Dietary Interventions for Human General and Oral Health and Disease Reduction

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 21966

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
Interests: food technology; food engineering; food safety; food quality; extra virgin olive oil; mycotoxins; fermented foods
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Guest Editor
Department of Dentistry, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: dental biomaterials; restorative dentistry; professional aspects of dentistry (dentistry in unprivileged groups, holistic treatments in caries prevention and diet, dental management, marketing, and dental coaching)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue of Applied Sciences titled “Dietary Interventions for Human General and Oral Health and Disease Reduction”.

According to WHO, "a healthy diet is essential for good health and nutrition". It protects us against many chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and dental caries. Eating a variety of foods and consuming less salt, sugars, and saturated and industrially produced trans-fats is essential to a healthy diet. Furthermore, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, 4 of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States are directly linked to diet—that is, heart disease, cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. In the field of oral health, diet approaches also secure the control of dental caries, ensuring that people keep their teeth when they are elders. The presence of natural teeth during the human lifespan guarantees the quality of life. A healthy diet style also helps the immune system to cope better with viral diseases such as COVID-19, while it certainly affects the psychological part of the human equation. The evidence so far clearly shows that if nutritional needs are ignored, health outcomes worsen. Our environment does not sufficiently enable individuals to make healthier choices easily.

Therefore, research on these matters is important not only for patients but also for the better health of the professionals in the health industry. There is not enough evidence on the diet habits of doctors, much less about their education regarding nutrition, enabling them to better perform their duties and stay healthy themselves. The same is true for the education of patients regarding a better diet style. The benefits of improving nutritional care through relevant education and providing adequate hydration to patients are immense, especially for those with long-term conditions and chronic general and oral diseases.

The aim of this Special Issue is to enhance the subject of nutrition as a key part of human well-being in different systematic and oral diseases. Furthermore, it will approach diet from the point of view of professionals so that they themselves can stay healthy in busy and stressful working environments. Papers discussing educational diet coaching issues are also welcome.

As a further aim, a goal of this Special Issue is to address modern food technology issues, supplementary foods, fermentative products and diet styles for the general and oral health improvement of adults.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Dental caries and supplements or fermented foods;
  • Obesity and malnutrition vs. dental caries;
  • Nutritional approaches in systematic and oral diseases;
  • Education on diet styles;
  • Diet and psychological wellbeing of adults;
  • Nutritional issues for professionals in the health industry.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
Dr. Maria Antoniadou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • malnutrition
  • obesity
  • Mediterranean diet
  • dental caries
  • systematic diseases
  • nutritional coaching

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Olga Gortzi, Maria Dimopoulou, Odysseas Androutsos, Anna Vraka, Helen Gousia and Alexandra Bargiota
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14052114 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Diabetes is a metabolic disease that is a major health problem globally. Dietary interventions contribute to the management of the disease and the improvement in patients’ quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a nutrition [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a metabolic disease that is a major health problem globally. Dietary interventions contribute to the management of the disease and the improvement in patients’ quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a nutrition and lifestyle education intervention on a sample of patients with diabetes. The duration of the intervention was 3 months, and it focused on the promotion of the Mediterranean diet through information pamphlets, diet plans and healthy lifestyle guidelines, which were provided in addition to patients’ standard medical treatment. Patients were enrolled in the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital of Larissa (Greece). Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were recorded at baseline and follow-up using standardized equipment and methods. The intervention improved patients’ body mass index, body composition, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, triglycerides, HDL/LDL cholesterol and cholesterol. For smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity categorization, physical activity improved but not the other two indices. The results of this study show that patient education should be provided according to the nutritional recommendations for T2DM plus a more individually structured intervention. It is therefore necessary to direct the attention of doctors to the need for continuous and detailed discussions with patients in relation to both the standards of a healthy diet and the benefits it brings. Patients, for their part, need to commit to following an appropriate, healthy diet. Full article
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18 pages, 2781 KiB  
Article
The Mulberry Juice Fermented by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum O21: The Functional Ingredient in the Formulations of Fruity Jellies Based on Different Gelling Agents
by Aleksandra Szydłowska, Dorota Zielińska, Barbara Sionek and Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12780; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312780 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 626
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding probiotics, prebiotics, and different types of jelly agents on a few key quality attributes of potentially functional mulberry jellies throughout a 10-day storage period at 4 °C. Mullbery juice was separately fermented at 37 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding probiotics, prebiotics, and different types of jelly agents on a few key quality attributes of potentially functional mulberry jellies throughout a 10-day storage period at 4 °C. Mullbery juice was separately fermented at 37 °C for 24 h using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum O21; it was a favorable matrix for the proliferation of probiotics. Lactic acid fermentation positively affected the total anthocyanin concentration of investigated products. Also, antioxidant capacities of mulberry juices were improved by L. plantarum O21 fermentation. The results showed that the applied prebiotic–inulin addition and agar–agar addition, as a gelling agent in recipes of potentially functional mulberry jellies, were proved to be beneficial technological solutions, both in fresh and stored products, and obtained an appropriate, high number of LAB bacteria, good sensory quality, and beneficial antioxidant properties. Full article
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15 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Body Weight Loss Efficiency in Overweight and Obese Adults in the Ketogenic Reduction Diet Program—Case Study
by Gordana Markovikj, Vesna Knights and Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10704; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910704 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Obesity stands out as an ongoing pandemic today, and it is crucial to recognize the basic factors that influence it in the observed group and to intervene through lifestyle changes. Therefore, in this work, the k ketogenic diet (E = 6280 ± 210 [...] Read more.
Obesity stands out as an ongoing pandemic today, and it is crucial to recognize the basic factors that influence it in the observed group and to intervene through lifestyle changes. Therefore, in this work, the k ketogenic diet (E = 6280 ± 210 kJ) was used in a weight loss program for two regionally different groups (including 200 participants) from southeastern European countries (Republic of North Macedonia (n = 100) and Kosovo (n = 100)). The applied data analysis revealed similarities and differences in (ii) the consumption of certain food groups (e.g., 0.5–1 kg Nuts/week; in region 1 is consumed by 11.3% of participants while in region 2 by 37.8%, respectively) and (ii) anthropometric indicators of excess body mass (body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio). Nutritional intervention with a ketogenic diet also reduces the intake of sweet and salty snacks that are rich in carbohydrates. The average expected time to reach the target body mass was 112 days, and the results of the progress of all participants were presented after 120 days. The results show regional differences, especially in women; in group 1, 73.91% achieved a body mass index in the healthy range (<25 kg/m2), while in group 2, the success rate was 81.69%. Understanding the different eating habits in the mentioned regions is key here, and it was shown that in region 2, over 40% of the participants consume 500–1000 g of seeds per week. The above indicates that the results of this study and regional differences can be considered when designing strategies and intervention programs in the lifestyle of overweight and obese people in similar environments. The study also shows that the ketogenic diet is one of the useful dietary intervention approaches used to change eating habits that will show results relatively quickly. Full article
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13 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Nutrition-Oriented Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for Weight Loss during the COVID-19 Epidemic in a Hospital Outpatient Clinic: A 3-Month Controlled Intervention Study
by Paraskevi Detopoulou, Panos Papandreou, Lida Papadopoulou and Maria Skouroliakou
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9448; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169448 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making for health professionals. Few studies have applied such systems enabling distance monitoring in the COVID-19 epidemic, especially in a hospital setting. The purpose of the present work was to assess the clinical efficacy [...] Read more.
Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making for health professionals. Few studies have applied such systems enabling distance monitoring in the COVID-19 epidemic, especially in a hospital setting. The purpose of the present work was to assess the clinical efficacy of CDSS-assisted dietary services at a general hospital for patients intending to lose weight during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thirty-nine patients (28 men, 71.8%) comprised the intervention group and 21 patients (four men, 16%) of the control group. After a 3-month CDSS intervention, reductions in both body weight (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 95.5 ± 21.8 vs. 90.6 ± 19.9 kg, p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (median, interquartile range (IQR): 35.2, 28.4–37.5 vs. 33.2, 27.4–35.4 kg/m2, p < 0.001) were observed. Beneficial effects were also recorded for total body fat (44.9 ± 11.3 vs. 41.9 ± 10.5%, p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (5.26 ± 0.55 vs. 4.97 ± 0.41%, p = 0.017) (mean ± SD) and triglycerides (137, 115–152 vs. 130, 108–160 mg/dL, p = 0.005) (medians, IQR). Lean tissue was borderline decreased (25.4, 21.7–29.1 vs. 24.6, 21.8–27.9 kg, p = 0.050). No changes were documented in the control group. In multivariate linear regression models, serum triglycerides were inversely associated with % absolute weight loss (B = −0.018, standard error (SE) = 0.009, p = 0.050) in the CDSS intervention group. In women, a principal component analysis-derived pattern characterized by high BMI/lean tissue was positively related to % absolute weight loss (B = 20.415, SE = 0.717, p = 0.028). In conclusion, a short-term CDSS-facilitated intervention beneficially affected weight loss and other cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
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12 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Hydroxytyrosol-Rich Olive Extract for Plasma Cholesterol Control
by Arrigo F. G. Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Antonio Di Micoli, Maddalena Veronesi, Elisa Grandi and Claudio Borghi
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10086; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910086 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Emerging research and epidemiological studies established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, whose hallmark is the high consumption of olives and olive oil as the primary source of dietary fatty acids and major sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Emerging research and epidemiological studies established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, whose hallmark is the high consumption of olives and olive oil as the primary source of dietary fatty acids and major sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with highly standardized polyphenols—mainly hydroxytyrosol—which are derived from olive oil production by-products of an Italian olive variety (Coratina Olive) on the plasma cholesterol of a sample of hypercholesterolemic individuals. This single-arm, non-controlled, non-randomized, prospective pilot clinical study involved a sample of 30 volunteers with polygenic hypercholesterolemia. The study design included a 2-week run-in and a 4-week intervention period. Patients were evaluated for their clinical status and by the execution of a physical examination and laboratory analyses before and after the treatment. The intervention effect was assessed using Levene’s test followed by the independent Student’s t test after the log-transformation of the non-normally distributed continuous variables. Dietary supplementation with highly standardized polyphenols that are derived from Coratina Olive (namely SelectSIEVE® OptiChol) was associated with a significant improvement in systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-HDL-C, fasting plasma glucose, and uric acid compared to baseline values. Furthermore, SelectSIEVE® OptiChol was well tolerated by volunteers. We acknowledge that the study has some limitations, namely the small patient sample, the short follow-up, and the lack of randomization and control procedures. However, these results are consistent with previous literature that referred to extracts from different olive varieties. Definitely, our observations lay further foundations for the use of polyphenolic-rich olive extract from Coratina Olive in the prevention and treatment of first-stage metabolic syndrome. Full article
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8 pages, 950 KiB  
Communication
Black Garlic and Pomegranate Standardized Extracts for Blood Pressure Improvement: A Non-Randomized Diet-Controlled Study
by Federica Fogacci, Antonio Di Micoli, Elisa Grandi, Giulia Fiorini, Claudio Borghi and Arrigo F. G. Cicero
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9673; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199673 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Recently released position papers by the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the Italian Society of Hypertension (SIIA) provide therapeutic recommendations for the use of nutraceuticals in the management of high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, opening up new perspectives in the field. [...] Read more.
Recently released position papers by the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the Italian Society of Hypertension (SIIA) provide therapeutic recommendations for the use of nutraceuticals in the management of high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, opening up new perspectives in the field. This not-randomized diet-controlled clinical study aimed to evaluate if daily dietary supplementation with black garlic and pomegranate (namely SelectSIEVE® SlowBeat) could advantageously affect BP in individuals with high-normal BP or stage I hypertension. Enrolled subjects were adhering to a Mediterranean DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet for two weeks before deciding whether to continue following Mediterranean DASH diet alone or in association with SelectSIEVE® SlowBeat. At the end of the study, dietary supplementation with SelectSIEVE® SlowBeat was associated with significant improvement in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) compared to baseline (Pre-treatment: SBP = 134.3 ± 4.2 and DBP = 88.2 ± 3.4; 4-Week Follow-up: SBP = 130.1 ± 2.8 and DBP= 83.7 ± 2.6). SBP improved also in comparison with control. In conclusion, the study shows that dietary supplementation with extracts from black garlic and pomegranate safely exert significant improvements in BP in healthy individuals adhering to a Mediterranean DASH diet. Full article
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15 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Dental Health, Caries Perception and Sense of Discrimination among Migrants and Refugees in Europe: Results from the Mig-HealthCare Project
by Pania Karnaki, Konstantinos Katsas, Dimitrios V. Diamantis, Elena Riza, Maya Simona Rosen, Maria Antoniadou, Alejandro Gil-Salmerón, Igor Grabovac and Athena Linou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9294; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189294 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Dental and oral health are considered among the main health issues for migrants and refugees, as access to dental health care services is often expensive and difficult. The study investigates dental and oral health determinants among migrants and refugees in 10 European countries [...] Read more.
Dental and oral health are considered among the main health issues for migrants and refugees, as access to dental health care services is often expensive and difficult. The study investigates dental and oral health determinants among migrants and refugees in 10 European countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain, and Sweden), examining how mental health, legal status, discrimination issues and dental services’ use frequency affect dental health. Methods: A cross sectional study using a purpose-made questionnaire was carried out to assess health status and access, with a dedicated section to measure self-perceived dental health, prevalence of caries, last visit to dentist and anticipated access to dental health services. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to investigate the impact of quality of life, discrimination, immigration status, and other demographic factors on dental health. Results: About half of the sample suffered from poor dental condition and 22% had never visited a dentist. Migrants with higher educational levels had higher odds of having good dental health (OR = 1.08; 95%CI (1.03, 1.12)) and brushing their teeth daily (OR = 1.1; 95%CI (1.04, 1.17)). Higher general and mental health scores were indicative of better dental condition (general health: OR = 1.02; 95%CI (1.01, 1.03); mental health: OR = 1.01; 95%CI (1.004, 1.02)) and higher probability of daily teeth brushing (general health: OR = 1.02; 95%CI (1.01, 1.03); mental health: OR = 1.02; 95%CI (1.01, 1.03)). The possession of any kind of legal immigration permission and not having any children showed similar results. Age and discrimination were correlated with decreased likelihood for good dental conditions. Gender was correlated with daily teeth brushing, as female migrants had higher odds of brushing their teeth daily. Conclusions: Many migrants report poor dental health. Nonetheless, migrants with higher education levels, legal immigration status, better general and mental health, no children, lower sense of discrimination, younger age, and regular dental visits were positively correlated to good dental health (perceived as no dental caries). Full article

Review

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18 pages, 5420 KiB  
Review
Mushrooms as Functional Foods for Ménière’s Disease
by Victoria Bell and Tito Horácio Fernandes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12348; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212348 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2914
Abstract
Food, not nutrients, is the fundamental unit in nutrition, and edible mushrooms are fungi that supply unique biological bioactive compounds, different from plant or animal origin, which significantly impact human health status. However, to date all these concepts are interpreted in different ways, [...] Read more.
Food, not nutrients, is the fundamental unit in nutrition, and edible mushrooms are fungi that supply unique biological bioactive compounds, different from plant or animal origin, which significantly impact human health status. However, to date all these concepts are interpreted in different ways, with rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, molecular biology, and plant biotechnology changing the concepts of food, health, and agriculture. The bioactive elements conveyed by foodstuffs as nutrients or non-nutrients interfere with human metabolism and have influence on health, aging, and well-being. The influence of edible mushrooms on medicinal interventions has been known and studied for many years and their latest role in neurodegenerative disorders has been recently investigated, while their significance on many other diseases has been well demonstrated. Despite considerable research, the etiology and pathogenesis of Ménière’s disease remains controversial and undefined, although usually associated with allergic, genetic, or trauma sources, and with viral infections and/or immune system-mediated mechanisms. With treatment still unknown, our attention is towards the eventual impact of complementary dietary interventions, synthesizing the recent knowledge of some edible mushrooms and preparations on Ménière’s disease, which is a lifelong condition that can develop at any age, but most commonly emerges between 40 and 60 years of age. It is demonstrated that the oral administration of a biomass preparation, with 3 g/day of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor for 2 to 6 months, on some 40 human Ménière’s disease patients reduced systemic oxidative stress and cellular stress response, decreased the number of crises and their duration, and the frequency of symptoms, improving the clinical grading of tinnitus severity. Full article
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22 pages, 634 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms Relationship to Risk Level of Dental Caries
by Marios Peponis, Maria Antoniadou, Eftychia Pappa, Christos Rahiotis and Theodoros Varzakas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6014; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106014 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with multiple risk factors. Vitamin D levels (VDLs) and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms (VDRPs) have been investigated for this reason. The aim of this narrative review is to investigate the relation and the factors affecting vitamin D [...] Read more.
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with multiple risk factors. Vitamin D levels (VDLs) and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms (VDRPs) have been investigated for this reason. The aim of this narrative review is to investigate the relation and the factors affecting vitamin D deficiency (VDD), VDRP, Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) in children (primary and mixed dentition) and dental caries risk in adults (permanent dentition). Additionally, we present a model incorporating factors and interactions that address this relationship. Methods: Three databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) were comprehensively searched until 17 January 2023 using the following keywords: “vitamin D”, “vitamin D receptor polymorphism”, “dental caries”, and “dental caries risk”, finding 341 articles. Two reviewers searched, screened, and extracted information from the selected articles. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Eligibility criteria were articles using dmft/DMFT diagnostic criteria with calibrated examiners, probability sampling, and sample sizes. We excluded studies conducted on institutionalized patients. A total of 32 studies were finally used. Results: In most studies, TaqI, FokI, and BsmI polymorphisms affected the prevalence of dental caries. A strong correlation between ECC, S-ECC, and the prevalence of dental caries was reported in association with VDD and maternal intake of VD in primary dentition. Regarding the influence in mixed dentition, the results were found to be inconclusive. A slight positive influence was reported for permanent dentition. Conclusions: Factors affecting caries risk were maternal intake, socioeconomic factors, and level of VD. There is a certain need for more well-conducted studies that will investigate the association between VDR gene polymorphisms and the prevalence of dental caries in mixed and permanent dentition, specifically in adult patients. Full article
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24 pages, 3432 KiB  
Review
Drug-Food Interactions with a Focus on Mediterranean Diet
by Marios Spanakis, Evridiki Patelarou and Athina Patelarou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10207; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010207 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6791
Abstract
There is a growing interest among people in western countries for adoption of healthier lifestyle habits and diet behaviors with one of the most known ones to be Mediterranean diet (Med-D). Med-D is linked with daily consumption of food products such as vegetables, [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest among people in western countries for adoption of healthier lifestyle habits and diet behaviors with one of the most known ones to be Mediterranean diet (Med-D). Med-D is linked with daily consumption of food products such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, beans, nuts, olive oil, low-fat food derivatives and limited consumption of meat or full fat food products. Med-D is well-known to promote well-being and lower the risk of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. On the other hand bioactive constituents in foods may interfere with drugs’ pharmacological mechanisms, modulating the clinical outcome leading to drug-food interactions (DFIs). This review discusses current evidence for food products that are included within the Med-Dand available scientific data suggest a potential contribution in DFIs with impact on therapeutic outcome. Most cases refer to potential modulation of drugs’ absorption and metabolism such as foods’ impact on drugs’ carrier-mediated transport and enzymatic metabolism as well as potential synergistic or antagonistic effects that enhance or reduce the pharmacological effect for some drugs. Adherence to Med-D can improve disease management and overall well-being, but specific foods should be consumed with caution so as to not hinder therapy outcome. Proper patient education and consultation from healthcare providers is important to avoid any conflicts and side effects due to clinically significant DFIs. Full article
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