Scientific Insights and Technological Advances in Gluten Free Products Development

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2022) | Viewed by 64776

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Department of Food Science and Technology, International Hellenic University, Alexander Campus, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: tailoring functional and chemical properties of cereal and alternative plant sources in view of developing specific healthy foods and ingredients; grain safety; bioactive compounds; by products valorization
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Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
Interests: food technology; food engineering; food safety; food quality; extra virgin olive oil; mycotoxins; fermented foods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of autoimmune disorders along with intolerance toward gluten and lifestyle trends have led to increased consumption of gluten-free products in the last two decades. The above has been accompanied with a steep rise in scientific publications on the topic of gluten-free, since both academia and the R&D sector of the food industry have been faced with the challenge to eliminate gluten and seek for substitutes. The prognosis for the global gluten-free products market is that it will continue to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.5% from 2020 to 2027.

Exploring alternative ingredients for the development of gluten-free products aiming to mimic the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten as a gas retention ingredient during fermentation, water binding and enabler of starch gelatinization on baking, and a bread flavor enhancer via gluten-related proteases is still a major field of research. Low specific volume, rapid staling, crumble and crumb structure, dry crumb, taste, and unbalanced nutritional profile are among the common defects in the final products associated with gluten absence.

This Special Issue addresses both new scientific insights and technological advances of gluten-free product development aiming to tackle the aforementioned issues.

Contributions pertinent to gluten-free cereals and pseudocereals, alternative protein sources, and other functional ingredients in view of their role in a gluten-free recipe, sourdough and the role of enzymes, as well as novel processes such as extrusion, microwave, fractionation on milling, germination, etc. that could have an impact on the quality of the final product both from the technological or nutritional point of view are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Maria Papageorgiou
Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
Guest Editors

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Keywords

•    GF product quality
•    gluten free cereals and pseudocereals
•    alternative protein sources
•    sourdough and the role of enzymes
•    novel processes in GF product development
•    nutritional profile/fortification of gluten-free products
•    sensory profile of gluten-free products
•    gluten free reference material for gluten quantification
•    gluten-free regulation issues
•    consumer acceptability

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Scientific Insights and Technological Advances in Gluten-Free Product Development
by Maria Papageorgiou and Theodoros Varzakas
Foods 2023, 12(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020250 - 5 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
This Special Issue addresses new scientific insights and technological advances in the area of gluten-free product development with the aim of controlling gluten intolerance and autoimmune diseases [...] Full article

Research

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18 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Quality of Gluten-Free Bakery Products Labeled Ketogenic and/or Low-Carb Sold in the Global Market
by Nicola Gasparre, Antonella Pasqualone, Marina Mefleh and Fatma Boukid
Foods 2022, 11(24), 4095; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11244095 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4103
Abstract
Gluten-free and ketogenic bakery products are gaining momentum. This study aims to develop a better understanding of the nutritional quality of gluten-free bakery products labeled ketogenic and/or low-carb. For this reason, the products available on the global market that were labeled ketogenic and/or [...] Read more.
Gluten-free and ketogenic bakery products are gaining momentum. This study aims to develop a better understanding of the nutritional quality of gluten-free bakery products labeled ketogenic and/or low-carb. For this reason, the products available on the global market that were labeled ketogenic and/or low-carb (n = 757) were retrieved and compared to standard gluten-free products (n = 509). Overall, nutritionally, no significant differences were found among ketogenic and/or low-carb products due the high intra-variability of each type, but they differed from standard products. Compared to standard products, all ketogenic and/or low carb, irrespective of categories, showed lower carbohydrates that derived chiefly from fibers and, to a lesser extent, from sugars. They also had higher protein contents (p < 0.05) compared to standard products. Fats was higher (p < 0.05) in ketogenic and/or low-carb baking mixes, savory biscuits, and sweet biscuits than in their standard counterparts. Saturated fats were higher (p < 0.05) in low-carb savory biscuits and breads, as well as in ketogenic sweet biscuits than in the same standard products. Overall, median values of the nutrients align with the definition of the ketogenic diet. Nevertheless, several products did not align with any of the ketogenic definitions. Therefore, consumers need to carefully read the nutritional facts and not rely on mentions such as low-cab and ketogenic to make their decision of purchase/consumption. Full article
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17 pages, 5343 KiB  
Article
Bioactive, Mineral and Antioxidative Properties of Gluten-Free Chicory Supplemented Snack: Impact of Processing Conditions
by Jelena Bokić, Jovana Kojić, Jelena Krulj, Lato Pezo, Vojislav Banjac, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Vanja Travičić, Diego A. Moreno and Marija Bodroža-Solarov
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223692 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the impact of chicory root addition (20–40%) and extrusion conditions (moisture content from 16.3 to 22.5%, and screw speed from 500 to 900 rpm) on bioactive compounds content (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, and polyphenols) of gluten-free rice snacks. Chicory [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of chicory root addition (20–40%) and extrusion conditions (moisture content from 16.3 to 22.5%, and screw speed from 500 to 900 rpm) on bioactive compounds content (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, and polyphenols) of gluten-free rice snacks. Chicory root is considered a potential carrier of food bioactives, while extrusion may produce a wide range of functional snack products. The mineral profiles were determined in all of the obtained extrudates in terms of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu contents, while antioxidative activity was established through reducing capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) tests. Chicory root addition contributed to the improvement of bioactive compounds and mineral contents, as well as antioxidative activities in all of the investigated extrudates in comparison to the pure-rice control sample. An increase in moisture content raised sesquiterpene lactones and minerals, while high screw speeds positively affected polyphenols content. The achieved results showed the important impact of the extrusion conditions on the investigated parameters and promoted chicory root as an attractive food ingredient in gluten-free snack products with high bioactive value. Full article
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14 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Development of High-Fibre and Low-FODMAP Crackers
by Kristina Radoš, Nikolina Čukelj Mustač, Katarina Varga, Saša Drakula, Bojana Voučko, Duška Ćurić and Dubravka Novotni
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172577 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
Since there are no products in the European market labelled as low-FODMAP (low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols), patients with irritable bowel syndrome and non-celiac wheat sensitivity often consume gluten-free products. These naturally contain little FODMAP, but have poorer sensory properties [...] Read more.
Since there are no products in the European market labelled as low-FODMAP (low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols), patients with irritable bowel syndrome and non-celiac wheat sensitivity often consume gluten-free products. These naturally contain little FODMAP, but have poorer sensory properties and lower nutritional value. This study aimed to develop sensory attractive crackers with high-fibre and low-FODMAP content. Various gluten-free flours (wholemeal buckwheat and millet, white maize), pumpkin seed meal, chia seeds, flax seeds, rice protein, sweet potato, sourdough, and spices were used to develop nine formulations. Using a nine-point hedonic scale and ranking test, four best-scored products were selected for which descriptive sensory analysis was performed and nutritional value and fructan content were determined. Crackers made from maize and millet flour mixtures (ratio 1:2.5) with sourdough and with chia or flax seed addition were rated highest for overall impression (8.2 and 7.0, respectively). Generally, high-fibre content, hardness, chewiness, dark colour, and bitterness lower the acceptability of crackers, but the addition of spices and sourdough can improve their acceptability and marketability. The crackers could be labelled as “gluten-free”, “low-FODMAP” (<0.12 g/100 g), “naturally high-fibre” (7–10 g/100 g of which 17–23% are soluble), and “high in protein” (24–26 g/100 g). Full article
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19 pages, 2054 KiB  
Article
Effects of Teff-Based Sourdoughs on Dough Rheology and Gluten-Free Bread Quality
by Rosen Chochkov, Daniela Savova-Stoyanova, Maria Papageorgiou, João Miguel Rocha, Velitchka Gotcheva and Angel Angelov
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071012 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Production of gluten-free bread (GFB) with good quality characteristics represents a technological challenge. Our study aimed to obtain nongluten bread from cereals and pseudocereals with applying single cultures of Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Enteroccocus durans as sourdoughs. The effect of sourdoughs [...] Read more.
Production of gluten-free bread (GFB) with good quality characteristics represents a technological challenge. Our study aimed to obtain nongluten bread from cereals and pseudocereals with applying single cultures of Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Enteroccocus durans as sourdoughs. The effect of sourdoughs on the quality traits of gluten-free (GF) dough and GFB was explored. The structural and baking properties of GF dough composed of teff, rice, corn, and sorghum flours were improved by adding xanthan gum (0.6%), guar gum (1.0%) and carboxymethyl cellulose (1.0%). The tested strains reached 108 cfu/g in teff flour and produced sourdoughs with a pleasant lactic aroma. The sourdough-fermented doughs were softer and more elastic compared to control dough and yielded reduced baking loss. Strain Enterococcus durans ensured the best baking characteristics of GF dough and the highest softness of the GFB during storage. Strain Pediococcus pentosaceus had the most pronounced positive effect on aroma, taste and aftertaste. Pan baking was found to be more appropriate to obtain stable shape and good-looking products. A careful starter culture selection is necessary for GFB development since a significant effect of strain specificity on dough rheology and baking characteristics was observed. Full article
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12 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Impact of Gluten-Free Sorghum Bread Genotypes on Glycemic and Antioxidant Responses in Healthy Adults
by Lorenza Rodrigues dos Reis Gallo, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis, Márcio Antônio Mendonça, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco and Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102256 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
Sorghum is used to provide good quality gluten-free products due to phytochemicals and low glycemic index (GI). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition, the antioxidant activity and capacity, and the glycemic and insulinemic responses of gluten-free (GF) sorghum bread. GF bread [...] Read more.
Sorghum is used to provide good quality gluten-free products due to phytochemicals and low glycemic index (GI). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition, the antioxidant activity and capacity, and the glycemic and insulinemic responses of gluten-free (GF) sorghum bread. GF bread samples were produced with three different sorghum genotypes. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition, resistant starch and dietary fiber content; antioxidant activity by ORAC; antioxidant capacity by FRAP; GI; and insulinemic responses. This double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 10 healthy men aged 28.0 ± 4.9 years (77.6 ± 11.7 kg and 24.2 ± 2.3 kg/m2). All sorghum bread showed significantly more fiber than rice bread (control). Brown sorghum bread was classified as low GI, bronze and white as medium GI, and control as high GI. Brown sorghum bread presented a low carbohydrate content, a significant amount of fiber, and a significantly lower 3 h AUC glucose response than those of the control, aside from the highest antioxidant activity value (p ≤ 0.001). Therefore, brown sorghum was superior to other genotypes analyzed in this study, and its production should be encouraged to provide gluten-free products with a better nutritional profile. More research is required to explore the effects of different sorghum genotypes in food products on human health. Full article
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23 pages, 5487 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of Enzyme Hydrolysis and Microwave Reactor Pretreatment as an Efficient Procedure for Gluten Content Reduction
by Ivana Gazikalović, Jelena Mijalković, Nataša Šekuljica, Sonja Jakovetić Tanasković, Aleksandra Đukić Vuković, Ljiljana Mojović and Zorica Knežević-Jugović
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092214 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
In this study, we assessed the effects of microwave irradiation of wheat gluten proteins as a pretreatment performed in a microwave reactor that could accurately control process parameters as a function of power and temperature, as well as comparing it with conventional heat [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed the effects of microwave irradiation of wheat gluten proteins as a pretreatment performed in a microwave reactor that could accurately control process parameters as a function of power and temperature, as well as comparing it with conventional heat treatment. The aim was to identify suitable combinations of partial enzymatic hydrolysis and microwave pretreatment parameters to produce gluten hydrolysates with reduced allergenicity and conserved techno-functional features for food application. FTIR analysis, and total and reactive SH group contents confirmed that the microwave-controlled heating can significantly change the secondary structure and conformation of gluten protein. The microwave treatment had the largest effect at 200 W and 100 °C, at which the content of gluten has been reduced by about 2.5-fold. The microwave pretreatment also accelerated the enzymatic hydrolysis of gluten, changing the kinetic profile. The apparent hydrolysis rate constants (k2) were 1.00, 3.68, 3.48, 4.64 and 4.17 min−1 for untreated gluten, and those pretreated with microwave power of 200, 400, 600 and 800 W, respectively. Compared to the heat treatment, it appeared that microwave specific non-thermal effects had a significant influence on the gluten structure and allergenicity and, in combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis, ultimately yielded protein hydrolysates with enhanced antioxidant and functional properties. Full article
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13 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Amorphophallus konjac: A Novel Alternative Flour on Gluten-Free Bread
by Fernanda Laignier, Rita de Cássia Coelho de Almeida Akutsu, Iriani Rodrigues Maldonade, Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco, Vera Sônia Nunes Silva, Marcio Antônio Mendonça, Renata Puppin Zandonadi, António Raposo and Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061206 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5195
Abstract
The demand for gluten-free products is rising, but their production with similar quality as their gluten counterparts is challenging. This study aimed to develop gluten-free bread samples using different concentrations of Amorphophallus konjac flour (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total [...] Read more.
The demand for gluten-free products is rising, but their production with similar quality as their gluten counterparts is challenging. This study aimed to develop gluten-free bread samples using different concentrations of Amorphophallus konjac flour (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total flour content) and to evaluate their nutritional and physicochemical properties. Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, moisture, ash content, fibers, resistant starch, firmness, specific volume, and color were evaluated using official methods. Protein varied from 2.95% to 4.94%, the energy value from 347.93 to 133.55 kcal/100 g, dietary fiber from 8.19 to 17.90%, and resistant starch from 0.67% to 0.75% on wet basis. The addition of konjac flour positively influenced the specific volume. Higher concentrations of konjac flour in the formulations led to lower calories of the bread due to the significant addition of water to the dough. The bread samples with konjac showed high fiber content due to the composition of the flour. They had lower levels of carbohydrates, which can positively influence the glycemic index. Konjac flour provided dough mold, growth, and better texture for gluten-free bread. The best formulations were prepared in concentrations up to 37.5% konjac. The 50% konjac bread showed slightly reduced specific volume and pale color. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 9535 KiB  
Review
Gluten-Free Bread and Bakery Products Technology
by Zuzana Šmídová and Jana Rysová
Foods 2022, 11(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030480 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 17682
Abstract
Gluten, a protein fraction from wheat, rye, barley, oats, their hybrids and derivatives, is very important in baking technology. The number of people suffering from gluten intolerance is growing worldwide, and at the same time, the need for foods suitable for a gluten-free [...] Read more.
Gluten, a protein fraction from wheat, rye, barley, oats, their hybrids and derivatives, is very important in baking technology. The number of people suffering from gluten intolerance is growing worldwide, and at the same time, the need for foods suitable for a gluten-free diet is increasing. Bread and bakery products are an essential part of the daily diet. Therefore, new naturally gluten-free baking ingredients and new methods of processing traditional ingredients are sought. The study discusses the use of additives to replace gluten and ensure the stability and elasticity of the dough, to improve the nutritional quality and sensory properties of gluten-free bread. The current task is to extend the shelf life of gluten-free bread and bakery products and thus extend the possibility of its distribution in a fresh state. This work is also focused on various technological possibilities of gluten-free bread and the preparation of bakery products. Full article
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19 pages, 1178 KiB  
Review
The Role of Hydrocolloids in Gluten-Free Bread and Pasta; Rheology, Characteristics, Staling and Glycemic Index
by Alina Culetu, Denisa Eglantina Duta, Maria Papageorgiou and Theodoros Varzakas
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123121 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 8837
Abstract
Hydrocolloids are important ingredients controlling the quality characteristics of the final bakery products. Hydrocolloids are frequently used in gluten-free (GF) recipes, mimicking some rheological properties of gluten, improving dough properties, delaying starch retrogradation and improving bread texture, appearance and stability. Hydrocolloids addition increases [...] Read more.
Hydrocolloids are important ingredients controlling the quality characteristics of the final bakery products. Hydrocolloids are frequently used in gluten-free (GF) recipes, mimicking some rheological properties of gluten, improving dough properties, delaying starch retrogradation and improving bread texture, appearance and stability. Hydrocolloids addition increases viscosity and incorporation of air into the GF dough/batter. Besides their advantages for the technological properties of the GF bread, hydrocolloids addition may impact the glycemic index (GI) of the final product, thus answering the demand of people requiring products with low GI. This review deals with the application of hydrocolloids in GF bread and pasta with a focus on their effect on dough rheology, bread hardness, specific volume, staling and GI. Full article
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16 pages, 2089 KiB  
Review
High Protein Substitutes for Gluten in Gluten-Free Bread
by Adriana Skendi, Maria Papageorgiou and Theodoros Varzakas
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091997 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 7290
Abstract
Gluten-free products have come into the market in order to alleviate health problems such as celiac disease. In this review, recent advances in gluten-free bread are described along with plant-based gluten-free proteins. A comparison with animal-based gluten-free proteins is made reporting on different [...] Read more.
Gluten-free products have come into the market in order to alleviate health problems such as celiac disease. In this review, recent advances in gluten-free bread are described along with plant-based gluten-free proteins. A comparison with animal-based gluten-free proteins is made reporting on different high protein sources of animal origin. Sea microorganisms- and insect-based proteins are also mentioned, and the optimization of the structure of gluten-free bread with added high protein sources is highlighted along with protein digestibility issues. The latter is an issue for consideration that can be manipulated by a careful design of the mixture in terms of phenolic compounds, soluble carbohydrates and fibres, but also the baking process itself. Additionally, the presence of enzymes and different hydrocolloids are key factors controlling quality features of the final product. Full article
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32 pages, 2339 KiB  
Review
Sourdough Biotechnology Applied to Gluten-Free Baked Goods: Rescuing the Tradition
by Laura Ramos, Alicia Alonso-Hernando, Miriam Martínez-Castro, Jose Alejandro Morán-Pérez, Patricia Cabrero-Lobato, Ana Pascual-Maté, Eduardo Téllez-Jiménez and Jorge R. Mujico
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071498 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5339
Abstract
Recent studies suggest that the beneficial properties provided by sourdough fermentation may be translated to the development of new GF products that could improve their technological and nutritional properties. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the current evidence regarding the [...] Read more.
Recent studies suggest that the beneficial properties provided by sourdough fermentation may be translated to the development of new GF products that could improve their technological and nutritional properties. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the current evidence regarding the elaboration of GF baked goods, and to present the latest knowledge about the so-called sourdough biotechnology. A bibliographic search of articles published in the last 12 years has been carried out. It is common to use additives, such as hydrocolloids, proteins, enzymes, and emulsifiers, to technologically improve GF products. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water fermented by an ecosystem of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts that provide technological and nutritional improvements to the bakery products. LAB-synthesized biopolymers can mimic gluten molecules. Sourdough biotechnology is an ecological and cost-effective technology with great potential in the field of GF products. Further research is necessary to optimize the process and select species of microorganisms robust enough to be competitive in any circumstance. Full article
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