Foods: 10th Anniversary

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 107599

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
Interests: food technology; food engineering; food safety; food quality; extra virgin olive oil; mycotoxins; fermented foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
AgroFood Technology Department, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Miguel Hernández University, Orihuela, Spain
Interests: dairy foods; functional dairy products: probiotics, prebiotics and fibers; effect of animal feeding on milk quality and properties; foods of animal origin; quality and product development and improvement; fatty acid analysis of foods; gas chromatography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
Interests: food emulsions; structure-function in foods; biodegradable packaging; food engineering; micro/nano encapsulation; food powders/food drying
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2021, we will celebrate the tenth volume of the journal Foods (ISSN 2304-8158), and we would be happy if you join us on this wonderful occasion.

The first volume of Foods was launched in 2012. Since its launch in 2012, the journal has established an excellent reputation as demonstrated by the rapid increase in its Impact Factor. Over the decade that has passed since the first issue, the journal has achieved a remarkable increase in the number of papers submitted to it and the papers published. Importantly for authors and publishers, this growth has been accompanied by a significant increase in citations.

The considerable success of the journal would not have been possible without the work of the journal’s professional staff, the oversight of its editors, and the quality of the authors who have chosen to publish with us. To continue this story of success and to provde authors with a journal which is recognised internationally for its quality, the publishers wish to mark this anniversary and to thank all those involved in the journal’s achievments at all levels by producing a prestigous Special Issue.

Therefore, to mark this significant milestone, a Special Issue entitled “Foods: 10th Anniversary” is being launched. This Special Issue will include high-quality papers which fall under the broad scope of the Foods Journal’s remit. We thus would like to invite you to contribute an original research paper or a comprehensive review article on a trendy or hot topic for peer-review and possible publication.

At the same time, we are pleased to announce that a “Best Paper Award” will be offered for entries submitted to the Special Issue. For more details about the award, please visit https://www.mdpi.com/journal/foods/awards.pdf/0/pdf_169_2020_4_award.pdf.

Prof. Dr. Arun K. Bhunia
Prof. Dr. Joana S. Amaral
Prof. Dr. Derek V. Byrne
Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
Dr. Esther Sendra
Prof. Dr. Benu P. Adhikari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Study of the Fermentation Characteristics of Non-Conventional Yeast Strains in Sweet Dough
by Evelyne Timmermans, Ine Langie, An Bautil, Kristof Brijs, Carolien Buvé, Ann Van Loey, Ilse Scheirlinck, Roel Van der Meulen and Christophe M. Courtin
Foods 2023, 12(4), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040830 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Despite the diverse functions of yeast, only a relatively homogenous group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is used in the baking industry. Much of the potential of the natural diversity of yeasts has not been explored, and the sensory complexity of fermented baked foods [...] Read more.
Despite the diverse functions of yeast, only a relatively homogenous group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is used in the baking industry. Much of the potential of the natural diversity of yeasts has not been explored, and the sensory complexity of fermented baked foods is limited. While research on non-conventional yeast strains in bread making is increasing, it is minimal for sweet fermented bakery products. In this study, the fermentation characteristics of 23 yeasts from the bakery, beer, wine, and spirits industries were investigated in sweet dough (14% added sucrose w/w dm flour). Significant differences in invertase activity, sugar consumption (0.78–5.25% w/w dm flour), and metabolite (0.33–3.01% CO2; 0.20–1.26% ethanol; 0.17–0.80% glycerol; 0.09–0.29% organic acids) and volatile compound production were observed. A strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001) between sugar consumption and metabolite production was measured. Several non-conventional yeast strains produced more positive aroma compounds and fewer off-flavors than the reference baker’s yeast. This study shows the potential of non-conventional yeast strains in sweet dough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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29 pages, 7959 KiB  
Article
Aquaphotomics Monitoring of Lettuce Freshness during Cold Storage
by Flora Vitalis, Jelena Muncan, Sukritta Anantawittayanon, Zoltan Kovacs and Roumiana Tsenkova
Foods 2023, 12(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020258 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
Fresh-cut leafy vegetables are one of the most perishable products because they readily deteriorate in quality even during cold storage and have a relatively short shelf life. Since these products are in high demand, methods for rigorous quality control and estimation of freshness [...] Read more.
Fresh-cut leafy vegetables are one of the most perishable products because they readily deteriorate in quality even during cold storage and have a relatively short shelf life. Since these products are in high demand, methods for rigorous quality control and estimation of freshness that are rapid and non-destructive would be highly desirable. The objective of the present research was to develop a rapid, non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based method for the evaluation of changes during cold storage of lettuce using an aquaphotomics approach to monitor the water molecular structure in lettuce leaves. The reference measurements showed that after 6 days of dark, cold storage, the weight and water activity of lettuce leaves decreased and β-carotene decreased, while chlorophylls slightly increased. Aquaphotomics characterization showed large differences in the lettuce leaves’ spectra depending on their growth zone. Difference spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed the differences in the inner and outer leaves and revealed that spectra change as a function of storage time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) allowed the prediction of the time spent in storage with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.80 and standard error of RMSE = 0.77 days for inner, and R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 0.66 days for outer leaves, respectively. The following water absorbance bands were found to provide the most information in the spectra: 1348, 1360, 1373, 1385, 1391, 1410, 1416, 1422, 1441, 1447, 1453, 1466, 1472, 1490, 1503, 1515, 1521, 1534 and 1571 nm. They were further used as water matrix coordinates (WAMACs) to define the water spectral patterns (WASPs) of lettuce leaves. The WASPs of leaves served to succinctly describe the state of lettuces during storage. The changes in WASPs during storage reveled moisture loss, damage to cell walls and expulsion of intracellular water, as well as loss of free and weakly hydrogen-bonded water, all leading to a loss of juiciness. The WASPs also showed that damage stimulated the defense mechanisms and production of vitamin C. The leaves at the end of the storage period were characterized by water strongly bound to collapsed structural elements of leaf tissues, mainly cellulose, leading to a loss of firmness that was more pronounced in the outer leaves. All of this information was reflected in the changes of absorbance in the identified WAMACs, showing that the water molecular structure of lettuce leaves accurately reflects the state of the lettuce during storage and that WASPs can be used as a multidimensional biomarker to monitor changes during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 2145 KiB  
Article
Effect of Aliphatic Aldehydes on Flavor Formation in Glutathione–Ribose Maillard Reactions
by Hao Liu, Lixin Ma, Jianan Chen, Feng Zhao, Xuhui Huang, Xiuping Dong, Beiwei Zhu and Lei Qin
Foods 2023, 12(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010217 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
The Maillard reaction (MR) is affected by lipid oxidation, the intermediate products of which are key to understanding this process. Herein, nine aliphatic aldehyde–glutathione–ribose models were designed to explore the influence of lipid oxidation products with different structures on the MR. The browning [...] Read more.
The Maillard reaction (MR) is affected by lipid oxidation, the intermediate products of which are key to understanding this process. Herein, nine aliphatic aldehyde–glutathione–ribose models were designed to explore the influence of lipid oxidation products with different structures on the MR. The browning degree, fluorescence degree, and antioxidant activity of the MR products were determined, and the generated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 108 VOCs and 596 nonvolatile compounds were detected. The principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that saturated aldehydes mainly affected the VOCs generated by the MR, while unsaturated aldehydes significantly affected the nonvolatile compounds, which changed the taste attributes of the MR products. Compared with the control group, the addition of unsaturated aldehydes significantly increased the sourness score and decreased the umami score. In addition, the addition of unsaturated aldehydes decreased the antioxidant activity and changed the composition of nonvolatile compounds, especially aryl thioethers and medium chain fatty acids, with a strong correlation with umami and sourness in the electronic tongue analysis (p < 0.05). The addition of aliphatic aldehydes reduces the ultraviolet absorption of the intermediate products of MR browning, whereas saturated aldehydes reduce the browning degree of the MR products. Therefore, the flavor components of processed foods based on the MR can be effectively modified by the addition of lipid oxidation products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 2019 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Assessment of Yeasts Strains with Probiotic Attributes for Aquaculture Use
by Camelia Filofteia Diguță, Constanța Mihai, Radu Cristian Toma, Carmen Cîmpeanu and Florentina Matei
Foods 2023, 12(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010124 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate in vitro the probiotic potential of three yeasts strains (BB06, OBT05, and MT07) isolated from agro-food natural sources. Screening was performed, including several functional, technological, and safety aspects of the yeast strains, in comparison to a reference Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate in vitro the probiotic potential of three yeasts strains (BB06, OBT05, and MT07) isolated from agro-food natural sources. Screening was performed, including several functional, technological, and safety aspects of the yeast strains, in comparison to a reference Saccharomyces boulardii, to identify the ones with suitable probiotic attributes in aquaculture. The yeast strains were identified by 5.8S rDNA-ITS region sequencing as Metschnikowia pulcherrima OBT05, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BB06, and Torulaspora delbrueckii MT07. All yeast strains were tolerant to different temperatures, sodium chloride concentrations, and wide pH ranges. S. cerevisiae BB06 showed a strong and broad antagonistic activity. Moreover, the S. cerevisiae strain exhibited a high auto-aggregation ability (92.08 ± 1.49%) and good surface hydrophobicity to hexane as a solvent (53.43%). All of the yeast strains have excellent antioxidant properties (>55%). The high survival rate in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) can promote yeast isolates as probiotics. All yeast strains presented a resistance pattern to the antibacterial antibiotics. Non-hemolytic activity was detected. Furthermore, freeze-drying with cryoprotective agents maintained a high survival rate of yeast strains, in the range of 74.95–97.85%. According to the results obtained, the S. cerevisiae BB06 strain was found to have valuable probiotic traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Potential Use of Cardunculus Biomass on Pleurotus eryngii Production: Heteroglycans Content and Nutritional Properties (Preliminary Results)
by Valerio Battaglia, Roberto Sorrentino, Giulia Verrilli, Luisa del Piano, Maria Cristina Sorrentino, Milena Petriccione, Mariarosaria Sicignano, Anna Magri, Michele Cermola, Domenico Cerrato and Ernesto Lahoz
Foods 2023, 12(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010058 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The new perspective of using waste biomass to cultivate mushrooms as a source of protein for human nutrition, in line with the circular economy principles, is receiving increasing attention in the scientific community and represents great wealth in terms of environmental sustainability. Pleurotus [...] Read more.
The new perspective of using waste biomass to cultivate mushrooms as a source of protein for human nutrition, in line with the circular economy principles, is receiving increasing attention in the scientific community and represents great wealth in terms of environmental sustainability. Pleurotus eryngii is a mushroom also known as cardunculus mushroom due to its ability to grow on this plant. This study explores the potential intrinsic properties of cardunculus (for example, the presence of inulin in the roots) as raw material for the growth of cardunculus mushrooms, and the influence on heteroglycan content and nutrition parameters of the fruiting bodies. Both mycelium and fruiting bodies were used to determine the heteroglycan content in the presence of inulin or cardunculus roots rich in inulin. To produce heteroglycans from P. eryngii in greater quantities and shorter times without having to wait for the formation of the fruiting bodies, the mycelium could be used. The results showed that the presence of cardunculus biomass positively influences the heteroglycan content of P. eryngii. In terms of nutritional parameters, higher contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were detected in P. eryngii grown on the cardunculus stem and root substrate. In conclusion, recycling cardunculus biomass to generate growth blocks for edible mushrooms is a winning choice due to the opportunity to use this biomass waste, which is gaining more and more attention due to the increase in cultivated areas and the use of fruiting bodies of P. eryngii as a functional food and source of molecules with potential biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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18 pages, 3194 KiB  
Article
Carbon Footprint: The Case of Four Chicken Meat Products Sold on the Spanish Market
by Harrison Tetteh, Alba Bala, Pere Fullana-i-Palmer, Mercè Balcells, María Margallo, Rubén Aldaco and Rita Puig
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223712 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3803
Abstract
Despite its relatively low environmental impact within the livestock sector, the poultry sector still faces its own environmental challenges that need to be addressed. The present paper uses life cycle assessment to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, from cradle to slaughterhouse gate, of four [...] Read more.
Despite its relatively low environmental impact within the livestock sector, the poultry sector still faces its own environmental challenges that need to be addressed. The present paper uses life cycle assessment to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, from cradle to slaughterhouse gate, of four chicken meat products: whole carcass, wings, breast fillets, and leg quarters. The main contribution of the present study is that it provides a detailed analysis of different chicken meat cuts, testing mass and economic allocation choices and showing that economic allocation better reflects the causality of the cutting process. We recommend that a distinction should be made between whole carcass and meat cuts, as there are significant differences in meat content and climate change results between these two categories. This is not so clear in the literature, nor in the LEAP guideline for the poultry sector. The study was performed by using disaggregated inventory data from Spain, for the first time. Results show that the major contributors to environmental impact are feed production (>70%), electricity use (10.2%), and fossil fuel combustion (8.1%). Packaging did not significantly contribute to the climate change impact of the chicken products evaluated (0.4–3.4% contribution, depending on the type of packaging and product considered). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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11 pages, 700 KiB  
Article
The Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Supplemented with Intracellular Magnesium Ions by Means of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) in the Process of Bread Production
by Urszula Pankiewicz, Ewelina Zielińska, Aldona Sobota and Anna Wirkijowska
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213496 - 3 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Bread was supplemented with magnesium through an addition of yeasts subjected to the effect of PEF at optimised parameters to obtain the maximum bioaccumulation of magnesium in cells. Bread produced with the use of yeasts supplemented with magnesium by means of PEF was [...] Read more.
Bread was supplemented with magnesium through an addition of yeasts subjected to the effect of PEF at optimised parameters to obtain the maximum bioaccumulation of magnesium in cells. Bread produced with the use of yeasts supplemented with magnesium by means of PEF was characterised by its highest content, at 39.3 mg/100 g, which was higher by 50% and 24%, respectively, compared to the control bread sample with an admixture of yeasts cultured without any addition of magnesium and with no PEF treatment and to the control bread sample with an admixture of yeasts cultured with an addition of magnesium but no PEF treatment. The addition of yeasts supplemented with magnesium using PEF in bread production did not cause any statistically significant changes in the chemical composition of any of the analysed samples. However, statistically significant changes were noted in the technological properties of breads produced with an admixture of yeasts supplemented with magnesium by means of PEF treatment. An increase of moisture to 54.03 ± 0.29% led to a reduction of the total baking loss. No statistically significant differences were noted in the bread volume in samples K1, K2, and P, varying from 239 to 269 cm3/100 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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17 pages, 6539 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Infrared Cameras to Assess the Cooling and Refrigerated Storage Temperatures of Fresh Produce
by Boran Yang, Govindaraj Dev Kumar and Kevin Mis Solval
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213440 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Populations of pathogens may increase in fresh produce when subjected to temperature abuse. Smartphone-based infrared (SBIR) cameras are potential alternatives for temperature measurements of fresh produce during postharvest handling and storage. This study compared the performance of SBIR cameras (FLIR and Seek) against [...] Read more.
Populations of pathogens may increase in fresh produce when subjected to temperature abuse. Smartphone-based infrared (SBIR) cameras are potential alternatives for temperature measurements of fresh produce during postharvest handling and storage. This study compared the performance of SBIR cameras (FLIR and Seek) against conventional temperature acquisition devices for evaluating fresh produce’s simulated hydrocooling and storage conditions. First, thermal images of fresh produce were obtained with SBIR cameras and handheld thermal imagers at ~35 °C, ~20 °C, and ~4 °C to simulate outdoor, packinghouse, and refrigerated environments, respectively. Next, fresh produce was incubated at ~42 °C for 20 h and immersed in chilled water for a hydrocooling simulation. Then, boxes containing cooled fresh produce were stored in a walk-in cooler at different heights for three days. FLIR SBIR cameras were more effective at capturing thermal images of fresh produce than Seek SBIR cameras in all evaluated conditions. More importantly, SBIR cameras accurately acquired temperature profiles of fresh produce during simulated hydrocooling and cold storage. Additionally, the accuracy and quality of thermal images obtained with FLIR cameras were better than those obtained with Seek cameras. The study demonstrated that SBIR cameras are practical, easy-to-use, and cost-effective devices to monitor fresh produce’s temperature during postharvest handling and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 809 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Flavor Compounds in Distilled Spirits: Developing a Versatile Analytical Method Suitable for Micro-Distilleries
by Quentin Barnes, Jérôme Vial, Didier Thiébaut, Clément De Saint Jores, Damien Steyer, Marie-Anne Contamin, Nicolas Papaiconomou and Xavier Fernandez
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213358 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Over the last few years, the development of micro-distilleries producing diverse spirits with various flavors has been observed. Versatile analytical techniques for the characterization of aroma compounds in such alcoholic beverages are therefore required. A model mixture embodying a theoretical distilled spirit was [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, the development of micro-distilleries producing diverse spirits with various flavors has been observed. Versatile analytical techniques for the characterization of aroma compounds in such alcoholic beverages are therefore required. A model mixture embodying a theoretical distilled spirit was made according to the data found in literature to compare usual extraction techniques. When it was applied to the model liquor, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) extraction method was preferred to the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and stir bar/headspace sorptive extraction (SBSE/HSSE) methods according to efficiency, cost, and environmental criteria. An optimization study using the model mixture showed that the extraction was optimal with a divinylbenzene/carboxen/poly(dimethylsiloxane) DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, during 60 min, at 35 °C and with the addition of 10% NaCl. This method was successfully applied to three different commercial liquors and led to the identification of 188 flavor compounds, including alcohols, esters, lactones, carbonyls, acetals, fatty acids, phenols, furans, aromatics, terpenoids, alkenes, and alkanes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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27 pages, 4203 KiB  
Article
Understanding Quality of Pinot Noir Wine: Can Modelling and Machine Learning Pave the Way?
by Parul Tiwari, Piyush Bhardwaj, Sarawoot Somin, Wendy V. Parr, Roland Harrison and Don Kulasiri
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193072 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
Wine research has as its core components the disciplines of sensory analysis, viticulture, and oenology. Wine quality is an important concept for each of these disciplines, as well as for both wine producers and consumers. Any technique that could help producers to understand [...] Read more.
Wine research has as its core components the disciplines of sensory analysis, viticulture, and oenology. Wine quality is an important concept for each of these disciplines, as well as for both wine producers and consumers. Any technique that could help producers to understand the nature of wine quality and how consumers perceive it, will help them to design even more effective marketing strategies. However, predicting a wine’s quality presents wine science modelling with a real challenge. We used sample data from Pinot noir wines from different regions of New Zealand to develop a mathematical model that can predict wine quality, and applied dimensional analysis with the Buckingham Pi theorem to determine the mathematical relationship among different chemical and physiochemical compounds. This mathematical model used perceived wine quality indices investigated by wine experts and industry professionals. Afterwards, machine learning algorithms are applied to validate the relevant sensory and chemical concepts. Judgments of wine intrinsic attributes, including overall quality, were made by wine professionals to two sets of 18 Pinot noir wines from New Zealand. This study develops a conceptual and mathematical framework to predict wine quality, and then validated these using a large dataset with machine learning approaches. It is worth noting that the predicted wine quality indices are in good agreement with the wine experts’ perceived quality ratings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 3172 KiB  
Article
Coffee Yield Stability as a Factor of Food Security
by Zsuzsanna Bacsi, Mária Fekete-Farkas and Muhammad Imam Ma’ruf
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193036 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Yield fluctuation is a major risk in all agricultural sectors, and it influences Goal 2 (food security) of the UN SDGs. Yield fluctuations are expected due to climate change, risking stable coffee supplies, and compromising coffee-exporting countries’ ability to earn revenue to pay [...] Read more.
Yield fluctuation is a major risk in all agricultural sectors, and it influences Goal 2 (food security) of the UN SDGs. Yield fluctuations are expected due to climate change, risking stable coffee supplies, and compromising coffee-exporting countries’ ability to earn revenue to pay for food imports. Technology minimizing yield fluctuations is crucial for food security and for coffee farmers to earn a stable income. Fluctuations are small if yields remain close to the mean yield trends. In this study, the coffee yields of major producers are analyzed, together with zonal temperature data, to see where coffee is grown with stable technology under rising temperatures; thus, we demonstrate the advantages of the Yield Stability Index (YSI) over traditional stability measurements in guiding policy formulation and managerial decisions. The Yield Stability Index (YSI) is applied for 1961–1994 and 1995–2020, for the world’s 12 major coffee-producing countries. The YSI indicates that of the 12 countries, only Indonesia, Honduras, and Mexico maintain stable yield levels, while Brazil and Vietnam considerably improve their yield stability, which traditional stability measures cannot grasp. Country-wise differences exist in environmental vulnerability and adaptability, with implications for food security. The novelty is the application of the YSI, and the connection between yield stability, climate change, and food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 2025 KiB  
Article
Impact of Electric Arcs and Pulsed Electric Fields on the Functional Properties of Beta-Lactoglobulin
by Rock-Seth Agoua, Laurent Bazinet, Eugène Vorobiev, Nabil Grimi and Sergey Mikhaylin
Foods 2022, 11(19), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11192992 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg) is a major whey protein with various techno-functional properties that can be improved by several treatments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the impact of green high-voltage electrical treatments (HVETs)—namely, pulsed electric fields and electric arcs—on the functional [...] Read more.
Beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg) is a major whey protein with various techno-functional properties that can be improved by several treatments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the impact of green high-voltage electrical treatments (HVETs)—namely, pulsed electric fields and electric arcs—on the functional properties of β-lg. Both emulsifying and foaming stability and capacity, as well as the hygroscopicity of non-treated and pretreated β-lg, were explored. The results demonstrated that the emulsifying capacity and stability of pretreated samples increased by 43% and 22% when compared to native β-lg, respectively. Likewise, the pretreated β-lg displayed better foaming stability compared to native β-lg. In addition, the HVETs significantly decreased the hygroscopicity of β-lg (by 48% on average), making it a good ingredient with reduced hygroscopicity for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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17 pages, 1382 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of the Fruits of European Plum Cultivar “Čačanska Lepotica” Influenced by Different Rootstocks
by Antoaneta Trendafilova, Viktoria Ivanova, Boryana Trusheva, Mariana Kamenova-Nacheva, Sava Tabakov and Svetlana Simova
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182844 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
We investigated the influence of different rootstocks on the content of sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant phenolic compounds in the whole fruit and fruit skin of the European plum cultivar “Čačanska Lepotica”. 1H NMR of the fruit extracts allowed for the identification [...] Read more.
We investigated the influence of different rootstocks on the content of sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant phenolic compounds in the whole fruit and fruit skin of the European plum cultivar “Čačanska Lepotica”. 1H NMR of the fruit extracts allowed for the identification of sucrose, α- and β-glucose, sorbitol, fructose, and malic and quinic acids, while LC–DAD–ESIMS showed the presence of neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-rutinoside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin, and unidentified quercetin-3-diglycoside. The quantitation of the sugars, malic and quinic acids by 1H NMR and phenolic compounds by HPLC–DAD revealed that the rootstock significantly influenced the content of the individual compounds in the fruit skin and fruit. The fruit grafted on “Wavit” rootstock was characterized by significant amounts of neochlorogenic acid, peonidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, and sucrose, while the fruit on “GXN-15” was characterized by high levels of sugars, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and malic and chlorogenic acids. The fruit skins of plums grafted on “Wavit” were the richest in sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds. A good correlation was observed between the content of total phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), anthocyanins (TAC), and individual phenolic compounds in the extracts of the fruit and the fruit skins and their antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Rheological and Viscoelastic Properties of Chitosan Solutions Prepared with Different Chitosan or Acetic Acid Concentrations
by Paulo José do Amaral Sobral, Gebremedhin Gebremariam, Federico Drudi, Ana Cristina De Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, Santina Romani, Pietro Rocculi and Marco Dalla Rosa
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2692; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172692 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
Chitosan (Ch) is a partially crystalline biopolymer, insoluble in pure water but soluble in acid solutions. It has attracted interest from researchers to prepare solutions using different acid types and concentrations. This research aims to study both the effect of chitosan (Ch) or [...] Read more.
Chitosan (Ch) is a partially crystalline biopolymer, insoluble in pure water but soluble in acid solutions. It has attracted interest from researchers to prepare solutions using different acid types and concentrations. This research aims to study both the effect of chitosan (Ch) or acetic acid (Ac) concentrations, at different temperatures, on rheological and viscoelastic properties of Ch solutions. To study the effect of Ch, solutions were prepared with 0.5–2.5 g Ch/100 g of solution and Ac = 1%, whereas to study the effect of Ac, the solutions were prepared with 2.0 g of Ch/100 g of solution and Ac = 0.2–1.0%. Overall, all analyzed solutions behaved as pseudoplastic fluid. The Ch strongly affected rheological properties, the consistency index (K) increased and the index flow behavior (n) decreased as a function of Ch. The activation energy, defined as the energy required for the molecule of a fluid to move freely, was low for Ch = 0.5%. The effect of Ac was less evident. Both K and n varied according to a positive and negative, respectively, parabolic model as a function of Ac. Moreover, all solutions, irrespective of Ch and Ac, behaved as diluted solutions, with G” > G’. The relaxation exponent (n”) was always higher than 0.5, confirming that these systems behaved as a viscoelastic liquid. This n” increased with Ch, but it was insensitive to Ac, being slightly higher at 45 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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11 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Eggs Derived from Japanese Quail Fed with the Fermented and Non-Fermented Rapeseed Meal
by Karolina Wengerska, Anna Czech, Sebastian Knaga, Kamil Drabik, Tomasz Próchniak, Remigiusz Bagrowski, Angelika Gryta and Justyna Batkowska
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162492 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2571
Abstract
The most popular protein source in poultry feed mixtures is soybean. However, cheaper and more available alternative protein sources are being sought, and feed manufacturers more and more often turn their attention to the post-extraction meals of local oil plants, e.g., rapeseed. Therefore, [...] Read more.
The most popular protein source in poultry feed mixtures is soybean. However, cheaper and more available alternative protein sources are being sought, and feed manufacturers more and more often turn their attention to the post-extraction meals of local oil plants, e.g., rapeseed. Therefore, the effect of fermented and non-fermented post-extraction rapeseed meal used as a feed additive for Japanese quails was investigated on the eggs’ quality. The study was performed on 280 females of Japanese quails fed with a mixture without rapeseed meal, with non-fermented post-extraction rapeseed meal (5%, 10% and 15%) and with fermented one (5%, 10% and 15%). During the experiment, eggs were collected from each group four times (every 4 weeks) and evaluated for their quality characteristics. The addition of 10% fermented rapeseed meal had the most beneficial effect on such eggs quality traits as egg weight, specific gravity, yolk index and color and albumen pH. However, in the majority of examined parameters, no significant differences were found between birds fed with soybean meal and those fed with fermented and non-fermented rapeseed meal (morphological elements proportions, yolk weight, albumen height and Haugh’s units, eggshell quality). This supports the thesis that the use of rapeseed meals instead of soybean meals may allow obtaining the proper quality of animal raw materials at a lower cost and with the use of local feed resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
14 pages, 2918 KiB  
Article
Chickpea Aquafaba-Based Emulsions as a Fat Replacer in Pound Cake: Impact on Cake Properties and Sensory Analysis
by Graziele Grossi Bovi Karatay, Ana Paula Rebellato, Caroline Joy Steel and Miriam Dupas Hubinger
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162484 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
This study evaluates the use of chickpea aquafaba (CA)-based emulsions as a potential substitute for palm oil (PO), using pound cake as a case study. The CA was characterized in terms of pH (6.38 ± 0.01), density (1.02 g mL−1 ± 0.01), [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the use of chickpea aquafaba (CA)-based emulsions as a potential substitute for palm oil (PO), using pound cake as a case study. The CA was characterized in terms of pH (6.38 ± 0.01), density (1.02 g mL−1 ± 0.01), color, total soluble solids (6.3 ± 0.2 °Bx), total solids (5.7 ± 0.2%), thermal properties through DSC, and apparent viscosity (2.5 cPa·s−1 ± 0.02 at 300 s−1). Emulsions containing 35, 30, and 25% of CA were produced and applied to cake formulation C1, C2, and C3, respectively. The cake batter was evaluated in terms of apparent density (0.87–1.04 g1 cm−3), rheology, and pH (6.6–6.8). The cakes were evaluated for specific volume, baking loss (8.9–9.5%), color, and symmetry index on day 1, and firmness, water activity (aw), and moisture content (%), after 14 days of storage. The cakes produced with the emulsions were found to have slightly higher specific volume (2.3 cm3 g−1) when compared to the control (C4) produced with PO (2.2 cm3 g−1). The moisture and aw decreased and firmness increased during storage. In terms of formulation (i.e., day 1 for C1, C2, C3, and C4), there was no significant difference for moisture. As for aw, the C4 (0.90) was significantly different from the cakes produced with emulsions (0.91–0.92). The results from the sensory evaluation, carried out with 120 panelists, showed no statistically significant difference between C3 and C4 for the attributes of aroma, color, texture, flavor, and overall impression. Based on our results, it appears that the CA-based emulsions have the potential to replace PO in pound-cake recipes, reducing total and saturated fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 7065 KiB  
Article
Rheology and Tribology of Ethylcellulose-Based Oleogels and W/O Emulsions as Fat Substitutes: Role of Glycerol Monostearate
by Ruoning Zhang, Yanhui Zhang, Jingjing Yu, Yanxiang Gao and Like Mao
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152364 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Rheological and tribological properties of oleogels and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are important for application in fat substitutes. This study investigated the roles of glycerol monostearate (GMS) in tailoring the structural, rheological and tribological properties of ethylcellulose (EC)-based oleogels and W/O emulsions as potential [...] Read more.
Rheological and tribological properties of oleogels and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are important for application in fat substitutes. This study investigated the roles of glycerol monostearate (GMS) in tailoring the structural, rheological and tribological properties of ethylcellulose (EC)-based oleogels and W/O emulsions as potential fat substitutes. The addition of GMS contributed to more round and compact oil pores in oleogel networks. The oleogel with 5% GMS had higher crystallinity, leading to solid state (lower tanδ value), mechanical reversibility (higher thixotropic recovery), but a brittle (lower critical strain) structure in the samples. GMS gave the oleogels and emulsions higher oil binding capacity, storage modulus and yield stress. Under oral processing conditions, GMS addition contributed to higher textural attributes and viscosity. Friction coefficients in mixed and boundary regions of oleogels and emulsions were reduced with the increase in GMS content from 0~2%, but increased with 5% GMS. Rheological and tribological properties of lard, mayonnaise and cream cheese can be mimicked by EC oleogels with 5% GMS, or emulsions with 2% GMS and 2–5% GMS, respectively. The study showed the potentials of oleogel and W/O emulsions in designing low-fat products by tuning the structures for healthier and better sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 2568 KiB  
Article
Storage Stability of Conventional and High Internal Phase Emulsions Stabilized Solely by Chickpea Aquafaba
by Graziele Grossi Bovi Karatay, Andrêssa Maria Medeiros Theóphilo Galvão and Miriam Dupas Hubinger
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111588 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Aquafaba is a liquid residue of cooked pulses, which is generally discarded as waste. However, it is rich in proteins and, thus, can be used as a plant-based emulsifier to structure vegetable oil. This study investigates chickpea aquafaba (CA) as an agent to [...] Read more.
Aquafaba is a liquid residue of cooked pulses, which is generally discarded as waste. However, it is rich in proteins and, thus, can be used as a plant-based emulsifier to structure vegetable oil. This study investigates chickpea aquafaba (CA) as an agent to structure different oil phase volumes (Φ) of canola oil (CO). CO was structured in the form of conventional emulsions (EΦ65% and EΦ70%) and high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) (EΦ75%) by the one-pot homogenization method. Emulsions were evaluated for a period of 60 days at 25 °C in terms of average droplet size (11.0–15.9 µm), microscopy, rheological properties, and oil loss (<1.5%). All systems presented predominantly elastic behavior and high resistance to coalescence. EΦ75% was the most stable system throughout the 60 days of storage. This study developed an inexpensive and easy to prepare potential substitute for saturated and trans-fat in food products. Moreover, it showed a valuable utilization of an often-wasted by-product and its conversion into a food ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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16 pages, 6300 KiB  
Article
Influence of Transglutaminase Crosslinking on Casein Protein Fractionation during Low Temperature Microfiltration
by Ritika Puri, Francesca Bot, Upendra Singh and James A. O’Mahony
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3146; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123146 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Low temperature microfiltration (MF) is applied in dairy processing to achieve higher protein and microbiological quality ingredients and to support ingredient innovation; however, low temperature reduces hydrophobic interactions between casein proteins and increases the solubility of colloidal calcium phosphate, promoting reversible dissociation of [...] Read more.
Low temperature microfiltration (MF) is applied in dairy processing to achieve higher protein and microbiological quality ingredients and to support ingredient innovation; however, low temperature reduces hydrophobic interactions between casein proteins and increases the solubility of colloidal calcium phosphate, promoting reversible dissociation of micellar β-casein into the serum phase, and thus into permeate, during MF. Crosslinking of casein proteins using transglutaminase was studied as an approach to reduce the permeation of casein monomers, which typically results in reduced yield of protein in the retentate fraction. Two treatments (a) 5 °C/24 h (TA) and (b) 40 °C/90 min (TB), were applied to the feed before filtration at 5 °C, with a 0.1 µm membrane. Flux was high for TA treatment possibly due to the stabilising effect of transglutaminase on casein micelles. It is likely that formation of isopeptide bonds within and on the surface of micelles results in the micelles being less readily available for protein-protein and protein–membrane interactions, resulting in less resistance to membrane pores and flow passage, thereby conferring higher permeate flux. The results also showed that permeation of casein monomers into the permeate was significantly reduced after both enzymatic treatments as compared to control feed due to the reduced molecular mobility of soluble casein, mainly β-casein, caused by transglutaminase crosslinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 379 KiB  
Article
Intention to Purchase Milk Packaged in Biodegradable Packaging: Evidence from Italian Consumers
by Antonella Cammarelle, Rosaria Viscecchia and Francesco Bimbo
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092068 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4854
Abstract
The dairy industry generates large volumes of liquid waste that can be used to produce biopolymers, potentially employable for the creation of milk biodegradable bottles. In that regard, this paper aims to explore the consumers’ intention to purchase sustainable packages, as well as [...] Read more.
The dairy industry generates large volumes of liquid waste that can be used to produce biopolymers, potentially employable for the creation of milk biodegradable bottles. In that regard, this paper aims to explore the consumers’ intention to purchase sustainable packages, as well as to assess the willingness to pay for it considering renewable packages made using organic waste feedstocks from the dairy industry (e.g., whey) and plant-based material (e.g., corn, sugarcane, etc.). To reach the stated objectives, we collected individual-level information (e.g., age, gender, education, income) from a convenient sample of 260 Italian consumers and a modified version of the Theory of Planned Behavior estimated using a structural equation model. Findings show that attitudes and perceived behavioral control are the most important drivers of the consumers’ intention to purchase sustainable packages. Finally, statistics show that respondents slightly prefer to purchase products packaged using plant-based biodegradable material, as well as most of the respondents show a low willingness to pay for milk offered in biodegradable packaging, regardless of the raw material used. Then, policymakers and companies should invest in educational/informational campaigns pointing out the beneficial effects on the environment from the purchase of foods in sustainable packaging. This may potentially increase the consumers’ intention to purchase, as well as their willingness to pay for plant-based and dairy whey-based packages by increasing the sustainability of the dairy supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Ability of Nutri-Score to Discriminate the Nutritional Quality of Prepacked Foods Using a Sale-Weighting Approach
by Edvina Hafner and Igor Pravst
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081689 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5094
Abstract
The implementation of mandatory front-of-pack nutrition labelling is currently being discussed in the European Union (EU). The Nutri-Score (NS) was developed in France to empower consumers to make informed and healthier food choices. Based on strong evidence of its efficacy in supporting healthy [...] Read more.
The implementation of mandatory front-of-pack nutrition labelling is currently being discussed in the European Union (EU). The Nutri-Score (NS) was developed in France to empower consumers to make informed and healthier food choices. Based on strong evidence of its efficacy in supporting healthy choices, it has already been implemented for voluntary use in some EU member states, making it relevant to developing a harmonised EU scheme. This study aimed to evaluate the NS’s discriminating ability on products available in the food supply and compare it with Slovenian national nutritional recommendations based on an adapted WHO Europe (WHOE) profile. The innovative approach of the study is that we used sale-weighting to address the public health importance of available foods, with consideration of market share. We profiled 15,822 products available in the Slovenian food supply in 2017. The NS had a high ability to discriminate food products based on nutritional composition. Products that are generally encouraged in dietary recommendations (fruits, vegetables, cereals) had, in most cases, better NS grades than less favourable products (confectionery, snack foods, added fats), which is also in line with the national nutrition policy programme. The discriminating ability of the model was also shown within food (sub)categories (e.g., plain and flavoured yoghurt). Sale-weighting showed that offerings do not always reflect sales. Major differences between offerings and sales were observed for beverages, dairy, fruits/vegetables, and edible oils/emulsions. Additionally, sale-weighted distribution tended towards less favourable nutritional composition, particularly in categories with overall smaller offerings of products with favourable composition. The NS showed moderate agreement with the WHOE profile (κ = 0.57); differences were particularly observed in flavoured yoghurts, juices, cooking oils, and cheeses. Modelling the operation of the NS with representative real-life food samples provided insight valuable for developing and implementing harmonised mandatory front-of-pack nutrition labelling in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

24 pages, 900 KiB  
Review
Food Credence Attributes: A Conceptual Framework of Supply Chain Stakeholders, Their Motives, and Mechanisms to Address Information Asymmetry
by Peggy Schrobback, Airong Zhang, Barton Loechel, Katie Ricketts and Aaron Ingham
Foods 2023, 12(3), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030538 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5585
Abstract
Food credence attributes (e.g., food safety, organic, and carbon neutral production methods) are quality characteristics of products that cannot be assessed by buyers at the point of sale without additional information (e.g., certification labels). Hence, the ability to access credence attributes of a [...] Read more.
Food credence attributes (e.g., food safety, organic, and carbon neutral production methods) are quality characteristics of products that cannot be assessed by buyers at the point of sale without additional information (e.g., certification labels). Hence, the ability to access credence attributes of a particular product can result in a situation termed as asymmetric distributed information among supply chain stakeholders (e.g., producers, processors, wholesalers, retailers, consumer) where one party of a market transaction is in possession of more information about a product than the other party. This situation can lead to potential inefficiencies, e.g., misinformation, risk of food borne illness, or opportunistic behavior such as fraud. The present study sought to develop a conceptual framework that describes a) the motivation for key stakeholders to participate in the market for food credence attributes, b) the type of food credence attributes that key stakeholders provide, and c) current mechanisms to address the issue of information asymmetry among the stakeholders in the food system. The study was conducted using an integrative literature review. The developed framework consists of two components: a) the food supply chain and b) the attribute assurance system among which multiple links exist. The findings suggest that retailers, processors, NGOs, and government authorities are influential stakeholders within the supply chain of food credence attributes by imposing food quality standards which can address information asymmetry among food actors. While the credence attribute assurance system (e.g., food standards, third party food attribute assurance providers) can potentially address the issue of asymmetric information among market stakeholders, a range of issues remain. These include food standards as a potential market entry barrier for food producers and distributors, limited food standard harmonization, and communication challenges of food attribute assurance (e.g., consumers’ signal processing, signal use and trust). The syntheses presented in this study contributes to stakeholders’ (e.g., supply chain actors, scientists, policy makers) improved understanding about the components of the credence food system and their integration as well as the drivers for change in this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 877 KiB  
Review
Cold-Pressed Oilseed Cakes as Alternative and Sustainable Feed Ingredients: A Review
by Slađana Rakita, Bojana Kokić, Michele Manoni, Sharon Mazzoleni, Peng Lin, Alice Luciano, Matteo Ottoboni, Federica Cheli and Luciano Pinotti
Foods 2023, 12(3), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030432 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4354
Abstract
Due to the increasing demand for alternative protein feed ingredients, the utilization of oilseed by-products in animal nutrition has been sought as a promising solution to ensure cheap and environmentally sustainable feedstuffs. This review aimed to summarize the nutritional value of six cold-pressed [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing demand for alternative protein feed ingredients, the utilization of oilseed by-products in animal nutrition has been sought as a promising solution to ensure cheap and environmentally sustainable feedstuffs. This review aimed to summarize the nutritional value of six cold-pressed cakes (rapeseed, hempseed, linseed, sunflower seed, camelina seed, and pumpkin seed) and the effects of their inclusion in diet for ruminant, pig, and poultry on nutrient digestibility, growth and productive performance, and quality of the products. The presented results indicated that these unconventional feed ingredients are a good protein and lipid source and have a balanced amino acid and fatty acid profile. However, contradictory results of animal production performances can be found in the literature depending on the cake type and chemical composition, dietary inclusion level, animal category, and trial duration. Due to the substantial amount of essential fatty acid, these cakes can be efficiently used in the production of animal products rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the utilization of cakes in pig and poultry nutrition is limited because of the presence of antinutritive factors that can deteriorate feed intake and nutrient utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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21 pages, 325 KiB  
Review
Current Advantages in the Application of Microencapsulation in Functional Bread Development
by Roberta Tolve, Federico Bianchi, Elisabetta Lomuscio, Lucia Sportiello and Barbara Simonato
Foods 2023, 12(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010096 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3357
Abstract
Bread is one of the most widely embraced food products and is highly accepted by consumers. Despite being rich in complex carbohydrates (i.e., starch), bread is generally poor in other micro- and macronutrients. Rising consumer demand for healthier food has resulted in the [...] Read more.
Bread is one of the most widely embraced food products and is highly accepted by consumers. Despite being rich in complex carbohydrates (i.e., starch), bread is generally poor in other micro- and macronutrients. Rising consumer demand for healthier food has resulted in the growth of studies focused on bread fortification with bioactive ingredients (i.e., vitamins, prebiotics, and vegetable extracts). However, the baking process leads to the reduction (or even lessening) of the added substance. In addition, the direct inclusion of bioactive compounds and additives in bread has other limitations, such as adverse effects on sensory characteristics and undesirable interaction with other food ingredients. Encapsulation allows for overcoming these drawbacks and at the same time improves the overall quality and shelf-life of bread by controlling the release, protection, and uniform distribution of these compounds. In the last ten years, several studies have shown that including micro/nano-encapsulated bioactive substances instead of free compounds allows for the enrichment or fortification of bread, which can be achieved without negatively impacting its physicochemical and textural properties. This review aims to identify and highlight useful applications in the production of new functional bread through encapsulation technology, summarizing the heath benefit and the effect of microcapsule inclusion in dough and bread from a technological and sensory point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
20 pages, 1164 KiB  
Review
Lactoferrin—The Health-Promoting Properties and Contemporary Application with Genetic Aspects
by Anna Jańczuk, Aneta Brodziak, Tomasz Czernecki and Jolanta Król
Foods 2023, 12(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010070 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3643
Abstract
The aim of the study is to present a review of literature data on lactoferrin’s characteristics, applications, and multiple health-promoting properties, with special regard to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The article presents a new approach to food ingredients. Nowadays, lactoferrin is used as an [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to present a review of literature data on lactoferrin’s characteristics, applications, and multiple health-promoting properties, with special regard to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The article presents a new approach to food ingredients. Nowadays, lactoferrin is used as an ingredient in food but mainly in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In the European Union, bovine lactoferrin has been legally approved for use as a food ingredient since 2012. However, as our research shows, it is not widely used in food production. The major producers of lactoferrin and the few available food products containing it are listed in the article. Due to anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumour activity, the possibility of lactoferrin use in disease prevention (as a supportive treatment in obesity, diabetes, as well as cardiovascular diseases, including iron deficiency and anaemia) is reported. The possibility of targeted use of lactoferrin is also presented. The use of nutrition genomics, based on the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes, for example, FTO, PLIN1, TRAP2B, BDNF, SOD2, SLC23A1, LPL, and MTHFR, allows for the effective stratification of people and the selection of the most optimal bioactive nutrients, including lactoferrin, whose bioactive potential cannot be considered without taking into account the group to which they will be given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 1481 KiB  
Review
Consumer Acceptance and Preference for Olive Oil Attributes—A Review
by Maria Elena Latino, Biagia De Devitiis, Angelo Corallo, Rosaria Viscecchia and Francesco Bimbo
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3805; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233805 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
Olive oil is largely produced in southern European countries. It encompasses a mix of search (e.g., price, color, packaging features), experience (e.g., taste), and credence attributes (e.g., organic, health claim). The importance of these attributes on consumers’ attitudes and preferences for Olive oil [...] Read more.
Olive oil is largely produced in southern European countries. It encompasses a mix of search (e.g., price, color, packaging features), experience (e.g., taste), and credence attributes (e.g., organic, health claim). The importance of these attributes on consumers’ attitudes and preferences for Olive oil has been explored quite extensively in the past. However, a recent body of literature has focused on product nutritional information and health claims in shaping consumers’ attitudes and preferences for Olive oil. This work aims to offer an updated review of consumers’ acceptance and preferences for Olive oil features. Applying the Systematic Literature Review method, a sample of 47 studies published over the last 20 years was reviewed through descriptive and content analysis. The following attributes, grouped in search, experience, and credence categories, were discussed: origin, sustainability, brand, health and safety, the production process, packaging, color, taste and flavor, and product features. The discussion of marketing and research implications closes the study. The study provides an overview of the literature background of consumer behaviors of Olive Oil, investigating the recent literature focused on product nutritional information and health claims. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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33 pages, 3203 KiB  
Review
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), a Useful Tool in Authenticity of Agricultural Products’ and Foods’ Origin
by Eleni C. Mazarakioti, Anastasios Zotos, Anna-Akrivi Thomatou, Achilleas Kontogeorgos, Angelos Patakas and Athanasios Ladavos
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3705; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223705 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 8737
Abstract
Fraudulent practices are the first and foremost concern of food industry, with significant consequences in economy and human’s health. The increasing demand for food has led to food fraud by replacing, mixing, blending, and mislabeling products attempting to increase the profits of producers [...] Read more.
Fraudulent practices are the first and foremost concern of food industry, with significant consequences in economy and human’s health. The increasing demand for food has led to food fraud by replacing, mixing, blending, and mislabeling products attempting to increase the profits of producers and companies. Consequently, there was the rise of a multidisciplinary field which encompasses a large number of analytical techniques aiming to trace and authenticate the origins of agricultural products, food and beverages. Among the analytical strategies have been developed for the authentication of geographical origin of foodstuff, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) increasingly dominates the field as a robust, accurate, and highly sensitive technique for determining the inorganic elements in food substances. Inorganic elements are well known for evaluating the nutritional composition of food products while it has been shown that they are considered as possible tracers for authenticating the geographical origin. This is based on the fact that the inorganic component of identical food type originating from different territories varies due to the diversity of matrix composition. The present systematic literature review focusing on gathering the research has been done up-to-date on authenticating the geographical origin of agricultural products and foods by utilizing the ICP-MS technique. The first part of the article is a tutorial about food safety/control and the fundaments of ICP-MS technique, while in the second part the total research review is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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17 pages, 314 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Peptides Obtained from Legume Seeds as New Compounds in Metabolic Syndrome Prevention and Diet Therapy
by Kaja Kiersnowska and Anna Jakubczyk
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203300 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Currently, food is regarded not only as a source of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals but also as a source of bioactive compounds that can play a significant role in the prevention and diet therapy of many diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex [...] Read more.
Currently, food is regarded not only as a source of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals but also as a source of bioactive compounds that can play a significant role in the prevention and diet therapy of many diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex disorder defined as a set of interrelated factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, or dyslipidemia. MS affects not only adults but also children. Peptides are one of the compounds that exhibit a variety of bioactive properties. They are derived from food proteins, which are usually obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis or digestion in the digestive system. Legume seeds are a good source of bioactive peptides. In addition to their high protein content, they contain high levels of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. The aim of this review is to present new bioactive peptides derived from legume seeds and showing inhibitory properties against MS. These compounds may find application in MS diet therapy or functional food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
25 pages, 2432 KiB  
Review
Degradation of Residual Herbicide Atrazine in Agri-Food and Washing Water
by Junting Hong, Nadia Boussetta, Gérald Enderlin, Franck Merlier and Nabil Grimi
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162416 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3106
Abstract
Atrazine, an herbicide used to control grassy and broadleaf weed, has become an essential part of agricultural crop protection tools. It is widely sprayed on corn, sorghum and sugar cane, with the attendant problems of its residues in agri-food and washing water. If [...] Read more.
Atrazine, an herbicide used to control grassy and broadleaf weed, has become an essential part of agricultural crop protection tools. It is widely sprayed on corn, sorghum and sugar cane, with the attendant problems of its residues in agri-food and washing water. If ingested into humans, this residual atrazine can cause reproductive harm, developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity. It is therefore important to find clean and economical degradation processes for atrazine. In recent years, many physical, chemical and biological methods have been proposed to remove atrazine from the aquatic environment. This review introduces the research works of atrazine degradation in aqueous solutions by method classification. These methods are then compared by their advantages, disadvantages, and different degradation pathways of atrazine. Moreover, the existing toxicological experimental data for atrazine and its metabolites are summarized. Finally, the review concludes with directions for future research and major challenges to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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22 pages, 654 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Alternative Protein Sources: Highlights on Meat, Fish, Egg and Dairy Analogues
by Miguel Lima, Rui Costa, Ivo Rodrigues, Jorge Lameiras and Goreti Botelho
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142053 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6796
Abstract
The research and development of alternatives to meat (including fish) and dairy products for human consumption have been increasing in recent years. In the context of these alternatives, there is a diversity of products such as tofu, tempeh, seitan, pulses, algae, seeds, nuts [...] Read more.
The research and development of alternatives to meat (including fish) and dairy products for human consumption have been increasing in recent years. In the context of these alternatives, there is a diversity of products such as tofu, tempeh, seitan, pulses, algae, seeds, nuts and insects. Apart from these, some products require new technical processes such as needed by milk drink alternatives, mycoprotein and meat, cheese and fish analogues. The aim of these analogues is to mimic the physical and organoleptic properties of animal origin products through fibrous composition and mix of ingredients from vegetable sources using adequate technology, which allow providing similar texture and flavor. Using a narrative approach to review literature, the objectives of this paper are to systematize the arguments supporting the adoption of meat, eggs and dairy alternatives, to identify the diversity of alternatives to these products on the market, including the related technological processes, and to project the challenges that the food industry may face soon. From a total of 302 scientific papers identified in databases, 186 papers were considered. More research papers on products associated with alternatives to milk were found. Nevertheless, there are products that need more research as analogues to meat and dairy products. A general scheme that brings together the main reasons, resources and challenges that the food industry faces in this promising area of alternatives to meat and dairy products is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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11 pages, 724 KiB  
Systematic Review
‘Nutritional Footprint’ in the Food, Meals and HoReCa Sectors: A Review
by Inmaculada Zarzo, Carla Soler, Maria-Angeles Fernandez-Zamudio, Tatiana Pina, Héctor Barco and Jose M. Soriano
Foods 2023, 12(2), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020409 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
Nowadays, the food industry is integrating environmental, social, and health parameters to increase its sustainable impact. To do this, they are using new tools to calculate the potential efficiency of nutritional products with lower levels of environmental impact. One of these tools is [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the food industry is integrating environmental, social, and health parameters to increase its sustainable impact. To do this, they are using new tools to calculate the potential efficiency of nutritional products with lower levels of environmental impact. One of these tools is called the ‘nutritional footprint’, created by Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH. This study aims to review this concept and clarify its historical development, its use in several sectors of the food industry, and its transformation from a manual to an online tool. Results reflected that it is a suitable indicator that integrates nutritional, environmental, and social-economic dimensions to help the decision-making process in the procurement of more sustainable products and, although it is limited to Germany due to the use of the national standard nutritional intakes of Germany, its importance lies in the fact that is a promising instrument to promote environmental sustainability in the context of food, meals, and the hotel, restaurant and catering (HoReCa) sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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21 pages, 1285 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effects of the Microbial Biostimulants Approved by EU Regulation 2019/1009 on Yield and Quality of Vegetable Crops
by Giovanna Marta Fusco, Rosalinda Nicastro, Youssef Rouphael and Petronia Carillo
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172656 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3902
Abstract
The use of microbial biostimulants such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has gained popularity in recent years as a sustainable approach to boost yield as well as the quality of produce. The beneficial effects of microbial biostimulants have [...] Read more.
The use of microbial biostimulants such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has gained popularity in recent years as a sustainable approach to boost yield as well as the quality of produce. The beneficial effects of microbial biostimulants have been reported numerous times. However, information is missing concerning quantitative assessment of the overall impact of microbial biostimulants on the yield and quality of vegetable crops. Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive, semi-systematic review of the effects of microbial biostimulants allowed by Regulation (EU) 2019/1009, including microorganisms belonging to the AMF (phylum Glomeromycota), or to Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Rhizobium genera, on vegetable crops’ quality and yield, with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria based on the PRISMA method. We identified, selected and critically evaluated all the relevant research studies from 2010 onward in order to provide a critical appraisal of the most recent findings related to these EU-allowed microbial biostimulants and their effects on vegetable crops’ quality and yield. Moreover, we highlighted which vegetable crops received more beneficial effects from specific microbial biostimulants and the protocols employed for plant inoculation. Our study is intended to draw more attention from the scientific community to this important instrument to produce nutrient-dense vegetables in a sustainable manner. Finally, our semi-systematic review provides important microbial biostimulant application guidelines and gives extension specialists and vegetable growers insights into achieving an additional benefit from microbial biostimulant application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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