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New Insights in Oral Health and Diets

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 39741

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
Interests: food technology; food engineering; food safety; food quality; extra virgin olive oil; mycotoxins; fermented foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Dentistry, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: dental biomaterials; restorative dentistry; professional aspects of dentistry (dentistry in unprivileged groups, holistic treatments in caries prevention and diet, dental management, marketing, and dental coaching)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring the most updated information on the innovative field of oral and general health coaching and nutritional education strategies for better oral and general health. The world of adult education needs information on instruments that provide behavioral changes and support physical emotional and spiritual health of modern individuals. Under this scope, the Special Issue will incorporate articles of modern diet perspectives and coaching approaches that lead to new dietary habits. Suggestions for the food industry that will help toward better food choices for the geriatric and adult population will also be outlined. The link between industry, the medical and dental practitioner, and the consumer–patient will be explored in a more productive collaboration from every aspect.

Highlights:

  • Oral health coaching and communication strategies on diet;
  • Nutritional aspects of modern societies for the geriatric and adult population;
  • Malnutrition and oral health status;
  • Industry approaches to modern packaging and dosage of food related to population needs.

The aim of this Special Issue is to attract papers in the general area of food industry and geriatric and adult dietary intake philosophy as well as counseling and coaching processing techniques and values for healthier diets.

Prof. Dr. Theodoros Varzakas
Dr. Antoniadou Maria
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral health coaching
  • Malnutrition
  • innovative food products
  • processing
  • geriatric population
  • nutritional aspects

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
New Insights in Oral Health and Diets
by Maria Antoniadou and Theodoros Varzakas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11397; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311397 - 1 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
The aim of this Special Issue is to bring the most updated information on the innovative field of oral and general health coaching and nutritional education strategies for better oral and general health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

25 pages, 2793 KiB  
Article
An In Vitro Study of Different Types of Greek Honey as Potential Natural Antimicrobials against Dental Caries and Other Oral Pathogenic Microorganisms. Case Study Simulation of Oral Cavity Conditions
by Chrysoula (Chrysa) Voidarou, Maria Antoniadou, Georgios Rozos, Athanasios Alexopoulos, Elpida Giorgi, Athina Tzora, Ioannis Skoufos, Theodoros Varzakas and Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6318; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146318 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
To study the antibacterial effect of different Greek honeys, samples of citrus honey, Saturja spp. Honey, and oregano and sage honey were collected directly from producers. Manuka honey and artificial honey were used as controls. The honeys were diluted in various concentrations to [...] Read more.
To study the antibacterial effect of different Greek honeys, samples of citrus honey, Saturja spp. Honey, and oregano and sage honey were collected directly from producers. Manuka honey and artificial honey were used as controls. The honeys were diluted in various concentrations to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and were also placed in agar wells to determine the inhibitory zones of growth. The bacteria tested were two reference strains and five pathogens isolated from patients with various dental ailments. A series of samples were diluted with artificial saliva instead of distilled water to simulate the conditions in the oral cavity. The results show that in most cases the Greek honeys, and particularly the citrus honey and the oregano and sage honey, outperformed the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against all tested bacteria. This performance was due to the hydrogen peroxide as well as to other components of the honeys, that is, peptides and other substances such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Artificial saliva enhanced the antibacterial effect of the honeys in comparison to distilled water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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14 pages, 3402 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxic Influence of Khat (Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl) on Oral Fibroblasts, Squamous Carcinoma Cells, and Expression of α Smooth Muscle Actin
by Azeem Ul Yaqin Syed, Muhammad A. Ahmed, Eman I. AlSagob, Mansour Al-Askar, Abdulrahman M. AlMubarak, Rizwan Jouhar, Abdul R. Ahmed, Sameer A. Mokeem, Nada Aldahiyan, Fahim Vohra and Tariq Abduljabbar
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3524; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083524 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
The aim was to determine the cytotoxicity of Khat (Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl) on normal oral fibroblasts (NOFs) and SCC4 (squamous carcinoma cells) along with expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibroblasts. Khat filtrate was prepared to obtain a concentrated [...] Read more.
The aim was to determine the cytotoxicity of Khat (Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl) on normal oral fibroblasts (NOFs) and SCC4 (squamous carcinoma cells) along with expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibroblasts. Khat filtrate was prepared to obtain a concentrated viscous solution. NOFs and SCC4 cells were cultured in biological cabinets and were grown in Dulbeccos’ modified Eagles medium. Frozen cells were thawed at 37 °C and cell seeding was performed. NOFs and SCC4 cells were seeded on 96 well plates and allowed to attach. The medium was removed and a fresh medium containing different concentrations of Khat was added. The group without Khat served as a negative control and 4% paraformaldehyde as the positive control. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay and effect of Khat on fibroblast and SCC4 phenotypes was evaluated by immunostaining. Analysis of variance was used to assess data (p < 0.05). NOF 316 showed cell death in response to 4% paraformaldehyde, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.12 mg/mL of Khat. The highest concentration of Khat (25 mg/mL) failed to cause cytotoxicity of NOF 316. NOF 319 and NOF 26 displayed cell death at all concentrations of Khat, however, cytotoxicity was not dose dependent. NOF 18 and SCC4 cells showed dose-dependent cell death. NOF 316 showed α-SMA expression after 1 mg/mL of Khat exposure. Not all fibroblasts were α-SMA-positive, suggesting specific activation of a subset of fibroblasts. Khat is cytotoxic to NOF and SCC4 cells. Furthermore, it can also cause activation and phenotypic changes in oral fibroblasts, indicating a potential role in progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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14 pages, 1193 KiB  
Communication
An Italian Innovative Small-Scale Approach to Promote the Conscious Consumption of Healthy Food
by Gloria Formoso, Caterina Pipino, Maria Pompea Antonia Baldassarre, Piero Del Boccio, Mirco Zucchelli, Nicola D’Alessandro, Lucia Tonucci, Angelo Cichelli, Assunta Pandolfi and Natalia Di Pietro
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5678; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165678 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
An unhealthy diet is considered to be one of the main causes for increases in obesity and chronic diseases. Food choices are frequently influenced by food systems and environments along with the availability and affordability of healthy and sustainable food. In this context, [...] Read more.
An unhealthy diet is considered to be one of the main causes for increases in obesity and chronic diseases. Food choices are frequently influenced by food systems and environments along with the availability and affordability of healthy and sustainable food. In this context, a major contemporary challenge lies in improving these aspects in order to support healthy dietary choices. Hence, to address this issue, here, we propose a small-scale approach called SANI (Italian for “healthy”) which involves experts in science and marketing. Two typical agri-foods of the Abruzzo area (center of Italy), tomato sauce and extra virgin olive oil, are characterized as high-quality products in terms of their nutrient content, absence of chemical contaminants (chromatographic, spectrophotometric, and magnetic resonance techniques), and ecological footprint (lifecycle assessment and carbon footprint). Hence, their consumption is promoted, with strict attention being paid to several aspects of the food system, such as production, processing, distribution, labeling, and promotion, as well as marketing strategies and dissemination activities. Overall, these SANI actions, especially labeling and dissemination, have proven to be a valuable learning tool for consumers moving toward more conscious consumption, which can be extended and applied to additional food products. Future applications of similar research strategies in a wider context could positively affect human and environmental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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Review

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25 pages, 2192 KiB  
Review
An Insight into Probiotics Bio-Route: Translocation from the Mother’s Gut to the Mammary Gland
by Shanmugaprakasham Selvamani, Daniel Joe Dailin, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Mohd Wahid, Ho Chin Keat, Khairun Hani Natasya, Roslinda Abd Malek, Shafiul Haque, R. Z. Sayyed, Bassam Abomoelak, Dalia Sukmawati, Theodoros Varzakas and Hesham Ali El Enshasy
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7247; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167247 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5144
Abstract
Human breast milk (HBM) is unique in its composition as it is adapted to fulfil the newborns’ nutritional requirement and helps in improving the health of newborns. Besides various nutrients, the human milk also contains diverse group of microbiotas. The human milk microbiota [...] Read more.
Human breast milk (HBM) is unique in its composition as it is adapted to fulfil the newborns’ nutritional requirement and helps in improving the health of newborns. Besides various nutrients, the human milk also contains diverse group of microbiotas. The human milk microbiota has a remarkable impact on the growth and development of a newborn. Additionally, the human milk microbiota enhances the colonization of microbes in the gut of infants. Debates about the origin of HBM microbial flora remain premature and contradictory in some cases. Recent data suggest that the maternal gut microbiota has a major impact on microbial composition, areolar skin, and from the infant’s oral cavity. The current review investigates the possible route of microbial transfer from the maternal gut to mammary gland and suggests that it might occur through the entero-mammary pathway. It involves precise selection of probiotic microorganisms from the gut, as the human gut hosts trillions of microorganisms involved in gut homeostasis and other metabolic pathways. Gastrointestinal lymphatic vessels, macrophages, and dendritic cells are shown to play a significant role in the microbial transmission. Furthermore, the role of microbial factors in the development of neonatal immunity and translocation of secretory IgA (SIgA) cells from the intestinal lumen to GALT and finally to mammary glands via entero-mammary link are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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23 pages, 997 KiB  
Review
Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics and Dental Caries. New Perspectives, Suggestions, and Patient Coaching Approach for a Cavity-Free Mouth
by Markos Amargianitakis, Maria Antoniadou, Christos Rahiotis and Theodoros Varzakas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5472; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125472 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 9953
Abstract
Probiotic therapy forms a new strategy for dental caries prevention. Probiotic microorganisms possess the ability to displace cariogenic microorganisms and colonize the oral cavity. They can produce various antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins, bacteriocin-like peptides, lactic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Dairy products may [...] Read more.
Probiotic therapy forms a new strategy for dental caries prevention. Probiotic microorganisms possess the ability to displace cariogenic microorganisms and colonize the oral cavity. They can produce various antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins, bacteriocin-like peptides, lactic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Dairy products may be ideal for probiotic administration in dental patients. Many other means have been proposed, primarily for those allergic to dairy components, such as capsules, liquid form, tablets, drops, lozenges, sweetened cakes, and ice creams. The last two forms can be used in a coaching approach for children and elderly patients who find it difficult to avoid sugary beverages in their daily routine and benefit from the suggestion of easy, cheap, and common forms of delicacies. In caries prevention, the concept of the effector strain is already considered an integral part of the contemporary caries cure or prevention strategy in adults. Adults, though, seem not to be favored as much as children at early ages by using probiotics primarily due to their oral microbiome’s stability. In this non-systematic review we describe the modes of action of probiotics, their use in the cariology field, their clinical potential, and propose options to prevent caries through a patient coaching approach for the daily dental practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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27 pages, 3472 KiB  
Review
Mushroom Nutrition as Preventative Healthcare in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Tito Fernandes, Carmen Garrine, Jorge Ferrão, Victoria Bell and Theodoros Varzakas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4221; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094221 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7213
Abstract
The defining characteristics of the traditional Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) cuisine have been the richness in indigenous foods and ingredients, herbs and spices, fermented foods and beverages, and healthy and whole ingredients used. It is crucial to safeguard the recognized benefits of mainstream traditional [...] Read more.
The defining characteristics of the traditional Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) cuisine have been the richness in indigenous foods and ingredients, herbs and spices, fermented foods and beverages, and healthy and whole ingredients used. It is crucial to safeguard the recognized benefits of mainstream traditional foods and ingredients, which gradually eroded in the last decades. Notwithstanding poverty, chronic hunger, malnutrition, and undernourishment in the region, traditional eating habits have been related to positive health outcomes and sustainability. The research prevailed dealing with food availability and access rather than the health, nutrition, and diet quality dimensions of food security based on what people consume per country and on the missing data related to nutrient composition of indigenous foods. As countries become more economically developed, they shift to “modern” occidental foods rich in saturated fats, salt, sugar, fizzy beverages, and sweeteners. As a result, there are increased incidences of previously unreported ailments due to an unbalanced diet. Protein-rich foods in dietary guidelines enhance only those of animal or plant sources, while rich protein sources such as mushrooms have been absent in these charts, even in developed countries. This article considers the valorization of traditional African foodstuffs and ingredients, enhancing the importance of establishing food-based dietary guidelines per country. The crux of this review highlights the potential of mushrooms, namely some underutilized in the SSA, which is the continent’s little exploited gold mine as one of the greatest untapped resources for feeding and providing income for Africa’s growing population, which could play a role in shielding Sub-Saharan Africans against the side effects of an unhealthy stylish diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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28 pages, 618 KiB  
Review
Diet and Oral Health Coaching Methods and Models for the Independent Elderly
by Maria Antoniadou and Theodoros Varzakas
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 4021; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10114021 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5166
Abstract
Health-related behavior based on diet is an important determinant of oral health in independent elderly. Aging impairs senses, mastication, oral status, and function, causing nutritional needs and diet insufficiencies that contribute to a vicious circle of impairment. But the present needs of independent [...] Read more.
Health-related behavior based on diet is an important determinant of oral health in independent elderly. Aging impairs senses, mastication, oral status, and function, causing nutritional needs and diet insufficiencies that contribute to a vicious circle of impairment. But the present needs of independent older adults suggest that health research and oral health care should shift from disease management and therapy to integral customized and personal treatment plans, including lifestyle, psychological, nutritional, and oral health coaching approaches. In this paper health coaching approaches in medical and dental settings are valued as to their effectiveness for older adults. Furthermore, coaching approaches for seniors are discussed and coaching models for better senior patient-dentist cooperation on the diet issue are suggested. Diet and oral health coaching is proven to be a modern senior patient-centered approach that needs to be incorporated at all relevant settings. It should aim to empower older adults in co-management of their oral diseases or bad diet habits affecting their oral health. This can be carried out through an incorporated educational plan for dentists either at the postgraduate or professional level since advantages seem to enhance the quality of life of the independent elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
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