Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Food Science and Functional Foods (Foods 2020)"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 19155

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Christopher John Smith
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Visiting Professor, Faculty of Clinical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Chester, Chester, UK
Interests: immunoassays for food analysis; rheology; allergy; functional foods
Dr. Marlene Cran
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Institute for Sustainable Industries and Livable Cities, Victoria University Melbourne, PO Box 14428, Melbourne 8001, Australia
Interests: active antimicrobial and biodegradable packaging; polymer science; wastewater treatment; biomass and waste valorization
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Dr. Diego A. Moreno
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1. Phytochemistry and Healthy Foods Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, National Council for Scientific Research (CEBAS-CSIC), Murcia, Spain
2. Associated Unit of R&D and Innovation CEBAS-CSIC+UPCT on “Quality and Risk Assessment of Foods”, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Espinardo - 25, E-30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: food science and technology; phytochemistry; bioactive compounds; health-promoters, functional ingredients; natural foods; healthy foods; energy metabolism (obesity and diabetes); human nutrition; wellbeing
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Prof. Dr. Katrina Campbell
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Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK
Interests: food safety; food security and sustainability; aquaculture; feed and food; natural toxins; drug residues; antibiotics; chemical contaminants; climate change; (bio) analytical chemistry; biosensors; diagnostics; immunoassays; mass spectrometry
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Prof. Dr. Ursula Andrea Gonzales-Barron
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CIMO Mountain Research Center, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Santa Apolónia Campus, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: predictive microbiology; quantitative risk assessment; meta-analysis; statistical quality control; Bayesian applications; experimental designs; shelf-life determination
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Prof. Dr. Antonello Paparella
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Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture, and Environment, University of Teramo, Via Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: Listeria monocytogenes; food microbiology; foodborne diseases; food safety; antimicrobials; food preservation; milk; meat; seafood
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Prof. Dr. Charles Brennan
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School of Science, RMIT University, GP.O. Box 2474, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
Interests: polysaccharide utilization; glycemic response; dietary fibre; food structure and function
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Dr. Antonio Cilla
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Nutrition and Food Science Area, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Avda. Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: functional foods; bioactive compounds; antioxidant capacity; sterols; phytochemicals; bioaccessibility; bioavailability; bioactivity; cell cultures; chemoprevention; oxidative stress; eryptosis
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Dr. Han-Seok Seo
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of the 1st International Electronic Conference on Food Science and Functional Foods (Foods 2020), held on 10–25 November 2020, on foods_2020.sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

Through Foods 2020, we aim to provide leading scientists working in the field of food research with a brand-new tool for sharing research in an online environment that will preserve the same standards and structure as expected of traditional conferences but which will be more inclusive by breaking the cost and time barriers that prevent participation in international conferences. The conference has been divided into 10 themes, as listed below:

  • Session 1: Novel Technologies in Food Technology
  • Session 2: Food Packaging and New Packaging Materials
  • Session 3: Food Preservation: Basics and Methods
  • Session 4: Food Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Session 5: Food Safety and Sustainable Development
  • Session 6: Food Texture—Sensory Evaluation and Instrumental Measurement
  • Session 7: Consumer Preferences and Food Choices
  • Session 8: Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods
  • Session 9: Innovative Food Additives and Ingredients
  • Session 10: Nutrition and Health Claims

Selected papers that have attracted the most interest on the web or that provide a particularly innovative contribution have been gathered for publication. These papers have been subjected to peer review and are published with the aim of a rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications. We hope this Conference Series will grow rapidly in the future and become recognized as a new way and venue by which to present new developments related to the field of food science and functional foods.

Prof. Dr. Christopher J. Smith
Prof. Dr. Benu P. Adhikari
Dr. Diego A. Moreno
Prof. Dr. Katrina Campbell
Prof. Dr. Ursula Andrea Gonzales-Barron
Prof. Dr. Antonello Paparella
Prof. Dr. Charles Brennan
Prof. Dr. Antonio Cilla
Dr. Han-Seok Seo
Prof. Dr. Brijesh K. Tiwari

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Influence of the Initial Cell Number on the Growth Fitness of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw and Pasteurized Liquid Whole Egg, Egg White, and Egg Yolk
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071621 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Salmonella growth in egg and egg products has been widely studied, but there are still some aspects that are not fully known. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the initial cell number on the growth fitness of Salmonella [...] Read more.
Salmonella growth in egg and egg products has been widely studied, but there are still some aspects that are not fully known. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the initial cell number on the growth fitness of Salmonella Enteritidis in raw and pasteurized egg products. Growth curves of five Salmonella Enteritidis strains in raw and pasteurized egg products, starting from different initial numbers, were obtained and fitted to the Baranyi and Roberts model. The results revealed that lower initial numbers led to longer lag phases (λ) and lower maximum specific growth rates (μmax) in raw liquid whole egg. Similar results were observed in raw egg white (except for one strain). Conversely, no influence (p > 0.05) of the initial concentration on Salmonella growth parameters in raw egg yolk was observed. On the other hand, no influence of the initial number of cells on Salmonella growth fitness in commercial pasteurized liquid whole egg was observed. The results obtained demonstrate that the disappearance of this initial-dose dependency phenomenon was dependent on the intensity of the thermal treatment applied. Finally, the influence of the initial number was, in general, lower in pasteurized than in raw egg white, but large differences among strains were observed. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Chemical, Physicochemical, and Lipid Stability Properties of Gelled Emulsions Elaborated with Different Oils Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) or Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and Pseudocereals
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071463 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Gelled emulsion (GE) systems are one of the novel proposals for the reformulation of meat products with healthier profiles. The aims of this research were (i) to develop gelled emulsions using pseudocereal flours (amaranth, buckwheat, teff, and quinoa) and vegetable oils (chia oil, [...] Read more.
Gelled emulsion (GE) systems are one of the novel proposals for the reformulation of meat products with healthier profiles. The aims of this research were (i) to develop gelled emulsions using pseudocereal flours (amaranth, buckwheat, teff, and quinoa) and vegetable oils (chia oil, hemp oil, and their combination), (ii) to determine their chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and lipid stability, and (iii) to evaluate their stability during frozen storage. The results showed that GEs are technologically viable except for the sample elaborated with teff flour and a mix of oils. The lipid oxidation was not greater than 2.5 mg malonaldehyde/kg of sample for any of the samples analyzed. The physicochemical properties analyzed showed both the pH and color values of the GEs within the range of values obtained for the fat of animal origin. The texture properties were affected by the type of oil added; in general, the firmness and the work of shear increased with the addition of the mixture of both oils. The samples elaborated with buckwheat and chia oil and quinoa and chia oil had the highest emulsion stability values, which remained among the highest after freezing. The results showed that gelled emulsions, based on chia oil, hemp, and their mixture with pseudocereal flours, are a viable alternative as a possible substitute of saturated fat in the development of novel foods. Full article
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Article
Comparing the Antimicrobial Actions of Greek Honeys from the Island of Lemnos and Manuka Honey from New Zealand against Clinically Important Bacteria
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061402 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Honey is a natural food with a long history as a traditional medicine because of its many biological characteristics, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the antimicrobial actions of eight different honeys from Lemnos island (north-eastern Greece) plus manuka [...] Read more.
Honey is a natural food with a long history as a traditional medicine because of its many biological characteristics, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the antimicrobial actions of eight different honeys from Lemnos island (north-eastern Greece) plus manuka honey (from New Zealand, UMF 30+, licensed in many countries as topical medical preparation) were evaluated against 10 clinically relevant bacteria, including five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative. To achieve this, an agar well diffusion assay measured the diameter of inhibition zones (mm) of two selected concentrations for each honey (25% and 12.5% v/v). The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of each sample were also calculated and compared against two representative bacterial species (Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus) using broth microdilution and agar spot methods, respectively. The pH, water activity (aw), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and diastase levels, together with the pollen type and content of each honey, were also determined. Results revealed that all the Lemnos honeys presented antibacterial action, which for some samples was like that of manuka. These all had an acidic pH (3.61 ± 0.04), with a aw ≤ 0.60, while it is worth noting that those found to display the strongest antibacterial actions also presented the lowest HMF content, together with the highest diastase values, both of the latter being used as quality parameters. Pollen composition of the Lemnos honeys was multifloral, underlining the rich plant biodiversity encountered on the island. To summarize, Lemnos honeys could be further exploited as natural antimicrobial systems for use in foods and medicine. Full article
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Article
Isolation and Identification of Natural Colorant Producing Soil-Borne Aspergillus niger from Bangladesh and Extraction of the Pigment
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061280 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Natural colorants have been used in several ways throughout human history, such as in food, dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and many other products. The study aimed to isolate the natural colorant-producing filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger from soil and extract pigments for its potential use [...] Read more.
Natural colorants have been used in several ways throughout human history, such as in food, dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and many other products. The study aimed to isolate the natural colorant-producing filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger from soil and extract pigments for its potential use specially for food production. Fourteen soil samples were collected from Madhupur National Park at Madhupur Upazila in the Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. The Aspergillus niger was isolated and identified from the soil samples by following conventional mycological methods (cultural and morphological characteristics), followed by confirmatory identification by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of conserved sequences of ITS1 ribosomal DNA using specific oligonucleotide primers. This was followed by genus- and species-specific primers targeting Aspergillus niger with an amplicon size of 521 and 310 bp, respectively. For pigment production, a mass culture of Aspergillus niger was conducted in Sabouraud dextrose broth in shaking conditions for seven days. The biomass was subjected to extraction of the pigments following an ethanol-based extraction method and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Aspergillus niger could be isolated from three samples. The yield of extracted brown pigment from Aspergillus niger was 0.75% (w/v). Spectroscopic analysis of the pigments was carried out using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer. An in vivo experiment was conducted with mice to assess the toxicity of the pigments. From the colorimetric and sensory evaluations, pigment-supplemented products (cookies and lemon juice) were found to be more acceptable than the control products. This could be the first attempt to use Aspergillus niger extracted pigment from soil samples in food products in Bangladesh, but for successful food production, the food colorants must be approved by a responsible authority, e.g., the FDA or the BSTI. Moreover, fungal pigments could be used in the emerging fields of the food and textile industries in Bangladesh. Full article
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Article
Effect of Adding Resistant Maltodextrin to Pasteurized Orange Juice on Bioactive Compounds and Their Bioaccessibility
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061198 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) is a water-soluble and fermentable functional fiber. RMD is a satiating prebiotic, reducer of glucose and triglycerides in the blood, and promoter of good gut health, and its addition to food is increasingly frequent. Therefore, it is necessary to study [...] Read more.
Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) is a water-soluble and fermentable functional fiber. RMD is a satiating prebiotic, reducer of glucose and triglycerides in the blood, and promoter of good gut health, and its addition to food is increasingly frequent. Therefore, it is necessary to study its potential effects on intrinsic bioactive compounds of food and their bioaccessibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding RMD on the bioactive compounds of pasteurized orange juice with and without pulp, and the bioaccessibility of such compounds. RMD was added at different concentrations: 0 (control sample), 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%. Ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin C were analyzed using HPLC, whereas total phenols, total carotenoids (TC), and antioxidant capacity were measured using spectrophotometry. After that, sample in vitro digestibility was assessed using the standardized static in vitro digestion method. The control orange juice with pulp presented significantly higher values of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity than the control orange juice without pulp (p < 0.05). RMD addition before the juice pasteurization process significantly protected all bioactive compounds, namely total phenols, TC, AA, and vitamin C, as well as the antioxidant capacity (AC) (p < 0.05). Moreover, this bioactive compound protective effect was higher when higher RMD concentrations were added. However, RMD addition improved phenols and vitamin C bioaccessibility but decreased TC and AA bioaccessibility. Therefore, the AC value of samples after gastrointestinal digestion was slightly decreased by RMD addition. Moreover, orange pulp presence decreased total phenols and TC bioaccessibility but increased AA and vitamin C bioaccessibility. Full article
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Article
Modelling the Effects of Roselle Extract, Potato Peel Flour, and Beef Fat on the Sensory Properties and Heterocyclic Amines Formation of Beef Patties Studied by Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061184 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are compounds with carcinogenic potential formed during high-temperature processing of meat and meat products. Vegetables or their extracts with high antioxidant capacity can be incorporated into the meat matrix to reduce their formation, but it is necessary to find the [...] Read more.
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are compounds with carcinogenic potential formed during high-temperature processing of meat and meat products. Vegetables or their extracts with high antioxidant capacity can be incorporated into the meat matrix to reduce their formation, but it is necessary to find the optimal levels to achieve maximum inhibition without affecting the sensory properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of roselle extract (RE, 0–1%), potato peel flour (PP, 0–2%), and beef fat (BF, 0–15%) on the sensory properties and formation of HCAs in beef patties using response surface methodology. IQx, IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP were identified and quantified by HPLC. Regression models were developed to predict sensory properties and HCAs’ formation. All models were significant (p < 0.05) and showed a R2 > 0.70. Roselle extract and beef fat had a negative linear effect on the formation of the total HCAs, while PP had a positive linear effect. The optimal formula that minimizes the formation of HCAs included 0.63% RE, 0.99% PP, and 11.96% BF. RE and PP are foods that can be used as ingredients in low-fat beef patties to minimize the formation of HCAs without affecting their sensory properties. Full article
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Article
Characterization and Discrimination of Commercial Portuguese Beers Based on Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051144 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
Beer has been highly appreciated due to its phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity conjugated with its low alcohol content. Although some studies exist regarding the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacities of beers, there are no studies related to the determination of these parameters [...] Read more.
Beer has been highly appreciated due to its phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity conjugated with its low alcohol content. Although some studies exist regarding the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacities of beers, there are no studies related to the determination of these parameters in the most commonly consumed commercial beers in Portugal. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of 23 Portuguese commercial beers of different styles and types were studied for the first time. The total phenolic content, ortho-diphenols, and flavonoids ranged between 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.82 ± 0.07 g Gallic Acid (GA) L−1; 0.07 ± 0.02 and 1.80 ± 0.09 g GA L−1, and 0.02 ± 0.00 and 0.15 ± 0.02 g Catechin (CAT) L−1, respectively. An accurate quantitative phenolic analysis was also performed, and the compound identified with a higher amount was gallic acid, followed by syringic acid. Concerning flavonoids, gallo-catechin was the most abundant compound identified (from 21.44 ± 2.87 and 144.00 ± 10.93 μg mL−1). A significant correlation between ortho-diphenols and the antiradical capacity (ABTS and DPPH) was found, the latter being negatively correlated. Flavonoids content was also positively correlated with total phenols and antiradical capacity determined by the ABTS assay. These results evidence that phenolic composition is affected by several factors inherent to beers, namely ingredients, fermentation type, and brewing process. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Quality Parameters of Seven Processing Type Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan Plains
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051138 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The eastern sub-Himalayan plain of India is a popular potato growing belt in which vast scope exists to introduce processing grade cultivars. The selection and introduction of a better quality processing grade cultivar in this region may pave the way for the processing [...] Read more.
The eastern sub-Himalayan plain of India is a popular potato growing belt in which vast scope exists to introduce processing grade cultivars. The selection and introduction of a better quality processing grade cultivar in this region may pave the way for the processing industries. Keeping these in the backdrop, this study was conducted at Instructional Farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya (UBKV), Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India under eastern sub-Himalayan plains during winter seasons of 2016–17 and 2017–18 in which seven processing type potato cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-3, Kufri Chipsona-4, Kufri Frysona, Kufri Himsona, Kufri Surya and Kufri Chandramukhi) were evaluated in terms of different quality parameters pre-requisite for chips processing viz., dry matter content, specific gravity, starch content, chips colour score, crispiness and hardness of chips through randomised complete block design (RCBD). The study revealed wide variation in all quality parameters amongst the cultivars. Cultivar ‘Kufri Frysona’ showed the highest specific gravity (1.121) as well as dry matter content (23.35%) followed by ‘Kufri Chipsona-3’. The cultivar ‘Kufri Frysona’ showed the highest starch content (28.52%) too. Chips prepared from ‘Kufri Chipsona-1’ were recorded to be crispier with a relatively lower value of deformation before the first break and less hardness value. All processing type potato cultivar reflected the chips colour score <3 (evaluated, based on 1–10 scale, 10 being the darkest and least desirable) though ‘Kufri Frysona’ had the lowest chips colour score (1.50) signifying its superiority for the region. ‘Kufri Frysona’ cultivation could be recommended in this agro-climatic region particularly for chips manufacturing potato industries. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction via Sonotrode of Phenolic Compounds from Orange By-Products
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051120 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Orange peel is the main by-product from orange juice industry. It is a known source of bioactive compounds, mostly phenolic compounds, and it has been widely studied for its healthy activities. Thus, this research focuses on the establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic [...] Read more.
Orange peel is the main by-product from orange juice industry. It is a known source of bioactive compounds, mostly phenolic compounds, and it has been widely studied for its healthy activities. Thus, this research focuses on the establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds in orange peel using a sonotrode. For this purpose, a Box–Behnken design of 27 experiments was carried out with four independent factors—ratio ethanol/water (v/v), time (min), amplitude (%), and pulse (%). Quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds were performed and the antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS and DPPH methods. The validity of the experimental design was confirmed by ANOVA and the optimal sonotrode extraction conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts obtained in the established conditions were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometer detector and 74 polar compounds were identified. The highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity were obtained using 45/55 ethanol/water (v/v), 35 min, amplitude 90% (110 W), and pulse 100%. The established method allows an increment of phenolics recovery up to 60% higher than a conventional extraction. Moreover, the effect of drying on phenolic content was also evaluated. Full article
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Article
Nutritional, Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Vegetable Fibers to Develop Fiber-Based Gel Foods
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051017 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutritional and physico-chemical properties of six different vegetable fibers and explore the possibility of using them as a thickener or gelling agent in food. To determine the technological, nutritional and physical parameters, the following [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutritional and physico-chemical properties of six different vegetable fibers and explore the possibility of using them as a thickener or gelling agent in food. To determine the technological, nutritional and physical parameters, the following analyses were carried out: water-holding capacity, water retention capacity, swelling, fat absorption capacity, solubility, particle size, moisture, hygroscopicity, pH, water activity, bulk density, porosity, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and mineral content. Gels were prepared at concentrations from 4% to 7% at 5 °C and analyzed at 25 °C before and after treatment at 65 °C for 20 min. A back extrusion test, texture profile analysis and rheology were performed and the pH value, water content and color were analyzed. As a result, all the samples generally showed significant differences in all the tested parameters. Hydration properties were different in all the tested samples, but the high values found for chia flour and citrus fiber are highlighted in functional terms. Moreover, chia flour was a source of minerals with high Fe, Mn and Cu contents. In gels, significant differences were found in the textural and rheological properties among the samples, and also due to the heat treatment used (65 °C, 20 min). As a result, chia flour, citrus, potato and pea fibers showed more appropriate characteristics for thickening. Moreover, potato fiber at high concentrations and both combinations of fibers (pea, cane sugar and bamboo fiber and bamboo, psyllium and citric fiber) were more suitable for gelling agents to be used in food products. Full article
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Article
Developing Soybean Protein Gel-Based Foods from Okara Using the Wet-Type Grinder Method
Foods 2021, 10(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020348 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Okara, a by-product of tofu or soymilk, is rich in dietary fibers (DFs) that are mostly insoluble. A wet-type grinder (WG) system was used to produce nanocellulose (NC). We hypothesized that the WG system would increase the dispersion performance and viscosity of okara. [...] Read more.
Okara, a by-product of tofu or soymilk, is rich in dietary fibers (DFs) that are mostly insoluble. A wet-type grinder (WG) system was used to produce nanocellulose (NC). We hypothesized that the WG system would increase the dispersion performance and viscosity of okara. These properties of WG-treated okara improve the gel-forming ability of soybean proteins. Here, the suspensions of 2 wt% okara were treated with WG for different passages (1, 3, and 5 times). The particle size distribution (PSD) and viscosity of WG-treated okara decreased and increased, respectively, with different passages. The five-time WG-treated okara homogeneously dispersed in water after 24 h, whereas untreated okara did not. The breaking stress, strain, and water holding capacity of soybean protein isolate (SPI) gels increased upon the addition of WG-treated okara. This effect increased as the number of WG treatments increased. The breaking stress and strain of SPI gels to which different concentrations of the five-time WG-treated okara were added also increased with increasing concentrations of WG-treated okara. These results suggest that NC technology can improve the physicochemical properties of okara and are useful in the development of protein gel-based foods. Full article
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Article
Metabolic Profiling of the Oil of Sesame of the Egyptian Cultivar ‘Giza 32’ Employing LC-MS and Tandem MS-Based Untargeted Method
Foods 2021, 10(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020298 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a global oil crop. Sesame oil has been regarded as functional oil with antioxidant properties in several in vivo studies but little is known about its minor fraction. In this line, this study figures out the profile [...] Read more.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a global oil crop. Sesame oil has been regarded as functional oil with antioxidant properties in several in vivo studies but little is known about its minor fraction. In this line, this study figures out the profile of the polar fraction of Egyptian cultivar Giza 32 sesame oil (SG32 oil) employing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry and tandem MS. The characterization of the sesame oil metabolites depended on the observation of their retention time values, accurate MS, and MS/MS data, with UV spectra, and compared with relevant literature and available standards. Remarkably, 86 metabolites were characterized and sub-grouped into phenolic acids, lignans, flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds, and organic acids. From the characterized metabolites, 72 compounds were previously characterized in SG32 cake, which presented antioxidant properties, and hence it could contribute to SG32 oil antioxidant properties. Further studies are required to state the presence of such phenolics in commercial sesame oils and what of these compounds resist oil refining. Full article
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Article
Potentialities of Rapid Analytical Strategies for the Identification of the Botanical Species of Several “Specialty” or “Gourmet” Oils
Foods 2021, 10(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010183 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
A comprehensive data collection of authentic “specialty” or “gourmet” oils, namely cold-pressed industrial virgin oils, was performed. Eight different botanical species, i.e., Almond, Apricot, Avocado, Hazelnut, Mosqueta rose, Rosehip, Sunflower, and Walnut oils were studied plus Olive oil as the gold standard of [...] Read more.
A comprehensive data collection of authentic “specialty” or “gourmet” oils, namely cold-pressed industrial virgin oils, was performed. Eight different botanical species, i.e., Almond, Apricot, Avocado, Hazelnut, Mosqueta rose, Rosehip, Sunflower, and Walnut oils were studied plus Olive oil as the gold standard of cold-pressed virgin oils. Two different analytical approaches are proposed to rapidly verify the botanical species of the oil-based raw material. The first approach is based on a multivariate statistical analysis of conventional analytical data, namely their fatty acid composition. These data have been re-elaborated in a multivariate way by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification methods. The second approach proposes a fast and non-destructive spectrophotometric analysis to determine the color of these oils to discriminate among different species. In this regard, the raw diffuse reflectance spectra (380–780 nm) obtained by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere was considered and elaborated by chemometrics. This information was compared with the results obtained by the most common approach based on the CIELab parameters. A data fusion of chromatographic and spectral data was also investigated. Either fatty acid composition or color of these oils demonstrated to be two promising markers of their botanical authenticity. Full article
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Article
Interactions between L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens in Dual-Species Biofilms under Simulated Dairy Processing Conditions
Foods 2021, 10(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010176 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
In dairy processing environments, many bacterial species adhere and form biofilms on surfaces and equipment, leading to foodborne illness and food spoilage. Among them, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas spp. could be present in mixed-species biofilms. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between [...] Read more.
In dairy processing environments, many bacterial species adhere and form biofilms on surfaces and equipment, leading to foodborne illness and food spoilage. Among them, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas spp. could be present in mixed-species biofilms. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens in biofilms simulating dairy processing conditions, as well as the capability of P. fluorescens in co-culture to produce the blue pigment in a Ricotta-based model system. The biofilm-forming capability of single- and mixed-cultures was evaluated on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel (SS) surfaces at 12 °C for 168 h. The biofilm biomass was measured, the planktonic and sessile cells and the carbohydrates in biofilms were quantified. The biofilms were also observed through Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy analysis. Results showed that only P. fluorescens was able to form biofilms on PS. Moreover, in dual-species biofilms at the end of the incubation time (168 h at 12 °C), a lower biomass compared to P. fluorescens mono-species was observed on PS. On SS, the biofilm cell population of L. monocytogenes was higher in the dual-species than in mono-species, particularly after 48 h. Carbohydrates quantity in the dual-species system was higher than in mono-species and was revealed also at 168 h. The production of blue pigment by P. fluorescens was revealed both in single- and co-culture after 72 h of incubation (12 °C). This work highlights the interactions between the two species, under the experimental conditions studied in the present research, which can influence biofilm formation (biomass and sessile cells) but not the capability of P. fluorescens to produce blue pigment. Full article
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