-performance hypercars, the need for advanced torque control strategies has become paramount. Field-Oriented Control using Current Vector Control represents a consolidated solution to implement torque control. However, this kind of control must take into account the DC link voltage variation and the variation of motor parameters depending on the magnets’ temperature while providing the maximum torque production for specific inverter current and voltage limitations. Multidimensional lookup tables are needed to provide a robust torque control from zero speed up to maximum speed under deep flux-weakening operation. Therefore, this article aims to explore the application of FOC 4D control in electrical hypercars and its impact on enhancing their overall performance and control stability. The article will delve into the principles underlying FOC 4D control and its advantages, challenges, and potential solutions to optimize the operation of electric hypercars. An electric powertrain model has been developed in the Simulink environment with the Simscape tool using a S-function block for the implementation of digital control in C-code. High-power electric motor electromagnetic parameters, derived from a Finite Element Method magnetic model, have been used in the simulation. The 4D LUTs have been computed from the motor flux maps and implemented in C-code in the S-function. The choice of FOC 4D control has been validated in the main load points of a hypercar application and compared to the conventional FOC. The final part of the research underlines the benefits of the FOC 4D on reliability, critical in motorsport applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics, Control and Simulation of Electrified Vehicles)
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18 pages, 11175 KiB  
Article
Online Inductance Identification of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Independent of Rotor Position Information
by Jilei Xing, Junzhi Zhang, Xingming Zhuang and Yao Xu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010035 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1687
Abstract
Sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors is preferable in some applications due to cost and mounting space concerns. The performance of most existing position estimation methods greatly depends on the accuracy of the motor inductance. As the estimated position should not be [...] Read more.
Sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors is preferable in some applications due to cost and mounting space concerns. The performance of most existing position estimation methods greatly depends on the accuracy of the motor inductance. As the estimated position should not be involved in the parameter identification process in a sensorless control system, an online inductance identification method independent of the rotor position information is developed in this paper. The proposed method utilizes the recursive least square algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm to realize real-time identification of the inductance along the direct axis and the quadrature axis, respectively, based on the deduced parametric equations without position information. The proposed method is efficient enough to be implemented within 0.2 ms and does not introduce any additional signal injection. A test bench is built to validate the characteristics of the method, and the experimental results show that the identified inductance can converge to the actual value rapidly and is robust to changes in the initial values and stator current. With the proposed method, accurate estimation of the rotor position and speed can be obtained using traditional model-based position estimators, and the stability of the sensorless control system can be improved significantly. Full article
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18 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
Connecting the Dots: A Comprehensive Modeling and Evaluation Approach to Assess the Performance and Robustness of Charging Networks for Battery Electric Trucks and Its Application to Germany
by Georg Balke, Maximilian Zähringer, Jakob Schneider and Markus Lienkamp
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010032 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The successful introduction of battery electric trucks heavily depends on public charging infrastructure. But even as the first trucks capable of long-haul transportation are being built, no coherent fast-charging networks are yet available. This paper presents a methodology for assessing fast charging networks [...] Read more.
The successful introduction of battery electric trucks heavily depends on public charging infrastructure. But even as the first trucks capable of long-haul transportation are being built, no coherent fast-charging networks are yet available. This paper presents a methodology for assessing fast charging networks for electric trucks in Germany from the literature. It aims to establish a quantitative understanding of the networks’ performance and robustness to deviations from idealized system parameters and identify crucial charging sites from a transportation planning perspective. Additionally, the study explores the quantification of adaptation effects displayed by agents in response to charging site outages. To achieve these objectives, a comprehensive methodology incorporating infrastructure, vehicle and operational strategy modeling, simulation, and subsequent evaluation is presented. Factors such as charging station locations, C-rates, mandatory rest periods, and vehicle parameters are taken into account, along with the distribution of traffic according to publicly available data. The study aims to offer a comprehensive understanding of charging networks’ performance and resilience. This will be applied in a case study on two proposed networks and newly created derivatives. The proposed network offers over 99% coverage for long-haul transport but leads to a time loss of approximately 7% under reference conditions. This study advances the understanding of the performance and resilience of proposed charging networks, providing a solid foundation for the design and implementation of robust and efficient charging infrastructure for electric trucks. Full article
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27 pages, 3133 KiB  
Article
Towards Efficient Battery Electric Bus Operations: A Novel Energy Forecasting Framework
by Samuel Würtz, Klaus Bogenberger, Ulrich Göhner and Andreas Rupp
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010027 - 12 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2933
Abstract
As the adoption of battery electric buses (BEBs) in public transportation systems grows, the need for precise energy consumption forecasting becomes increasingly important. Accurate predictions are essential for optimizing routes, charging schedules, and ensuring adequate operational range. This paper introduces an innovative forecasting [...] Read more.
As the adoption of battery electric buses (BEBs) in public transportation systems grows, the need for precise energy consumption forecasting becomes increasingly important. Accurate predictions are essential for optimizing routes, charging schedules, and ensuring adequate operational range. This paper introduces an innovative forecasting methodology that combines a propulsion and auxiliary energy model with a novel concept, the environment generator. This approach addresses the primary challenge in electric bus energy forecasting: estimating future environmental conditions, such as weather, passenger load, and traffic patterns, which significantly impact energy demand. The environment generator plays a crucial role by providing the energy models with realistic input data. This study validates various models with different levels of model complexity against real-world operational data from a case study of over one year with 16 electric buses in Göttingen, Germany. Our analysis thoroughly examines influencing factors on energy consumption, like altitude, temperature, passenger load, and driving patterns. In order to comprehensively understand energy demands under varying operational conditions, the methodology integrates data-driven models and physical simulations into a modular and highly accurate energy predictor. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in providing more accurate energy consumption forecasts, which is essential for efficient electric bus fleet management. This research contributes to the growing body of knowledge in electric vehicle energy prediction and offers practical insights for transit authorities and operators in optimizing electric bus operations. Full article
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20 pages, 7383 KiB  
Article
Parameter Compensation for the Predictive Control System of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm
by Jiali Yang, Yanxia Shen and Yongqiang Tan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010023 - 9 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The accurate identification of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) parameters is the foundation for high-performance driving in predictive control systems. The traditional PMSM multi-parameter identification method suffers from insufficient rank of the identification equation and is prone to getting stuck in local optimal [...] Read more.
The accurate identification of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) parameters is the foundation for high-performance driving in predictive control systems. The traditional PMSM multi-parameter identification method suffers from insufficient rank of the identification equation and is prone to getting stuck in local optimal solutions. This article combines the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA) to establish a built-in PMSM predictive control parameter compensation model. Firstly, we analyzed the reasons why the distortion of PMSM motor parameters affects the actual speed and calculated the deviation of d-axis and q-axis currents caused by the distortion. Secondly, parameter compensation was applied to the prediction model, and BFOA was combined to optimize the compensation parameters. This algorithm does not use the traditional voltage equation as the fitness function but instead uses a brand-new set of four equations for parameter iteration optimization. The optimized compensation parameters can reduce current deviation and improve the robustness of the PMSM predictive control system. The proposed model can cover four kinds of motor distortion parameters, including stator resistance, D-axis inductance, Q-axis inductance, and permanent magnet flux linkage. Finally, the traditional PMSM predictive control model is compared with the predictive control model combined with BFOA. The simulation results show that the dynamic and static performance of the compensated system is improved when single or multiple parameters are distorted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent Magnet Motors and Driving Control for Electric Vehicles)
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7 pages, 2615 KiB  
Communication
Subcooled Liquid Hydrogen Technology for Heavy-Duty Trucks
by Enrico Pizzutilo, Thomas Acher, Benjamin Reuter, Christian Will and Simon Schäfer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010022 - 8 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
Subcooled liquid hydrogen (sLH2) is an onboard storage, as well as a hydrogen refueling technology that is currently being developed by Daimler Truck and Linde to boost the mileage of heavy-duty trucks, while also improving performance and reducing the complexity of hydrogen refueling [...] Read more.
Subcooled liquid hydrogen (sLH2) is an onboard storage, as well as a hydrogen refueling technology that is currently being developed by Daimler Truck and Linde to boost the mileage of heavy-duty trucks, while also improving performance and reducing the complexity of hydrogen refueling stations. In this article, the key technical aspects, advantages, challenges and future developments of sLH2 at vehicle and infrastructure levels will be explored and highlighted. Full article
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35 pages, 4624 KiB  
Review
Emerging Trends in Autonomous Vehicle Perception: Multimodal Fusion for 3D Object Detection
by Simegnew Yihunie Alaba, Ali C. Gurbuz and John E. Ball
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010020 - 7 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5013
Abstract
The pursuit of autonomous driving relies on developing perception systems capable of making accurate, robust, and rapid decisions to interpret the driving environment effectively. Object detection is crucial for understanding the environment at these systems’ core. While 2D object detection and classification have [...] Read more.
The pursuit of autonomous driving relies on developing perception systems capable of making accurate, robust, and rapid decisions to interpret the driving environment effectively. Object detection is crucial for understanding the environment at these systems’ core. While 2D object detection and classification have advanced significantly with the advent of deep learning (DL) in computer vision (CV) applications, they fall short in providing essential depth information, a key element in comprehending driving environments. Consequently, 3D object detection becomes a cornerstone for autonomous driving and robotics, offering precise estimations of object locations and enhancing environmental comprehension. The CV community’s growing interest in 3D object detection is fueled by the evolution of DL models, including Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Transformer networks. Despite these advancements, challenges such as varying object scales, limited 3D sensor data, and occlusions persist in 3D object detection. To address these challenges, researchers are exploring multimodal techniques that combine information from multiple sensors, such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR, to enhance the performance of perception systems. This survey provides an exhaustive review of multimodal fusion-based 3D object detection methods, focusing on CNN and Transformer-based models. It underscores the necessity of equipping fully autonomous vehicles with diverse sensors to ensure robust and reliable operation. The survey explores the advantages and drawbacks of cameras, LiDAR, and radar sensors. Additionally, it summarizes autonomy datasets and examines the latest advancements in multimodal fusion-based methods. The survey concludes by highlighting the ongoing challenges, open issues, and potential directions for future research. Full article
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15 pages, 5550 KiB  
Article
Speed Change Pattern Optimization for Improving the Electricity Consumption of an Electric Bus and Its Verification Using an Actual Vehicle
by Yiyuan Fang, Wei-hsiang Yang, Yushi Kamiya, Takehito Imai, Shigeru Ueki and Masayuki Kobayashi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010016 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV’s eco-driving speed pattern. Compared [...] Read more.
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV’s eco-driving speed pattern. Compared to the eco-driving of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs), we found several different characteristics. We verified these characteristics with actual vehicle driving test data of the target bus, and the results confirmed its rationality. The EV’s eco-driving method can improve electricity consumption by about 10–20% under the same average speed. Full article
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16 pages, 9983 KiB  
Article
Advancements in Electric Vehicle PCB Inspection: Application of Multi-Scale CBAM, Partial Convolution, and NWD Loss in YOLOv5
by Hanlin Xu, Li Wang and Feng Chen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010015 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
In the rapidly evolving electric vehicle industry, the reliability of electronic systems is critical to ensuring vehicle safety and performance. Printed circuit boards (PCBs), serving as a cornerstone in these systems, necessitate efficient and accurate surface defect detection. Traditional PCB surface defect detection [...] Read more.
In the rapidly evolving electric vehicle industry, the reliability of electronic systems is critical to ensuring vehicle safety and performance. Printed circuit boards (PCBs), serving as a cornerstone in these systems, necessitate efficient and accurate surface defect detection. Traditional PCB surface defect detection methods, like basic image processing and manual inspection, are inefficient and error-prone, especially for complex, minute, or irregular defects. Addressing this issue, this study introduces a technology based on the YOLOv5 network structure. By integrating the Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM), the model’s capability in recognizing intricate and small defects is enhanced. Further, partial convolution (PConv) replaces traditional convolution for more effective spatial feature extraction and reduced redundant computation. In the network’s final stage, multi-scale defect detection is implemented. Additionally, the normalized Wasserstein distance (NWD) loss function is introduced, considering relationships between different categories, thereby effectively solving class imbalance and multi-scale defect detection issues. Training and validation on a public PCB dataset showed the model’s superior detection accuracy and reduced false detection rate compared to traditional methods. Real-time monitoring results confirm the model’s ability to accurately detect various types and sizes of PCB surface defects, satisfying the real-time detection needs of electric vehicle production lines and providing crucial technical support for electric vehicle reliability. Full article
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16 pages, 6399 KiB  
Article
Combined Electromagnetic and Mechanical Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Rotors for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains
by Guanhua Zhang and Geraint Wyn Jewell
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010004 (registering DOI) - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1501
Abstract
In many high-speed electrical machines, centrifugal forces within the rotor can be first-order constraints on electromagnetic optimization. This can be particularly acute in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines in which magnets are usually retained entirely by the rotor core with no additional mechanical [...] Read more.
In many high-speed electrical machines, centrifugal forces within the rotor can be first-order constraints on electromagnetic optimization. This can be particularly acute in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines in which magnets are usually retained entirely by the rotor core with no additional mechanical containment. This study investigates the nature of the trade-off between mechanical and electromagnetic requirements within the context of an eight-pole, 100 kW IPM machine with a base speed of 4000 rpm and an extended speed range up to 12,000 rpm. A series of mechanical and electromagnetic models are used to estimate the level of shaft interference, mechanical stress in critical regions of the rotor and the impact of various features and dimensions within the machine on electromagnetic torque. A systematic exploration of the design space is undertaken for rotor diameters from 120 mm to 180 mm, with optimal designs in terms of torque per unit length established at each diameter while meeting the constraints imposed on mechanical stress. The final preferred design has a rotor of 165 mm and an axial length of 103 mm long with a fractional slot winding in a 30-slot stator. The overall machine has an active mass of 42.3 kg, which corresponds to ~2.4 kW/kg. This paper describes the optimization study in detail and draws on the results to explore the nature of the design trade-offs in such rotors and the impact of core properties. Full article
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27 pages, 470 KiB  
Article
Cost Minimization for Charging Electric Bus Fleets
by Daniel Mortensen, Jacob Gunther, Greg Droge and Justin Whitaker
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120351 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Recent attention for reduced carbon emissions has pushed transit authorities to adopt battery electric buses (BEBs). One challenge experienced by BEB users is extended charge times, which create logistical challenges and may force BEBs to charge when energy is more expensive. Furthermore, BEB [...] Read more.
Recent attention for reduced carbon emissions has pushed transit authorities to adopt battery electric buses (BEBs). One challenge experienced by BEB users is extended charge times, which create logistical challenges and may force BEBs to charge when energy is more expensive. Furthermore, BEB charging leads to high power demands, which can significantly increase monthly power costs and may push the electrical infrastructure beyond its present capacity, requiring expensive upgrades. This work presents a novel method for minimizing the monthly cost of BEB charging while meeting bus route constraints. This method extends previous work by incorporating a more novel cost model, effects from uncontrolled loads, differences between daytime and overnight charging, and variable rate charging. A graph-based network-flow framework, represented by a mixed-integer linear program, encodes the charging action space, physical bus constraints, and battery state of the charge dynamics. The results for three scenarios are considered: uncontested charging, which uses equal numbers of buses and chargers; contested charging, which has more buses than chargers; and variable charge rates. Among other findings, we show that BEBs can be added to the fleet without raising the peak power demand for only the cost of the energy, suggesting that conversion to electrified transit is possible without upgrading power delivery infrastructure. Full article
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18 pages, 6738 KiB  
Article
A Methodology for Applying Skew in an Automotive Interior Permanent Magnet Rotor for Robust Electromagnetic and Noise, Vibration and Harshness Performance
by Thomas Cawkwell, Ahmed Haris, Juan Manuel Gonzalez, Leon Kevin Rodrigues and Vladimir Shirokov
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120350 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors in traction applications often employ discrete rotor skewing constructions to reduce torsional excitations and back-EMF harmonics. Although skewing is very effective in reducing cogging torque, the impact on torque ripple is not well understood and can vary significantly [...] Read more.
Interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors in traction applications often employ discrete rotor skewing constructions to reduce torsional excitations and back-EMF harmonics. Although skewing is very effective in reducing cogging torque, the impact on torque ripple is not well understood and can vary significantly over the operating envelope of a motor. Skewing also leads to the creation of a non-zero axial force that may compromise the bearing life if not considered. This paper introduces a holistic methodology for analyzing the effect of skewing, aiming to minimize torsional excitations, axial forces and back-EMF harmonics whilst mitigating the impact on performance and costs. Firstly, analytical models are employed for calculating cogging torque, torque ripple and axial forces. Then, 2D and 3D finite element analysis are used to incorporate the influence of non-linear material behavior. A detailed structural model of the powertrain is employed to calculate the radiated noise and identify key areas allowing a motor designer to reduce noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). A meticulous selection process for the skewing angle, the number of skew stacks and the orientation of skew stacks is developed, giving particular attention to the effect of the selected pattern on NVH in both forward and reverse rotating directions. Full article
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17 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Investigating Investment Plans for Expanding Battery and Electric Vehicle Production in Europe
by Hong Yang and Lewis Fulton
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120347 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 3951
Abstract
There has been significant EV sales growth in Europe, benefiting from its policies for promoting electric vehicles (EVs) and investments in manufacturing. This study investigates the investment announcements for EV and battery production announced by manufacturers and compares them to four scenarios with [...] Read more.
There has been significant EV sales growth in Europe, benefiting from its policies for promoting electric vehicles (EVs) and investments in manufacturing. This study investigates the investment announcements for EV and battery production announced by manufacturers and compares them to four scenarios with different EV penetration levels in Europe. This study projects the required capacities and estimates the investment needs to meet different EV sale targets in each scenario. The investigations show that, for Europe to achieve 60% new EV sales by 2030 and to be on track for 100% by 2035, its 4.8 million planned production capacity of EVs would fall short of the needed 9.2 million in 2030. The gap could close to 2.0 million when tentative announcements are counted. The results for batteries indicate that tentative plans are adequate and firm plans can satisfy most scenarios by 2030. More investments into EV production, along with policy support and incentives, are needed for more rapid scenarios. Full article
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24 pages, 4003 KiB  
Article
Public Perception of the Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles
by Abdulaziz Aldakkhelallah, Abdulrahman S. Alamri, Stelios Georgiou and Milan Simic
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120345 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will transform transport, but public opinion will play a key role in decisions on how widely and quickly they are adopted. The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate community’s views on that transition. As a method for [...] Read more.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will transform transport, but public opinion will play a key role in decisions on how widely and quickly they are adopted. The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate community’s views on that transition. As a method for primary data collection on public awareness, attitudes, and readiness to use autonomous cars, survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Following that, we used statistical tools to analyse responses. Our findings indicate that the participants are largely receptive to using new technologies and had favourable attitudes towards the transition. Ordinal logistic regression model showed a wide variation in public opinion regarding the expected benefits that may accompany the transition. Our findings reveal that awareness of AVs’ benefits is positively correlated with the age of participants. Perceived costs on one side, and convenience and safety on the other, were found to have had a substantial impact on the opinions of the participants. Investigation presented here shows a sample of the public’s perception of AVs in Saudi Arabia. This can guide the development of AVs and their deployment in that region as well as worldwide. Full article
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13 pages, 1362 KiB  
Article
Incremental Profitability Evaluation of Vehicle-to-Grid-Enabled Automated Frequency Restoration Reserve Services for Semi-Public Charging Infrastructure: A Case Study in Belgium
by Andrei Goncearuc, Nikolaos Sapountzoglou, Cedric De Cauwer, Thierry Coosemans, Maarten Messagie and Thomas Crispeels
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120339 - 6 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of automated frequency restoration reserve services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating a network of semi-public Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. It assesses the profitability of this [...] Read more.
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of automated frequency restoration reserve services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating a network of semi-public Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. It assesses the profitability of this introduction by performing a case study based on the real-life electric vehicle charging data from the EVSE network located in a hospital parking lot. From the results of the study, it is clearly visible that the introduction of vehicle-to-grid-enabled automated frequency restoration reserve services has a significant positive incremental profitability; however, this is heavily dependent on the plug-in ratio of the charging network, determined by electric vehicle users’ behavior. Full article
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28 pages, 4696 KiB  
Article
PerfECT Design Tool: Electric Vehicle Modelling and Experimental Validation
by Henrique de Carvalho Pinheiro
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120337 - 5 Dec 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
This article addresses a common issue in the design of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by introducing a comprehensive methodology for the modeling and simulation of BEVs, referred to as the “PerfECT Design Tool”. The primary objective of this study is to provide engineers [...] Read more.
This article addresses a common issue in the design of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by introducing a comprehensive methodology for the modeling and simulation of BEVs, referred to as the “PerfECT Design Tool”. The primary objective of this study is to provide engineers and researchers with a robust and streamlined approach for the early stages of electric vehicle (EV) design, offering valuable insights into the performance, energy consumption, current flow, and thermal behavior of these advanced automotive systems. Recognizing the complex nature of contemporary EVs, the study highlights the need for efficient design tools that facilitate decision-making during the conceptual phases of development. The PerfECT Design Tool is presented as a multi-level framework, divided into four logically sequential modules: Performance, Energy, Currents, and Temperature. These modules are underpinned by sound theoretical foundations and are implemented using a combination of MATLAB/Simulink and the vehicle dynamics software VI-CRT. The research culminates in the validation of the model through a series of experimental maneuvers conducted with a Tesla Model 3, establishing its accuracy in representing the mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of BEVs. The study’s main findings underscore the viability of the design tool as an asset in the initial phases of BEV design. Beyond its primary application, the tool holds promise for broader utilization, including the development of active control systems, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and solutions for autonomous driving within the domain of electric vehicles. Full article
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17 pages, 5020 KiB  
Article
A System for the Efficient Charging of EV Fleets
by Tobias Fleck, Sascha Gohlke and Zoltan Nochta
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120335 - 2 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Smart charging is a means of monitoring and actively controlling EV chargers to optimize the distribution and consumption of energy with a focus on peak-load avoidance. This paper describes the most important requirements that have influenced the design and implementation of the “Smart [...] Read more.
Smart charging is a means of monitoring and actively controlling EV chargers to optimize the distribution and consumption of energy with a focus on peak-load avoidance. This paper describes the most important requirements that have influenced the design and implementation of the “Smart Charging System” (SCS). It presents the architecture and main functional building blocks of the SCS, which have been realized in an iterative development process as an extension component of the already existing open-source solution “Open e-Mobility”. We also provide details on the functionality of the core smart charging algorithm within SCS and show how various data sources can be utilized by the system to increase the safety and efficiency of EV charging processes. Furthermore, we describe our iterative approach to developing the system, introduce the real-world testbed at SAP Labs France in Mougins/France, and share evaluation results and experiences gathered over a three-year period. Full article
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33 pages, 3019 KiB  
Review
Review of Management System and State-of-Charge Estimation Methods for Electric Vehicles
by Jigar Sarda, Hirva Patel, Yashvi Popat, Kueh Lee Hui and Mangal Sain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120325 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Energy storage systems (ESSs) are critically important for the future of electric vehicles. Due to the shifting global environment for electrical distribution and consumption, energy storage systems (ESS) are amongst the electrical power system solutions with the fastest growing market share. Any ESS [...] Read more.
Energy storage systems (ESSs) are critically important for the future of electric vehicles. Due to the shifting global environment for electrical distribution and consumption, energy storage systems (ESS) are amongst the electrical power system solutions with the fastest growing market share. Any ESS must have the capacity to regulate the modules from the system in the case of abnormal situations as well as the ability to monitor, control, and maximize the performance of one or more battery modules. Such a system is known as a battery management system (BMS). One parameter that is included in the BMS is the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery. The BMS is used to enhance battery performance while including the necessary safety measures in the system. SOC estimation is a key BMS feature, and precise modelling and state estimation will improve stable operation. This review discusses the current methods used in BEV LIB SOC modelling and estimation. It also efficiently monitors all of the electrical characteristics of a battery-pack system, including the voltage, current, and temperature. The main function of a BMS is to safeguard a battery system for machine electrification and electric propulsion. The major responsibility of the BMS is to guarantee the trustworthiness and safety of the battery cells coupled to create high currents at high voltage levels. This article examines the advancements and difficulties in (i) cutting-edge battery technology and (ii) cutting-edge BMS for electric vehicles (EVs). This article’s main goal is to outline the key characteristics, benefits and drawbacks, and recent technological developments in SOC estimation methods for a battery. The study follows the pertinent industry standards and addresses the functional safety component that concerns BMS. This information and knowledge will be valuable for vehicle manufacturers in the future development of new SOC methods or an improvement in existing ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics, Control and Simulation of Electrified Vehicles)
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16 pages, 1833 KiB  
Systematic Review
Managing Transitions to Autonomous and Electric Vehicles: Scientometric and Bibliometric Review
by Milan Todorovic, Abdulaziz Aldakkhelallah and Milan Simic
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110314 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2113
Abstract
This paper presents a scientometric and bibliometric literature review of the research on transitions to autonomous and electric vehicles. We discuss the main characteristics, evolution, and various transitional issues, identifying potential trends for future research. The Scopus and WoS search for relevant research [...] Read more.
This paper presents a scientometric and bibliometric literature review of the research on transitions to autonomous and electric vehicles. We discuss the main characteristics, evolution, and various transitional issues, identifying potential trends for future research. The Scopus and WoS search for relevant research articles generated a corpus of 4693 articles, which we analyzed using VOSviewer visualization software. This result shows that the transition research is interdisciplinary, with 54 scientific areas identified. Analysis requires an understanding of the broader aspects of the automotive industry, trends related to sustainability, environment protection, road safety, public policies, market factors and other business, and legal and management issues. This study highlights the need for more research to address the challenges of this global transition in the automotive industry. Topics for future research are constant improvements in AI algorithms used in AVs, innovations in green energy sources, and storage solutions for EVs. This is leading to new innovative business models and platforms. Further to that, the conclusion is that the impact of the transition to a shared economy, the emergency of mobility as a service, and public acceptance of the technology have to be comprehensively considered. The vehicle of the future is seen as a smart electric car, running on green energy, and utilizing various levels of automation up to full autonomy. Full article
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16 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Voltage Stability in Distribution Networks via Metaheuristic Algorithm-Driven Reactive Power Compensation from MDHD EVs
by Chen Zhang, Kourosh Sedghisigarchi, Rachel Sheinberg, Shashank Narayana Gowda and Rajit Gadh
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110310 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1749
Abstract
The deployment of medium-duty and heavy-duty (MDHD) electric vehicles (EVs), characterized by their substantial battery capacity and high charging power demand, poses a potential threat to voltage stability within distribution networks. One possible solution to voltage instability is reactive power compensation from charging [...] Read more.
The deployment of medium-duty and heavy-duty (MDHD) electric vehicles (EVs), characterized by their substantial battery capacity and high charging power demand, poses a potential threat to voltage stability within distribution networks. One possible solution to voltage instability is reactive power compensation from charging MDHD EVs. However, this process must be carefully facilitated in order to be effective. This paper introduces an innovative distribution network voltage stability solution by first identifying the network’s weakest buses and then utilizing a metaheuristic algorithm to schedule reactive power compensation from MDHD EVs. In the paper, multiple metaheuristic algorithms, including genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, moth flame optimization, salp swarm algorithms, whale optimization, and grey wolf optimization, are subjected to rigorous evaluation concerning their efficacy in terms of voltage stability improvement, power loss reduction, and computational efficiency. The proposed methodology optimizes power flow with the salp swarm algorithm, which was determined to be the most effective tool, to mitigate voltage fluctuations and enhance overall stability. The simulation results, conducted on a modified IEEE 33 bus distribution system, convincingly demonstrate the algorithm’s efficacy in augmenting voltage stability and curtailing power losses, supporting the reliable and efficient integration of MDHD EVs into distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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12 pages, 3463 KiB  
Article
Modular and Scalable Powertrain for Multipurpose Light Electric Vehicles
by Mehrnaz Farzam Far, Damijan Miljavec, Roman Manko, Jenni Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, Mikaela Ranta, Janne Keränen, Jutta Kinder and Mario Vukotić
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110309 - 11 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is [...] Read more.
Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is initially parameterized, established, and then evaluated with an ex-post-performance assessment using driving cycles. Nevertheless, to optimize the size and performance of a vehicle according to its intended mission, it is essential to consider the driving cycles right from the outset, in the powertrain design. This paper presents the design of an electric powertrain for multipurpose light electric vehicles, focusing on the motor, battery, and charging requirements. The powertrain design optimization is realized from the first stages by considering the vehicle’s driving missions and operational patterns for multipurpose usage (transporting people or goods) in European urban environments. The proposed powertrain is modular and scalable in terms of the energy capacity of the battery as well as in the electric motor shaft power and torque. Having such a possibility gives one the flexibility to use the powertrain in different combinations for different vehicle categories, from L7 quadricycles to light M1 vehicles. Full article
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18 pages, 8018 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Usage and Driver Activity
by Justin Anthony Mahlberg, Jairaj Desai and Darcy M. Bullock
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110308 - 8 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
As the country moves toward electric vehicles (EV), the United States is in the process of investing over USD 7.5 billion in EV charging stations, and Indiana has been allocated $100 million to invest in their EV charging network. In contrast to traditional [...] Read more.
As the country moves toward electric vehicles (EV), the United States is in the process of investing over USD 7.5 billion in EV charging stations, and Indiana has been allocated $100 million to invest in their EV charging network. In contrast to traditional “gas stations”, EV charging times, depending on the charger power delivery rating, can require considerably longer dwell times. As a result, drivers tend to pair charging with other activities. This study looks at two EV public charging locations and monitors driver activity while charging, charge time, and station utilization over a 2-month period in Lafayette, Indiana. Over 4000 charging sessions at stations with varying power levels (350 kW, 150 kW, and 50 kW) were monitored, and the median charge time was between 28 and 36 min. A large variation in station utilization was observed at Electrify America charging stations that had a range of stations with 350 kW, 150 kW, and 50 kW available. The highest utilization rates by hour of day on average were observed at 25% at the 150 kW Tesla station. Driver activity during charging influenced dwell times, with the average dwell time of drivers who waited in their vehicles to charge being 10 min shorter than those who would travel to the shops. Rain in the forecast also impacted the number of users per day. Although there are no published metrics for EV utilization and associated driver activities, we believe examining this relationship will produce best practices for planning future investments in EV charging infrastructure as public and private sector partners develop a nationwide charging network. Full article
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22 pages, 1768 KiB  
Review
A Review of Non-Destructive Techniques for Lithium-Ion Battery Performance Analysis
by Ximena Carolina Acaro Chacón, Stefano Laureti, Marco Ricci and Gregorio Cappuccino
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110305 - 3 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are considered the most suitable option for powering electric vehicles in modern transportation systems due to their high energy density, high energy efficiency, long cycle life, and low weight. Nonetheless, several safety concerns and their tendency to lose charge over time [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are considered the most suitable option for powering electric vehicles in modern transportation systems due to their high energy density, high energy efficiency, long cycle life, and low weight. Nonetheless, several safety concerns and their tendency to lose charge over time demand methods capable of determining their state of health accurately, as well as estimating a range of relevant parameters in order to ensure their safe and efficient use. In this framework, non-destructive inspection methods play a fundamental role in assessing the condition of lithium-ion batteries, allowing for their thorough examination without causing any damage. This aspect is particularly crucial when batteries are exploited in critical applications and when evaluating the potential second life usage of the cells. This review explores various non-destructive methods for evaluating lithium batteries, i.e., electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, infrared thermography, X-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing, considers and compares several aspects such as sensitivity, flexibility, accuracy, complexity, industrial applicability, and cost. Hence, this work aims at providing academic and industrial professionals with a tool for choosing the most appropriate methodology for a given application. Full article
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19 pages, 5936 KiB  
Review
Annotated Survey on the Research Progress within Vehicle-to-Grid Techniques Based on CiteSpace Statistical Result
by Ruifeng Shi, Shuaikang Peng, Tai Chang and Kwang Y. Lee
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110303 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has received a lot of attention as a smart interconnection solution between electric vehicles and the grid. This paper analyzes the relevant research progress and hotpots of V2G by using CiteSpace 6.1.R6 software to construct a visualization graph, which includes [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has received a lot of attention as a smart interconnection solution between electric vehicles and the grid. This paper analyzes the relevant research progress and hotpots of V2G by using CiteSpace 6.1.R6 software to construct a visualization graph, which includes keyword co-occurrence, clustering, and burstiness, and further systematically summarizes the main trends and key results of V2G research. First, the connection between electric vehicles and the grid is outlined and the potential advantages of V2G technology are emphasized, such as energy management, load balancing, and environmental sustainability. The important topics of V2G, including renewable energy consumption, power dispatch, regulation and optimization of the grid, and the smart grid, are discussed. This paper also emphasizes the positive impacts of V2G technologies on the grid, including reduced carbon emissions, improved grid reliability, and the support for renewable energy integration. Current and future challenges for V2G research, such as standardization, policy support, and business models, are also considered. This review provides a comprehensive perspective for scholars and practitioners in V2G research and contributes to a better understanding of the current status and future trends of V2G technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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14 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Utility Factor Curves for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Beyond the Standard Assumptions
by Karim Hamza and Kenneth P. Laberteaux
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110301 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2880
Abstract
The utility factor (UF) of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) refers to the ratio of miles traveled in electric mode to the total miles traveled. Standard UF curves provide a prediction of the expected achievable UF by a PHEV given its all-electric [...] Read more.
The utility factor (UF) of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) refers to the ratio of miles traveled in electric mode to the total miles traveled. Standard UF curves provide a prediction of the expected achievable UF by a PHEV given its all-electric range (AER), but such predictions entail assumptions about both the driving patterns (distance traveled and energy intensity) and charging behavior. Studies have attempted to compare the real-world UF achieved by PHEVs to their standard values, but deviations can stem from deviations in assumptions about: (i) achievable electric range, (ii) travel distance and (iii) charging frequency. In this paper, we derive analytical models for modified utility factor curves as a function of both AER and charging behavior. We show that average charging frequency is insufficient to exactly predict UF but can still estimate bounds. Our generalized model can also provide insights into the efficacy of PHEVs in reducing carbon emissions. Full article
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11 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Vehicle Dynamics in Electric Cars Development Using MSC Adams and Artificial Neural Network
by Santiago J. Cachumba-Suquillo, Mariel Alfaro-Ponce, Sergio G. Torres-Cedillo, Jacinto Cortés-Pérez and Moises Jimenez-Martinez
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(10), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14100293 - 15 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Recently, there has been renewed interest in lightweight structures; however, a small structure change can strongly affect vehicle dynamic behavior. Therefore, this study provides new insights into non-parametric modeling based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). This work is then motivated by the requirement [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been renewed interest in lightweight structures; however, a small structure change can strongly affect vehicle dynamic behavior. Therefore, this study provides new insights into non-parametric modeling based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). This work is then motivated by the requirement for a reliable substitute for virtual instrumentation in electric car development to enable the prediction of the current value of the vehicle slip from a given time history of the vehicle (input) and previous values of synthetic data (feedback). The training data are generated from a multi-body simulation using MSC Adams Car; the simulation involves a double lane-change maneuver. This test is commonly used to evaluate vehicle stability. Based on dynamic considerations, this study implements the nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) identification scheme used in time-series modeling. This work presents an ANN that is able to predict the side slip angle from simulated training data generated employing MSC Adams Car. This work is a specific solution to overtake maneuvers, avoiding the loss of vehicle control and increasing driving safety. Full article
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11 pages, 2907 KiB  
Article
Optimized LiFePO4-Based Cathode Production for Lithium-Ion Batteries through Laser- and Convection-Based Hybrid Drying Process
by Sebastian Wolf, Niklas Schwenzer, Tim Tratz, Vinzenz Göken, Markus Börner, Daniel Neb, Heiner Heimes, Martin Winter and Achim Kampker
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(10), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14100281 - 6 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
The drying of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is one of the most energy- and cost-intensive process steps in battery production. Laser-based drying processes have emerged as promising candidates for electrode manufacturing due to their direct energy input, spatial homogeneity within the laser spot, [...] Read more.
The drying of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is one of the most energy- and cost-intensive process steps in battery production. Laser-based drying processes have emerged as promising candidates for electrode manufacturing due to their direct energy input, spatial homogeneity within the laser spot, and rapid controllability. However, it is unclear to what extent electrode and cell quality are affected by higher heating and drying rates. Hybrid systems as a combination of laser- and convection-based drying were investigated in an experimental study with water-processed LFP cathodes. The manufactured electrodes were compared with purely laser-dried and purely convection-dried samples in terms of drying times and quality characteristics. The electrodes were characterized with regard to physical properties like adhesion and electronic conductivity, as well as electrochemical performance using the rate capability. Regarding adhesion and electronic conductivity, the LFP-based cathodes dried in the hybrid-drying process by laser and convection showed similar quality characteristics compared to conventionally dried cathodes, while, at the same time, significantly reducing the overall drying time. In terms of electrochemical performance, measured by the rate capability, no significant differences were found between the drying technologies used. These findings demonstrate the great potential of laser- and convection-based hybrid drying of LFP cathodes to enhance the electrode-drying process in terms of energy efficiency and operational costs. Full article
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10 pages, 1822 KiB  
Article
Cell Design Considerations and Impact on Energy Density—A Practical Approach to EV Cell Design
by William Yourey
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(10), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14100279 - 5 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2350
Abstract
Higher-energy-density, Wh L−1 or Wh kg−1, lithium-ion cells are one of the critical advancements required for the implementation of electric vehicles. This increase leads to a longer drive distance between recharges. Aside from material development, full lithium-ion cell design parameters [...] Read more.
Higher-energy-density, Wh L−1 or Wh kg−1, lithium-ion cells are one of the critical advancements required for the implementation of electric vehicles. This increase leads to a longer drive distance between recharges. Aside from material development, full lithium-ion cell design parameters have the potential to greatly influence fabricated cell energy density. The following work highlights the impact of these full-cell design parameters, investigating the effect of a negative to positive capacity ratio, positive electrode porosity, positive electrode active material content, and overall charge voltage on stack volumetric energy density. Decreasing the N:P ratio or increasing active material content results in an almost identical volumetric energy density increase: ~4%. Decreasing the positive electrode porosity from 40–30% or increasing the charge voltage from 4.2–4.35 V also results in an almost identical increase in volumetric energy density: ~5.5%. Combining all design changes has the potential to increase stack volumetric energy density by 20% compared to the baseline cell design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Battery Design and Management)
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17 pages, 17797 KiB  
Article
Research on Temperature Inconsistency of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the Electrothermal Model
by Chao Yu, Jiangong Zhu, Xuezhe Wei and Haifeng Dai
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(10), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14100271 - 1 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Large-format lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are increasingly applied in energy storage systems for electric vehicles, owing to their flexible shape design, lighter weight, higher specific energy, and compact layouts. Nevertheless, the large thermal gradient of Li-ion batteries leads to performance degradation and irreversible safety [...] Read more.
Large-format lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are increasingly applied in energy storage systems for electric vehicles, owing to their flexible shape design, lighter weight, higher specific energy, and compact layouts. Nevertheless, the large thermal gradient of Li-ion batteries leads to performance degradation and irreversible safety issues. The difference in the highest temperature position at various operational modes makes accurate temperature monitoring complicated. Accordingly, a full understanding of the temperature inconsistency of large-format Li-ion batteries is crucial. In this study, these inconsistent characteristics are analyzed by establishing an electrothermal model and conducting experiments based on an 8-Ah pouch-type ternary Li-ion battery with contraposition tabs. Regarding the characteristic of inhomogeneous temperature distribution, the analysis results demonstrate that it is primarily attributable to the uneven heat generation within the battery system and the effects of the two tabs. For the evolution of the highest temperature position, this study compares the maximum temperature rise of the positive tab and main battery body. The results illustrate that the operating temperature has a greater impact on the maximum temperature rise of the main battery body since its resistance strongly depends on the operating temperature compared to the positive and negative tabs. In addition, the electrothermal model is expected to be employed for the battery thermal management system (BTMS) to mitigate the battery temperature inconsistency. Full article
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