Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 15577

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
Interests: food technology; food engineering; food safety; food quality; extra virgin olive oil; mycotoxins; fermented foods
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Guest Editor
Department of Dentistry, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: dental biomaterials; restorative dentistry; professional aspects of dentistry (dentistry in unprivileged groups, holistic treatments in caries prevention and diet, dental management, marketing, and dental coaching)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a wealth of existing knowledge about the process of fermentation, since many foods are fermented worldwide, either naturally or by the addition of specific compounds.

Different fermented foods can be found around the world, in nations from Indonesia and South Korea to Greece and Germany, Brazil and Mexico.

The diversity of microorganisms is involved in this process is vast. One such microorganism is lactic acid bacteria, which plays a key role by providing an antibacterial effect.

The goal of this Special Issue is to highlight this diversity of microorganisms along with the evaluation of different foods possessing key roles in fermentation.

Moreover, nutritional, health and oral health aspects are well communicated and explained in terms of the prevention of diseases.

Finally, the mechanisms by which fermented foods confer their antibacterial effects are well discussed.

Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
Dr. Antoniadou Maria
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fermentation
  • microbiome
  • food safety
  • food security
  • health
  • oral health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial: Special Issue “Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food”
by Maria Antoniadou and Theodoros Varzakas
Microorganisms 2023, 11(5), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11051219 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The goal of this Special Issue was to highlight the diversity of microorganisms associated with fermented foods and their potential key roles in fermentation [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food)

Research

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15 pages, 2457 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Complexity of Traditional Mountain Butter Is Affected by the Malga-Farm of Production
by Silvia Schiavon, Mauro Paolini, Raffaele Guzzon, Andrea Mancini, Roberto Larcher, Tomas Roman Villegas and Elena Franciosi
Microorganisms 2022, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010017 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Bacteria can play different roles affecting flavors and food characteristics. Few studies have described the bacterial microbiota of butter. In the present paper, next-generation sequencing was used to determine bacterial diversity, together with aromatic characteristics, in raw cow milk butter processed by traditional [...] Read more.
Bacteria can play different roles affecting flavors and food characteristics. Few studies have described the bacterial microbiota of butter. In the present paper, next-generation sequencing was used to determine bacterial diversity, together with aromatic characteristics, in raw cow milk butter processed by traditional fermentation, in fourteen small farms called “Malga”, located in the Trentino province (Alpine region, North-East of Italy). The physicochemical and aromatic characterization of traditional mountain butter (TMB) showed a low moisture level depending on the Malga producing the butter. Counts of lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococci, and coliforms, as well as diacetyl/acetoin concentrations exhibited changes according to the geographical origin of Malga and the residual humidity of butter. MiSeq Illumina data analysis revealed that the relative abundance of Lactococcus was higher in TMB samples with the highest values of acetoin (acetoin higher than 10 mg/kg). The traditional mountain butter bacterial community was characterized by a “core dominance” of psychrotrophic genera, mainly Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas, but according to ANCOM analysis, a complex bacterial population emerged and specific bacterial genera were able to characterize the TMB bacteria community, with their high abundance, based on the Malga producing the butter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food)
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16 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Community and Anti-Cerebrovascular Disease-Related Bacillus Species Isolated from Traditionally Made Kochujang from Different Provinces of Korea
by Gwangsu Ha, Hee-Jong Yang, Myeong-Seon Ryu, Su-Ji Jeong, Do-Youn Jeong and Sunmin Park
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112238 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Traditionally made Kochujang (TMK) is a long-term fermented soybean and rice mixture with red pepper and salts. The ambient bacteria in rice straw and nutrient components of Kochujang influence the bacteria community. We aimed to investigate the bacterial composition and quality of TMK [...] Read more.
Traditionally made Kochujang (TMK) is a long-term fermented soybean and rice mixture with red pepper and salts. The ambient bacteria in rice straw and nutrient components of Kochujang influence the bacteria community. We aimed to investigate the bacterial composition and quality of TMK from different provinces of Korea: Chungcheung (CC), Jeolla (JL), Kyungsang (KS), and GeongGee plus Kangwon (GK) provinces, and Jeju island (JJ). Furthermore, Bacillus spp. isolated from TMK were studied to have anti-cerebrovascular disease activity and probiotic properties. Seventy-three TMK samples from different regions were collected to assess the biogenic amine contents, bacteria composition using next-generation methods, and bacterial functions using Picrust2. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the collected TMK, and their antioxidant, fibrinolytic, and angiotensin I conversion enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities and probiotic properties were examined. KS TMK had lower sodium contents than the other TMK. There were no significant differences in histamine and tyramine contents among the TMK samples in different provinces. The predominant bacteria in TMK was Bacillus spp., but KS included much less Bacillus spp. and higher Enterococcus and Staphylococcus than the other TMK. Gene expression related to lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis was higher in KS TMK than the other TMK in Picrust2. The predominant Bacillus spp. isolated from TMK was B. subtilis and B. velezensis. B. subtilis SRCM117233, SRCM117245, and SRCM117253 had antioxidant activity, whereas B. subtilis had higher fibrinolytic activity than other Bacillus spp. Only B. velezensis SRCM117254, SRCM117311, SRCM117314, and SRCM117318 had over 10% ACE inhibitory activity. In conclusion, KS had less Bacillus related to lower sodium contents than the other TMK. The specific strains of B. subtilis and B. velezensis had antioxidant, fibrinolytic, and ACE inhibitory activity, and they can be used as a starter culture to produce better quality controlled Kochujang with anti-cerebrovascular disease activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food)
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Review

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26 pages, 43510 KiB  
Review
Novel Insights for Metabiotics Production by Using Artisanal Probiotic Cultures
by Marina Pihurov, Bogdan Păcularu-Burada, Mihaela Cotârleţ, Mihaela Aida Vasile and Gabriela Elena Bahrim
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112184 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5120
Abstract
Wild probiotic consortia of microorganisms (bacteria and yeasts) associated in the artisanal cultures’ microbiota (milk kefir grains, water kefir grains and kombucha) are considered valuable promoters for metabiotics (prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics and paraprobiotics) production. The beneficial effects of the fermented products obtained with [...] Read more.
Wild probiotic consortia of microorganisms (bacteria and yeasts) associated in the artisanal cultures’ microbiota (milk kefir grains, water kefir grains and kombucha) are considered valuable promoters for metabiotics (prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics and paraprobiotics) production. The beneficial effects of the fermented products obtained with the artisanal cultures on human well-being are described by centuries and the interest for them is continuously increasing. The wild origin and microbial diversity of these above-mentioned consortia give them extraordinary protection capacity against microbiological contaminants in unusual physico-chemical conditions and unique fermentative behaviour. This review summarizes the state of the art for the wild artisanal cultures (milk and water kefir grains, respectively, kombucha—SCOBY), their symbiotic functionality, and the ability to ferment unconventional substrates in order to obtain valuable bioactive compounds with in vitro and in vivo beneficial functional properties. Due to the necessity of the bioactives production and their use as metabiotics in the modern consumer’s life, artisanal cultures are the perfect sources able to biosynthesize complex functional metabolites (bioactive peptides, antimicrobials, polysaccharides, enzymes, vitamins, cell wall components). Depending on the purposes of the biotechnological fermentation processes, artisanal cultures can be used as starters on different substrates. Current studies show that the microbial synergy between bacteria—yeast and/or bacteria—offers new perspectives to develop functional products (food, feeds, and ingredients) with a great impact on life quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food)
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24 pages, 2996 KiB  
Review
Maintaining Digestive Health in Diabetes: The Role of the Gut Microbiome and the Challenge of Functional Foods
by Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Elisavet Stavropoulou, Konstantina Kantartzi, Christina Tsigalou, Chrysa Voidarou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Ioanna Prapa, Valentini Santarmaki, Vasiliki Kompoura, Amalia E. Yanni, Maria Antoniadou, Theodoros Varzakas and Yiannis Kourkoutas
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030516 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4043
Abstract
Over the last decades, the incidence of diabetes has increased in developed countries and beyond the genetic impact, environmental factors, which can trigger the activation of the gut immune system, seem to affect the induction of the disease process. Since the composition of [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, the incidence of diabetes has increased in developed countries and beyond the genetic impact, environmental factors, which can trigger the activation of the gut immune system, seem to affect the induction of the disease process. Since the composition of the gut microbiome might disturb the normal interaction with the immune system and contribute to altered immune responses, the restoration of normal microbiota composition constitutes a new target for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Thus, the interaction of gut microbiome and diabetes, focusing on mechanisms connecting gut microbiota with the occurrence of the disorder, is discussed in the present review. Finally, the challenge of functional food diet on maintaining intestinal health and microbial flora diversity and functionality, as a potential tool for the onset inhibition and management of the disease, is highlighted by reporting key animal studies and clinical trials. Early onset of the disease in the oral cavity is an important factor for the incorporation of a functional food diet in daily routine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity of Fermented Food)
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