Special Issue "The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods - "Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable World" (Foods 2021)"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2022) | Viewed by 16776

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Benu P. Adhikari
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
Interests: food emulsions; structure-function in foods; biodegradable packaging; food engineering; micro/nano encapsulation; food powders/food drying
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Diego A. Moreno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Phytochemistry and Healthy Foods Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, National Council for Scientific Research (CEBAS-CSIC), Murcia, Spain
2. Associated Unit of R&D and Innovation CEBAS-CSIC+UPCT on “Quality and Risk Assessment of Foods”, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Espinardo - 25, E-30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: food science and technology; phytochemistry; bioactive compounds; health-promoters, functional ingredients; natural foods; healthy foods; energy metabolism (obesity and diabetes); human nutrition; wellbeing
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Prof. Dr. Oscar Núñez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona. Martí i Franquès 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: food authentication; food characterization; food classification; food fraud identification; secondary metabolites; polyphenols; foodomics; bioactive compounds; food packaging contaminants; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; high resolution mass spectrometry; ambient mass spectrometry; capillary electrophoresis; chemometrics
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Dr. Han-Seok Seo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Interests: chemosensory perception; multisensory interaction; sensory science; emotion science; neuro-psychophysiology; food choice; eating behavior; sensory marketing
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Dr. Joana S. Amaral
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Biological Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, 5300-399 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: food authenticity; bioactive compounds; essential oils; plant extracts; food chemistry
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Prof. Dr. Katrina Campbell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University, Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast BT9 5DL, UK
Interests: food safety; food security and sustainability; aquaculture; feed and food; natural toxins; drug residues; antibiotics; chemical contaminants; climate change; (bio) analytical chemistry; biosensors; diagnostics; immunoassays; mass spectrometry
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Prof. Dr. Antonello Santini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; safety; food safety; nutraceuticals; nanonutraceuticals; recovery from byproducts of the food industry; food contaminants; food supplements; contaminants; risk assessment; mycotoxins and secondary metabolites; chemistry and food education; food analysis; analytical chemistry; novel techniques for sustainable products; bioavailability; mechanism of action of nutraceuticals and nanonutraceuticals
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Dr. Antonio Cilla
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nutrition and Food Science Area, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Avda. Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: functional foods; bioactive compounds; antioxidant capacity; sterols; phytochemicals; bioaccessibility; bioavailability; bioactivity; cell cultures; chemoprevention; oxidative stress; eryptosis
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Dr. Marlene Cran
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Sustainable Industries and Livable Cities, Victoria University Melbourne, PO Box 14428, Melbourne 8001, Australia
Interests: active antimicrobial and biodegradable packaging; polymer science; wastewater treatment; biomass and waste valorization
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Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Kalamata, Greece
Interests: food technology; food engineering; food safety; food quality; extra virgin olive oil; mycotoxins, fermented foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Antonello Paparella
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture, and Environment, University of Teramo, Via Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: Listeria monocytogenes; food microbiology; foodborne diseases; food safety; antimicrobials; food preservation; milk; meat; seafood
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods - "Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable World" (Foods 2021), held on 15–30 October 2021, on https://foods2021.sciforum.net/, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

Through Foods 2021, we aim to provide leading scientists working in the field of food research with a brand-new tool for sharing research in an online environment that will preserve the same standards and structure as expected of traditional conferences but which will be more inclusive by breaking the cost and time barriers that prevent participation in international conferences. The conference has been divided into 9 themes, as listed below:

Session 1: COVID-19 Risks to Global Food Security and Sustainability
Session 2: Novel Technologies and Future Food
Session 3: Food Nutrition and Human Health
Session 4: Food Analysis and Foodomics
Session 5: Food Chemistry and Biochemistry
Session 6: Consumers’ Preferences and Food Choices
Session 7: Food Microbiology and Fermentation
Session 8: Food Packaging and Preservation
Session 9: Innovative Food Additives and Ingredients

Selected papers that have attracted the most interest on the web or that provide a particularly innovative contribution have been gathered for publication. These papers have been subjected to peer review and are published with the aim of a rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications. We hope this Conference Series will grow rapidly in the future and become recognized as a new way and venue by which to present new developments related to the field of food science and functional foods.

Prof. Dr. Arun K. Bhunia
Prof. Dr. Benu P. Adhikari
Dr. Diego A. Moreno
Prof. Dr. Oscar Núñez
Dr. Han-Seok Seo
Prof. Dr. Joana S. Amaral
Prof. Dr. Katrina Campbell
Prof. Dr. Antonello Santini
Dr. Antonio Cilla
Dr. Marlene Cran
Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
Prof. Dr. Antonello Paparella
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Article
Thermal Stability of Fructooligosaccharides Extracted from Defatted Rice Bran: A Kinetic Study Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142054 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Thermal degradation kinetics of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in defatted rice bran were studied at temperatures of 90, 100, and 110 °C. FOS extracted from rice bran and dissolved in buffers at pH values of 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 were prepared for the thermal treatments. [...] Read more.
Thermal degradation kinetics of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in defatted rice bran were studied at temperatures of 90, 100, and 110 °C. FOS extracted from rice bran and dissolved in buffers at pH values of 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 were prepared for the thermal treatments. The residual FOS (including 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3), and 1F-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4)) contents were determined using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. The results showed that the thermal degradation kinetics of GF2, GF3, and GF4 followed a first-order kinetic model. Thermal degradation rate constants (k values) of GF2, GF3, and GF4 at different temperature and pH values were estimated using the first-order kinetic equation and SAS 9.1. As a result, these k values decreased gradually as the pH of the sample increased from 5.0 to 7.0. The Arrhenius model was applied to describe the heat dependence of the k-values. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated for each case of GF2, GF3, and GF4 degradation at pH values of 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0. The result showed that rice bran FOS is very thermostable at neutral pH while more labile at acidic pH. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Water Extraction to Obtain High Value-Added Compounds from Exhausted Olive Pomace in a Biorefinery Context
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142002 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Microwave-assisted water extraction (MAWE) was evaluated to obtain the valuable bioactive compounds hydroxytyrosol and mannitol from exhausted olive pomace (EOP). The influence of the operational parameters solid loading (3–15%, w/v), temperature (40–100 °C), and extraction time (4–40 min) was studied [...] Read more.
Microwave-assisted water extraction (MAWE) was evaluated to obtain the valuable bioactive compounds hydroxytyrosol and mannitol from exhausted olive pomace (EOP). The influence of the operational parameters solid loading (3–15%, w/v), temperature (40–100 °C), and extraction time (4–40 min) was studied using an experimental design. The optimized conditions maximizing their joint extraction were 12% w/v solid loading, 100 °C temperature, and 16 min. It was possible to solubilize 5.87 mg of hydroxytyrosol/g EOP and 46.70 mg mannitol/g EOP. The extracts were also further characterized by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, which detected other hydroxytyrosol derivatives such as oleacein, verbascoside, and oleuropein. Moreover, the applied MAWE conditions promoted the co-extraction of proteinaceus material, which was also evaluated. In order to carry out an integral valorization of this waste, the extracted EOP solid was further evaluated chemically and microscopically before recovering the bioactive triterpenes. In particular, maslinic acid and oleanolic acid were obtained, 9.54 mg/g extracted solid and 3.60 mg/g extracted solid, respectively. Overall, MAWE can be applied as a first stage in the fractionation of EOP to support its valorization in a biorefinery framework. Full article
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Article
Impacts of COVID-19 Sanitary Cues on Hedonic Appreciation of Foods
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121753 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic led to several lifestyle changes, including eating behavior. Herein, we aimed to evaluate how pandemic-related sanitary cues presented in food videos impact food appraisal and desire to eat, and their priming after-effects on subsequent food pictures presented without such cues. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to several lifestyle changes, including eating behavior. Herein, we aimed to evaluate how pandemic-related sanitary cues presented in food videos impact food appraisal and desire to eat, and their priming after-effects on subsequent food pictures presented without such cues. In two online sessions, separated by 4 to 7 days, participants watched either a Non-Pandemic or a Pandemic video of a woman eating, the latter containing sanitary elements adopted during the pandemic. The order of the videos was counterbalanced across participants over the two experimental sessions. Videos were followed by images of food from different categories. After observing both videos and each picture, participants were instructed to evaluate the visual aspect, expected smell and flavor, and rate their desire to eat. Our study demonstrated (1) higher hedonic responses to the Non-Pandemic compared to the Pandemic video, (2) a priming effect showing higher appreciation for sweet foods after the Non-Pandemic compared to the Pandemic video, (3) that food exposure gradually increases one’s desire to eat, but such effects are impacted by pandemic sanitary cues, and (4) greater hedonic responses are given for sweet and high-calorie foods compared to salty and low-calorie ones, irrespective of pandemic priming. Finally, depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower smell evaluations only in the Pandemic condition. Full article
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Article
Valorizing Coffee Silverskin Based on Its Phytochemicals and Antidiabetic Potential: From Lab to a Pilot Scale
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121671 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
This study investigates the possibility of valorizing coffee silverskin through the recovery of its bioactive compounds using a sustainable extraction method that could be industrially applied. For that, aqueous extracts were prepared using ultrasonic-assisted extraction (laboratorial scale) and, for comparison, a scale-up of [...] Read more.
This study investigates the possibility of valorizing coffee silverskin through the recovery of its bioactive compounds using a sustainable extraction method that could be industrially applied. For that, aqueous extracts were prepared using ultrasonic-assisted extraction (laboratorial scale) and, for comparison, a scale-up of the process was developed using the Multi-frequency Multimode Modulated technology. A concentration procedure at the pilot scale was also tested. The three types of extracts obtained were characterized regarding caffeine and chlorogenic acids contents, and the effects on intestinal glucose and fructose uptake (including sugar transporters expression) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells were ascertained. The phytochemical contents of the extracts prepared at the laboratory and pilot scale were comparable (caffeine: 27.7 vs. 29.6 mg/g freeze-dried extract; 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acids: 0.19 vs. 0.31, 0.15 vs. 0.42, and 1.04 vs. 1.98 mg/g, respectively; 4- and 5- feruloylquinic acids: 0.39 vs. 0.43 and 1.05 vs. 1.32 mg/g, respectively). Slight differences were noticed according to the extracts preparation steps, but in general, all the extracts promoted significant inhibitions of [1,2-3H(N)]-deoxy-D-glucose and 14C-D-fructose uptake, which resulted mainly from a decrease on the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT1) genes expression but not on the expression of the facilitative glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) gene. Moreover, a synergistic effect of caffeine and 5-caffeoylquinic acid on sugars uptake was found. The results clearly show that the Multi-frequency Multimode Modulated technology is a viable option to be applied at an industrial level to recover bioactive components from silverskin and obtain extracts with antidiabetic potential that could be used to develop functional food products or dietary supplements. Full article
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Article
Application of 3D Printing in the Design of Functional Gluten-Free Dough
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111555 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
The design of functional foods through 3D printing is proposed here as one of the most appropriate technologies to provide closer food personalization for the population. However, it is essential to study the properties of the biomaterials intended to be printed. This work [...] Read more.
The design of functional foods through 3D printing is proposed here as one of the most appropriate technologies to provide closer food personalization for the population. However, it is essential to study the properties of the biomaterials intended to be printed. This work will evaluate the incorporation of rosehip as a functional ingredient in a gluten-free dough. Three types of dough (control, rosehip, and encapsulated rosehip) were printed in a rectangular figure of dimensions 7 cm long, 2 cm wide, and 1, 2, and 3 cm high. Changes in printed figures before and after baking were evaluated by image analysis. Physicochemical properties, total phenols (TP), antioxidant capacity (AC), and total carotenoids (TC) were determined both in the pre-printed doughs and in the printed and baked samples. The bread enriched with rosehips presented more orange colors in dough and crumbs. They were also more acidic than control, probably due to the ascorbic acid content of rosehip. The addition of rosehip generally makes the product more resistant to breakage, which could be due to the fiber content of the rosehip. It was observed that the incorporation of rosehip notably improved the functional properties of the bread. Full article
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Article
Role of Visual Assessment of High-Quality Cakes in Emotional Response of Consumers
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101412 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Thinking of the present gastronomic trends is inevitable when talking about innovation in haute pastry. Launching a successful product that meets consumers’ high expectations despite the rising demand for new creations is increasingly complex. For this reason, sensory analysis studies are more and [...] Read more.
Thinking of the present gastronomic trends is inevitable when talking about innovation in haute pastry. Launching a successful product that meets consumers’ high expectations despite the rising demand for new creations is increasingly complex. For this reason, sensory analysis studies are more and more interested in studying the emotional response evoked by these products to better understand and improve user experiences. The main goal of this work was to conduct a study to analyze the emotional arousal of consumers after the visualization of five haute patisserie cakes. An online questionnaire with the EsSense Profile® scale and CATA methodology were used for data collection. The EsSense Profile® is a predefined and validated scale that measures food-related emotions, which includes 39 terms. When analyzing the emotions expressed by all the participants, 22 were statistically significant, of which 14 were classified as positive, 6 as neutral, and only 2 were negative. By analyzing the responses by gender, we observed differences in the number of elicited emotional terms: females showed significant differences between cakes for 18 emotion terms compared to 8 terms for males. The results obtained support the importance of the emotional profile to understand consumers’ expectations and behavior. Full article
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Article
Aqueous Extracts of Lemon Basil Straw as Chemical Stimulator for Gray Oyster Mushroom Cultivation
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091370 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
To reduce the burning of lemon basil straw (LBS)—the byproduct of basil seed production—we propose utilizing LBS as a replacement substrate for mushroom cultivation. LBS can stimulate both mycelial growth and percentage biological efficiency; however, the rigidity of this material limits particle size [...] Read more.
To reduce the burning of lemon basil straw (LBS)—the byproduct of basil seed production—we propose utilizing LBS as a replacement substrate for mushroom cultivation. LBS can stimulate both mycelial growth and percentage biological efficiency; however, the rigidity of this material limits particle size reduction. In this work, aqueous extractions were facilely performed without using either hazardous chemicals or complex procedures to valorize LBS as a stimulator for gray oyster mushroom cultivation. An aqueous extraction at solid-to-liquid of 50 g/L was employed. The macerated-LBS and decocted-LBS extracts were tested for mycelial growth in potato dextrose agar and sorghum grains. Following this, both aqueous extracts were applied as a wetting agent in cylindrical baglog cultivation to estimate mycelial growth, biological efficiency, and productivity. It was found that LBS extracts insignificantly enhanced the mycelia growth rate on all media, while the diluted LBS (1:1 v/v) extracts improved 1.5-fold of percentage biological efficiency. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer results indicated 9-octadecaenamide is a major component in LBS aqueous extract. Results demonstrated that the LBS extract is a good stimulator for the production of Pleurotus mushroom. Full article
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Article
Production of Protein Hydrolysate from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Economic and Experimental Evaluation of Two Pretreatments Using Supercritical Fluids’ Extraction and Conventional Solvent Extraction
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071015 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Supercritical fluids’ extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) for defatting of quinoa flour as pretreatments to produce the quinoa protein hydrolysate (QPH) were studied. The objective was to extract the oil and separate the phenolic compounds (PC) and the defatted quinoa flour [...] Read more.
Supercritical fluids’ extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) for defatting of quinoa flour as pretreatments to produce the quinoa protein hydrolysate (QPH) were studied. The objective was to extract the oil and separate the phenolic compounds (PC) and the defatted quinoa flour for subsequent quinoa protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis. The oil extraction yield (OEY), total flavonoid content (TFC), and QPH yield were compared. SuperPro Designer 9.0® software was used to estimate the cost of manufacturing (COM), productivity, and net present value (NPV) on laboratory and industrial scales. SFE allows higher OEY and separation of PC. The SFE oil showed a higher OEY (99.70%), higher antioxidant activity (34.28 mg GAE/100 g), higher QPH yield (197.12%), lower COM (US$ 90.10/kg), and higher NPV (US$ 205,006,000) as compared to CSE (with 77.59%, 160.52%, US$ 109.29/kg, and US$ 28,159,000, respectively). The sensitivity analysis showed that the sale of by-products improves the economic results: at the industrial scale, no significant differences were found, and both processes are economically feasible. However, results indicate that SFE allows the recovery of an oil and QPH of better nutritional quality and a high level of purity-free organic solvents for further health and nutraceutical uses. Full article
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Article
Non-Destructive Measuring Systems for the Evaluation of High Oxygen Stored Poultry: Development of Headspace Gas Composition, Sensory and Microbiological Spoilage
Foods 2022, 11(4), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040592 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
As poultry is known to be a perishable food, the use-by date is set in such a way that food safety is guaranteed even with a higher initial bacterial count. This means, however, that some products are wasted, even if they are still [...] Read more.
As poultry is known to be a perishable food, the use-by date is set in such a way that food safety is guaranteed even with a higher initial bacterial count. This means, however, that some products are wasted, even if they are still safe to eat. Therefore, non-destructive measurement devices might be a good opportunity for individual shelf-life prediction, e.g., in retail. The aim of this study was therefore to use non-destructive measurement devices based on fluorescence quenching (oxygen detection) and mid-infrared laser spectroscopy (carbon dioxide detection) for the monitoring of high-oxygen-packed poultry in different storage conditions. During 15 days of storage, the gas composition of the headspace was assessed (non-destructively and destructively), while total plate count was monitored and a comprehensive sensory evaluation was performed by a trained panel. We were able to demonstrate that in most cases, non-destructive devices have comparable precision to destructive devices. For both storage conditions, the sensory attribute slime was correlated with reaching the critical microbiological value of 107 CFU/g; the attribute buttery was also useful for the prediction of regularly stored poultry. The change in the gas atmosphere as a sign of premature spoilage, however, was only possible for samples stored in irregular conditions. Full article
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Article
Characterization of the Inclusion Complexes of Isothiocyanates with γ-Cyclodextrin for Improvement of Antibacterial Activities against Staphylococcus aureus
Foods 2022, 11(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010060 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop inclusions formed by γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) and three isothiocyanates (ITCs), including benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and 3-methylthiopropyl isothiocyanate (MTPITC) to improve their controlled release for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop inclusions formed by γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) and three isothiocyanates (ITCs), including benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and 3-methylthiopropyl isothiocyanate (MTPITC) to improve their controlled release for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). These inclusion complexes were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, thermogravimetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), providing appropriate evidence to confirm the formation of inclusion complexes. Preliminary evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the different inclusion complexes, carried out in vitro by agar diffusion, showed that such activity lasted 5–7 days longer in γ-CD-BITC, in comparison with γ-CD-PEITC and γ-CD-MTPITC. The biofilm formation was less in S. aureus treated with γ-CD-BITC than that of BITC by using crystal violet quantification assay and SEM. The expression of virulence genes, including sarA, agr, cp5D, cp8F, clf, nuc, and spa, showed sustained downregulation in S. aureus treated with γ-CD-BITC for 24 h by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, the growth of S. aureus in cooked chicken breast treated with γ-CD-BITC and BITC was predicted by the Gompertz model. The lag time of γ-CD-BITC was 1.3–2.4 times longer than that of BITC, and correlation coefficient (R2) of the secondary models was 0.94–0.99, respectively. These results suggest that BITC has a more durable antibacterial effect against S. aureus after encapsulation by γ-CD. Full article
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Article
Tea and Chicory Extract Characterization, Classification and Authentication by Non-Targeted HPLC-UV-FLD Fingerprinting and Chemometrics
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122935 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
Tea is a widely consumed drink in the world which is susceptible to undergoing adulterations to reduce manufacturing costs and rise financial benefits. The development of simple analytical methodologies to assess tea authenticity, as well as to detect and quantify frauds, is an [...] Read more.
Tea is a widely consumed drink in the world which is susceptible to undergoing adulterations to reduce manufacturing costs and rise financial benefits. The development of simple analytical methodologies to assess tea authenticity, as well as to detect and quantify frauds, is an important matter considering the rise of adulteration issues in recent years. In the present study, untargeted HPLC-UV and HPLC-FLD fingerprinting methods were employed to characterize, classify, and authenticate tea extracts belonging to different varieties (red, green, black, oolong, and white teas) by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), as well as to detect and quantify adulteration frauds when chicory was used as the adulterant by partial least squares (PLS) regression, to ensure the authenticity and integrity of foodstuffs. Overall, PLS-DA showed a good classification and grouping of the tea samples according to the tea variety and, except for some white tea extracts, perfectly discriminated from the chicory ones. One hundred percent classification rates for the PLS-DA calibration models were achieved, except for green and oolong tea when HPLC-FLD fingerprints were employed, which showed classification rates of 96.43% and 95.45%, respectively. Good predictions were also accomplished, also showing, in almost all the cases, a 100% classification rate for prediction, with the exception of white tea and oolong tea when HPLC-UV fingerprints were employed that exhibited a classification rate of 77.78% and 88.89%, respectively. Good PLS results for chicory adulteration detection and quantitation were also accomplished, with calibration, cross-validation, and external validation errors beneath 1.4%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively. Acceptable prediction errors (below 21.7%) were also observed, except for white tea extracts that showed higher errors which were attributed to the low sample variability available. Full article
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Conference Report
Coffee By-Products as Sustainable Novel Foods: Report of the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods—“Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable World”
Foods 2022, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010003 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as fertilizer or [...] Read more.
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as fertilizer or animal feed. Modern, ecologically oriented society attaches great importance to sustainability and waste reduction, so it makes sense to not dispose of the by-products of coffee production but to bring them into the value chain, most prominently as foods for human nutrition. There is certainly huge potential for all of these products, especially on markets not currently accessible due to restrictions, such as the novel food regulation in the European Union. The by-products could help mitigate the socioeconomic burden of coffee farmers caused by globally low coffee prices and increasing challenges due to climate change. The purpose of the conference session summarized in this article was to bring together international experts on coffee by-products and share the current scientific knowledge on all plant parts, including leaf, cherry, parchment and silverskin, covering aspects from food chemistry and technology, nutrition, but also food safety and toxicology. The topic raised a huge interest from the audience and this article also contains a Q&A section with more than 20 answered questions. Full article
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