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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Strategy towards Replacing Pork Backfat with a Linseed Oleogel in Frankfurter Sausages and Its Evaluation on Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Sensory Characteristics
Foods 2019, 8(9), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090366 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
Different health institutions from western countries ha–ve recommended a diet higher in polyunsaturated fats, especially of the n-3 family. However, this is not a trivial task, especially for meat-processing sectors. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of replacing [...] Read more.
Different health institutions from western countries ha–ve recommended a diet higher in polyunsaturated fats, especially of the n-3 family. However, this is not a trivial task, especially for meat-processing sectors. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of replacing pork backfat with linseed oleogel on the main quality parameters of frankfurters. The frankfurters were formulated by the pork backfat replacement of 0% (control), 25% (SF-25), and 50% (SF-50), using a linseed oleogel gelled with beeswax. The determination of quality parameters (pH, colour, chemical composition, and texture parameters), the fatty acid profile, and the sensory evaluation was carried out for each batch. The fatty acid profile was substantially improved, and the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content was reduced from 35.15g/100g in control sausages to 33.95 and 32.34g/100 g in SF-25 and SF-50, respectively, and more balanced ratios n-6/n-3 were achieved. In addition, the sausages with linseed oleogel also decreased the cholesterol content from 25.08 mg/100 g in control sausages to 20.12 and 17.23 mg/100 g in SF-25 and SF-50, respectively. It may therefore be concluded that these innovative meat products are a healthier alternative. However, sensory parameters should be improved in order to increase consumer acceptability, and further research is needed. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Consumer Avoidance of Insect Containing Foods: Primary Emotions, Perceptions and Sensory Characteristics Driving Consumers Considerations
Foods 2019, 8(8), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080351 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Why do many human beings find bugs repulsive? Disgust, a psychological factor, is believed to be the main reason why consumers would not consider eating foods containing insect ingredients. This study aimed to understand specific consumers’ behaviors toward insect based products. A global [...] Read more.
Why do many human beings find bugs repulsive? Disgust, a psychological factor, is believed to be the main reason why consumers would not consider eating foods containing insect ingredients. This study aimed to understand specific consumers’ behaviors toward insect based products. A global survey was launched in 13 different countries. The participants (n = 630 from each country) completed the survey that included demographic questions and questions about why they would or would not eat insect-based products. The results show, particularly for some of the Asian countries, that it is necessary to start exposing and familiarizing the populations about insects in order to diminish the disgust factor associated with insects. It is strongly recommended that an insect-based product should not contain visible insect pieces, which trigger negative associations. The exceptions were consumers in countries such as Mexico and Thailand, evaluated in this study, which did not show significant negative beliefs associated with including insects in their diets. Additional research to promote insect-based product consumption with popular product types might be the first strategy to break the disgust barriers and build acquaintance about insect-based products. The need to educate consumers that not all insects are unhygienic is crucial to eliminating the potentially erroneous concepts from consumer mindsets. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Use of Upcycled Defatted Sunflower Seed Flour as a Functional Ingredient in Biscuits
Foods 2019, 8(8), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080305 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Defatted sunflower seed flour (DSSF) is an upcycled by-product of sunflower oil extraction, rich in protein, fibre and antioxidants. This study assessed the instrumental and sensory quality of biscuits enriched with DSSF at 18% and 36% w/w as a replacement for [...] Read more.
Defatted sunflower seed flour (DSSF) is an upcycled by-product of sunflower oil extraction, rich in protein, fibre and antioxidants. This study assessed the instrumental and sensory quality of biscuits enriched with DSSF at 18% and 36% w/w as a replacement for wheat flour. Measurements included colour, texture, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity. Sensory analysis was carried out with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The inclusion of DSSF significantly increased the protein content of the biscuits, as well as the TPC and antioxidant capacity of the biscuits. The resulting products were significantly darker, less red and less yellow with increasing DSSF levels, while hardness (measured instrumentally) increased. Sensory results agreed with colour measurements, concluding that DSSF biscuits were more “Brown” than the control, and with texture measurements where biscuits with 36% DSSF had a significantly firmer bite. In addition, DSSF biscuits at 36% inclusion had higher QDA scores for “Off-note” and the lowest scores for “Crumbly” and “Crumb aeration”. DSSF biscuits at 18% inclusion were similar to the control in most parameters and should be considered for further developments. These results show the potential of the upcycled DSSF by-product as a novel, sustainable and healthy food ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) Flower as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Chicken Meat Nuggets
Foods 2019, 8(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080307 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
The present work investigated the efficacy of Moringa flower (MF) extract to develop a functional chicken product. Three groups of cooked chicken nuggets—control (C), T1 (with 1% MF) and T2 (2% MF)—were elaborated and their physicochemical, nutritional, storage stability and sensory attributes were [...] Read more.
The present work investigated the efficacy of Moringa flower (MF) extract to develop a functional chicken product. Three groups of cooked chicken nuggets—control (C), T1 (with 1% MF) and T2 (2% MF)—were elaborated and their physicochemical, nutritional, storage stability and sensory attributes were assessed during refrigerated storage at 4 °C up to 20 days. In addition, MF extracts were characterised in terms of chemical composition, total phenolic content and its components using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD), dietary fibre and antioxidant capacity. MF contained high protein (17.87 ± 0.28 dry matter), dietary fibre (36.14 ± 0.77 dry matter) and total phenolics (18.34 ± 1.16 to 19.49 ± 1.35 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry matter) content. The treated nuggets (T1 and T2) had significantly enhanced cooking yield, emulsion stability, ash, protein, total phenolics and dietary fibre compared to control. Incorporation of MF extract at 2% not only significantly reduced the redness/increased the lightness, but also decreased the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the product compared to control. Moreover, the addition of MF extract significantly improved the oxidative stability and odour scores by reducing lipid oxidation during storage time. Sensory attributes of nuggets were not affected by the addition of MF extract and the products remained stable and acceptable even on 15th day of storage. These results showed that MF extract could be considered as an effective natural functional ingredient for quality improvement and reducing lipid oxidation in cooked chicken nuggets. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Reutilization of Food Waste: One-Step Extration, Purification and Characterization of Ovalbumin from Salted Egg White by Aqueous Two-Phase Flotation
Foods 2019, 8(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080286 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
For the purpose of reducing pollution and the reutilization of salted egg whites, which are byproducts of the manufacturing process of salted egg yolks and normally treated as waste, an aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) composed of polyethylene glycols (PEG 1000) and (NH4 [...] Read more.
For the purpose of reducing pollution and the reutilization of salted egg whites, which are byproducts of the manufacturing process of salted egg yolks and normally treated as waste, an aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) composed of polyethylene glycols (PEG 1000) and (NH4)2SO4 was applied to develop a simple, inexpensive and efficient process for the separation of ovalbumin (OVA) from salted egg whites. The effects of the concentration of PEG, the concentration of (NH4)2SO4, the flow rate and the flotation time on the flotation efficiency (Y) and purity (P) of OVA were investigated. A response surface method (RSM) experiment was carried out on the basis of a single-factor experiment. An efficient separation was achieved using ATPF containing 5 mL of 80% PEG 1000 (w/w), 28 mL of 28% (NH4)2SO4 (w/w), 35 mL/min of the flow rate and 30 min of the flotation time, while 2 mL of the salted egg white solution (salted eggs white (v): water (v) = 1:4) was loaded. Under the optimal conditions, Y and P of OVA could reach 82.15 ± 0.24% and 92.98 ± 0.68%, respectively. The purified OVA was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (Nano LC-ESI-MS/MS), ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum (FL) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the purity of OVA obtained by ATPF was satisfactory and there was no obvious difference in the structure of the OVA separated by ATPF and the standard. The results of the functional properties revealed no significant differences between OVA obtained by ATPF and the standard in oil binding capacity, viscosity, emulsibility and foam capacity. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Factors Predicting the Intention of Eating an Insect-Based Product
Foods 2019, 8(7), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070270 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
This study provides a framework of the factors predicting the intention of eating an insect-based product. As part of the study, a seminar was carried out to explore how the provision of information about ecological, health, and gastronomic aspects of entomophagy would modify [...] Read more.
This study provides a framework of the factors predicting the intention of eating an insect-based product. As part of the study, a seminar was carried out to explore how the provision of information about ecological, health, and gastronomic aspects of entomophagy would modify consumer beliefs regarding insects as food. Before and after the informative seminar, two questionnaires about sociodemographic attributes and beliefs about the consumption of insects as food were given. Participants were then asked to carry out a sensory evaluation of two identical bread samples, but one was claimed to be supplemented with insect powder. Results showed that perceived behavioral control is the main predictor of the intention, followed by neophobia and personal insect food rejection. The disgust factor significantly decreased after the participants attended the informative seminar. Sensory scores highlighted that participants gave “insect-labelled” samples higher scores for flavor, texture, and overall liking, nevertheless, participants indicated that they were less likely to use the “insect-labelled” bread in the future. Our findings provide a better understanding of insect food rejection behavior and help to predict the willingness to try insect-based products based on some important individual traits and information. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Consumer Preference Heterogeneity Evaluation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Decisions Using the Best–Worst Approach
Foods 2019, 8(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070266 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were [...] Read more.
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were interviewed at different FV purchase points (mass retail chains and open-air markets) using a paper questionnaire. The relative importance assigned by consumers to 12 fruit and vegetable product attributes, including both intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues, was assessed by using the best–worst scaling (BWS) methodology. The BWS results showed that “origin”, “seasonality”, and “freshness” were the most preferred attributes that Italian consumers took into account for purchases, while no importance was given to “organic certification”, “variety”, or “brand”. Additionally, a latent class analysis was employed to divide the total sample into five different clusters of consumers, characterized by the same preferences related to FV attributes. Each group of individuals is described on the basis of sociodemographic variables and by the declared fruit and vegetable point of purchase. This research demonstrates that age, average annual income, and families with children are all discriminating factors that influence consumer preference and behavior, in addition to affecting which point of purchase the consumer prefers to acquire FV products from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Food Products)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Influence of Cooking Methods on Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates Content in Novel Cruciferous Foods
Foods 2019, 8(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070257 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, [...] Read more.
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, the influence of several common domestic cooking practices on the degradation of GLS and ITC in two novel Brassica spp.: broccolini (Brassica oleracea var italica Group x alboglabra Group) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.) was determined. On one hand, results showed that both varieties were rich in health-promoter compounds, broccolini being a good source of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane (≈79 and 2.5 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight (F.W.), respectively), and kale rich in glucoiberin and iberin (≈12 and 0.8 mg 100 g−1 F.W., respectively). On the other hand, regarding cooking treatments, stir-frying and steaming were suitable techniques to preserve GLS and ITC (≥50% of the uncooked samples), while boiling was deleterious for the retention of these bioactive compounds (20–40% of the uncooked samples). Accordingly, the appropriate cooking method should be considered an important factor to preserve the health-promoting effects in these trending Brassica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Phenolic and Antioxidant Analysis of Olive Leaves Extracts (Olea europaea L.) Obtained by High Voltage Electrical Discharges (HVED)
Foods 2019, 8(7), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070248 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) as a green technology, in order to establish the effectiveness of phenolic extraction from olive leaves against conventional extraction (CE). HVED parameters included different green solvents (water, ethanol), treatment [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) as a green technology, in order to establish the effectiveness of phenolic extraction from olive leaves against conventional extraction (CE). HVED parameters included different green solvents (water, ethanol), treatment times (3 and 9 min), gases (nitrogen, argon), and voltages (15, 20, 25 kV). Methods: Phenolic compounds were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS), while antioxidant potency (total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity) were monitored spectrophotometrically. Data for Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) spectroscopy, colorimetry, zeta potential, particle size, and conductivity were also reported. Results: The highest yield of phenolic compounds was obtained for the sample treated with argon/9 min/20 kV/50% (3.2 times higher as compared to CE). Obtained results suggested the usage of HVED technology in simultaneous extraction and nanoformulation, and production of stable emulsion systems. Antioxidant capacity (AOC) of obtained extracts showed no significant difference upon the HVED treatment. Conclusions: Ethanol with HVED destroys the linkage between phenolic compounds and components of the plant material to which they are bound. All extracts were compliant with legal requirements regarding content of contaminants, pesticide residues and toxic metals. In conclusion, HVED presents an excellent potential for phenolic compounds extraction for further use in functional food manufacturing. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crop Commodities in the Philippines: A Review
Foods 2019, 8(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070249 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated [...] Read more.
The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated from various agricultural crop commodities in the country. There are five mycotoxin groups (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin, nivalenol, and zearalenone) that have been detected in both the raw form and the by-products of major crops grown in the country. Since the first scientific report of aflatoxin contamination in the Philippines in 1972, new information has been generated on mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi, but little has been known of other mycotoxins until the last two decades. Further, despite the increase in the understanding of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the country, very limited knowledge exists on practices and measures that control both the fungi and the toxins. This paper reviews the current literature on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the Philippines with emphasis on the last two decades and on other mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Gluten-Free Bread with Cricket Powder—Mechanical Properties and Molecular Water Dynamics in Dough and Ready Product
Foods 2019, 8(7), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070240 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Published data indicate that cricket powder (CP) is a good source of not only protein, fat and fiber, but also minerals. Due to the fact that this product naturally does not contain gluten, it is an interesting addition to the enrichment of gluten-free [...] Read more.
Published data indicate that cricket powder (CP) is a good source of not only protein, fat and fiber, but also minerals. Due to the fact that this product naturally does not contain gluten, it is an interesting addition to the enrichment of gluten-free foods. This paper is a report on the results of starch substitution with CP (at 2%, 6% and 10%) on the properties of dough and bread. The rheology of dough and the texture of the final product were studied. While the changes caused in the dough by the introduction of CP were not pronounced, the bread obtained from it was characterized by significantly increased hardness and improved consistency. Analyses of water behavior at the molecular level with the use of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) indicated that CP altered both the bound and bulk water fractions. Moreover, examination of water activity revealed a decreased rate of water transport in samples of bread that contained CP. These results indicate improved availability of water to the biopolymers of bread, which likely plays a role in shaping the textural properties of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
Protein Digestibility of Cereal Products
Foods 2019, 8(6), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060199 - 08 Jun 2019
Cited by 19
Abstract
Protein digestibility is currently a hot research topic and is of big interest to the food industry. Different scoring methods have been developed to describe protein quality. Cereal protein scores are typically low due to a suboptimal amino acid profile and low protein [...] Read more.
Protein digestibility is currently a hot research topic and is of big interest to the food industry. Different scoring methods have been developed to describe protein quality. Cereal protein scores are typically low due to a suboptimal amino acid profile and low protein digestibility. Protein digestibility is a result of both external and internal factors. Examples of external factors are physical inaccessibility due to entrapment in e.g., intact cell structures and the presence of antinutritional factors. The main internal factors are the amino acid sequence of the proteins and protein folding and crosslinking. Processing of food is generally designed to increase the overall digestibility through affecting these external and internal factors. However, with proteins, processing may eventually also lead to a decrease in digestibility. In this review, protein digestion and digestibility are discussed with emphasis on the proteins of (pseudo)cereals. Full article
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Untargeted Metabolomics to Evaluate the Stability of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Added Lycium barbarum Carotenoids during Storage
Foods 2019, 8(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060179 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
A carotenoid-rich extract from Lycium barbarum L. was added to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), obtaining a carotenoid-enriched oil (EVOOCar). The oxidative stability of EVOO and EVOOCar was evaluated during long-term storage of 28 weeks at room temperature, by measuring some classical parameters [...] Read more.
A carotenoid-rich extract from Lycium barbarum L. was added to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), obtaining a carotenoid-enriched oil (EVOOCar). The oxidative stability of EVOO and EVOOCar was evaluated during long-term storage of 28 weeks at room temperature, by measuring some classical parameters (acidity and peroxide values, spectrophotometric coefficients, fatty acid composition) and the content of minor compounds (i.e., α-tocopherol and lutein). At the end of the storage, higher content (p < 0.01) of α-tocopherol in EVOOCar in respect to EVOO were observed. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate, the most abundant carotenoid compound of Goji berries, decreased slightly (p < 0.05) in EVOOCar until the end of the storage. In regard to polyphenols, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) using untargeted metabolomics was carried out. This latter approach discriminated the two oil samples during long-term storage, allowing to identify also the phenolic classes most exposed to significant variations during storage (i.e., mainly lignans and flavones). Besides, the addition of Goji carotenoids preserved the stability of tyrosol equivalents in EVOOCar during long-term storage. These results highlighted that the enrichment of EVOO with a carotenoid-rich extract can improve the shelf-life and nutritional value of added-oil, protecting EVOO natural antioxidants during long-term storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Milk Protein Fractionation by Means of Spiral-Wound Microfiltration Membranes: Effect of the Pressure Adjustment Mode and Temperature on Flux and Protein Permeation
Foods 2019, 8(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060180 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Protein fractionation by means of microfiltration (MF) is significantly affected by fouling, especially when spiral-wound membranes (SWMs) are used. We investigated the influence of the mode of transmembrane pressure (ΔpTM) increase to target level and the deposit layer pressure history on [...] Read more.
Protein fractionation by means of microfiltration (MF) is significantly affected by fouling, especially when spiral-wound membranes (SWMs) are used. We investigated the influence of the mode of transmembrane pressure (ΔpTM) increase to target level and the deposit layer pressure history on the filtration performance during skim milk MF at temperatures of 10 °C and 50 °C. Two filtration protocols were established: No. 1: ΔpTM was set directly to various target values. No. 2: Starting from a low ΔpTM, we increased and subsequently decreased ΔpTM stepwise. The comparison of both protocols tested the effect of the mode of ΔpTM increase to target level. The latter protocol alone tested the effect of the deposit layer history with regard to the ΔpTM. As expected, flux and protein permeation were both found to be functions of the ΔpTM. Further, both measures were independent of the filtration protocol as long as ΔpTM was held at a constant level or, as part of protocol No. 2, ΔpTM was increased. Thus, we can state that the mode of ΔpTM increase to target level does not affect filtration performance in SWM. We found that after completion of a full cycle of stepping ΔpTM up from 0.5 bar to 3.0 bar and back down, flux and deposit layer resistance were not affected by the deposit layer history at 10 °C, but they were at 50 °C. Protein permeation, however, was lower for both 10 °C and 50 °C, when the ΔpTM cycle was completed. The processing history had a significant impact on filtration performance due to remaining structural compression effects in the deposited layer, which occur most notably at higher temperatures. Furthermore, temperatures of 50 °C lead to deposit layer aging, which is probably due to an enhanced crosslinking of particles in the deposit layer. Apart from that, we could show that fouling resistance does not directly correlate with protein permeation during skim milk MF using SWM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Total, Neutral, and Polar Lipids of Brewing Ingredients, By-Products and Beer: Evaluation of Antithrombotic Activities
Foods 2019, 8(5), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050171 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer’s spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted [...] Read more.
The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer’s spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted according to the Bligh and Dyer method and further separated into the total neutral lipids (TNL) and total polar lipids (TPL) extracts by counter-current distribution. The TL, TNL, and TPL extracts of all samples were assessed for their ability to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation. The raw materials, by-products, wort, and beer lipid extracts all exhibited antithrombotic properties against PAF and thrombin. However, the beer TPL exhibited the lowest IC50 values against PAF-induced (7.8 ± 3.9 µg) and thrombin-induced (4.3 ± 3.0 µg) platelet aggregation indicating that these polar lipids were the most antithrombotic. The lipid extracts tended to be more bioactive against the thrombin pathway. The fatty acid content of all the TPL extracts were assessed using GC-MS. The fatty acid composition of the most bioactive TPL extracts, the wort and the beer, shared similar fatty acid profiles. Indeed, it was noted that fermentation seems to play a role in increasing the antithrombotic properties of polar lipids against PAF and thrombin by moderately altering the polar lipid fatty acid composition. Furthermore, the use of brewing by-products as a source of functional cardioprotective lipids warrants further investigation and valorisation. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Production and Refinement of Omega-3 Rich Oils from Processing By-Products of Farmed Fish Species
Foods 2019, 8(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040125 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
In this study, the effect of a four-stage chemical refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization) on the quality parameters, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of crude oils produced from processing by-products of farmed fish species (tuna, seabass and gilthead seabream) was evaluated. [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of a four-stage chemical refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization) on the quality parameters, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of crude oils produced from processing by-products of farmed fish species (tuna, seabass and gilthead seabream) was evaluated. The quality of the oils was compared to commercially available cod liver oil on the basis of free fatty acid, peroxide value, p-anisidine, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), oxidative stability at 80, 100 and 120 °C, tocopherol content, and volatile components, while the fatty acid profile and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were used as an indicator of the nutritional values of fish oils. Quality parameters of the studied oils and oil oxidative stability were enhanced with refining and were within the limits recommended for fish oils without the loss of PUFAs. In tuna by-product refined oils, the proportion of PUFAs was over 40%, with 30% of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The volatile compounds of the oils were quantified (in mg/kg) and major components were 2,4-heptadienal, pentadecane, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-nonadienal and dodecane. The use of aquaculture by-products as an alternative source for fish oil production could contribute to a more sustainable and profitable aquaculture production, providing economic benefits for the producers and setting new standards for a fish by-product disposal strategy. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Affordable Production of Antioxidant Aqueous Solutions by Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing of Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) Needles
Foods 2019, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020065 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of [...] Read more.
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of the bioactive properties, the complexity of the extraction methods, and the use of potentially harmful synthetic chemicals, still represent an obstacle to the spreading of such valuable natural compounds. Hydrodynamic cavitation is emerging as a promising innovative technique for the extraction of precious food components and by-products from waste raw material of the agro-food production chain, which can improve processing efficiency, reduce resource consumption, and produce healthy, high-quality products. In this study, a process based on controlled hydrodynamic cavitation was applied for the first time to the production of aqueous solutions of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) needles with enhanced antioxidant activity. The observed levels of the in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable or higher than those found for reference substances, pure extracts, and other water extracts and beverages, highlight the very good potential of the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) process for the creation of solvent-free, aqueous solutions endowed with bioactive compounds extracted from silver fir needles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Varietal Authentication of Extra Virgin Olive Oils by Triacylglycerols and Volatiles Analysis
Foods 2019, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020058 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present [...] Read more.
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present research, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and volatiles have been studied as chemical markers for the authentication of EVOO samples from four Italian varieties of Olea europea (Dolce Agogia, Frantoio, Leccino, and Moraiolo). The monocultivar EVOO samples have been subjected to a chemical–enzymatic chromatographic method in order to perform a stereospecific analysis, an important procedure for the characterization of TAG of food products. The results, combined with chemometric analysis (linear discriminant analysis, LDA), were elaborated in order to classify Italian EVOO monocultivar samples. In accordance with the total and intrapositional fatty acid (FA) composition of TAG fraction, the results were allowed to carry out a varietal discrimination. In addition, volatile compounds were also determined by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All EVOO samples were correctly classified when TAG stereospecific data and volatile results were elaborated by the LDA procedure, even if volatile compounds showed a higher discriminant power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Quality and Nutritional/Textural Properties of Durum Wheat Pasta Enriched with Cricket Powder
Foods 2019, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020046 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 19
Abstract
Cricket powder (CP) contains significant amounts of protein, fat (including unsaturated fatty acids), and fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals. The high nutritional value and low price make it an interesting addition to food production. This paper is a report on the [...] Read more.
Cricket powder (CP) contains significant amounts of protein, fat (including unsaturated fatty acids), and fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals. The high nutritional value and low price make it an interesting addition to food production. This paper is a report on the results of the addition of cricket powder to pasta. Three levels of durum semolina replacement were chosen: 5%, 10%, and 15%. The obtained products were analyzed for their nutritional composition, cooking and textural properties, and color, as well as consumer acceptance. The results indicate that the addition of CP influenced the cooking weight and cooking loss (reducing losses and water absorption), as well as the color of the pasta, reducing its lightness and shifting color balances to blue and red. The firmness of pasta was also influenced. The firmness was strengthened by addition of CP. Principal components analysis indicated that the flavor change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that protein-enriched pasta produced with CP has consumer acceptance comparable with that of conventional products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Separation and Enrichment of Antioxidant Peptides from Whey Protein Isolate Hydrolysate by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction and Aqueous Two-Phase Flotation
Foods 2019, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010034 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
At present, peptides are separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography. A separation method is needed in any case, which can be scaled up for industrial scale. In this study, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) were applied to [...] Read more.
At present, peptides are separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography. A separation method is needed in any case, which can be scaled up for industrial scale. In this study, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) were applied to separate and enrich antioxidant peptides from trypsin hydrolysates of whey protein isolates (WPI). The best experimental conditions were investigated, and the results were evaluated using the 2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity of the peptides-per-unit concentration and the recovery rate (Y) of peptides in the top phase of both ATPE and ATPF. Under optimal conditions, the Y and ABTS free radical scavenging activity per unit concentration in top phase of ATPE could reach 38.75% and 12.94%, respectively, and in ATPF could reach 11.71% and 29.18%, respectively. The purified peptides were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). PeptideCutter and PeptideMass were applied to analyze and calculate the peptide sequencing. KILDKVGINYWLAHK, VGINYWLAHKALCSEK, and TPEVDDEALEKFDKALK sequences having antioxidant activity were detected in the top phase of ATPE, and VGINYWLAHKALCSEK, KILLDKVGINYWLAHK, ILLDKVGINYWLAHK, IIAEKTKIPAVFK, KIIAEKTKIPAVFK, and VYVEELKPTPEGDLEILLQK sequences having antioxidant activity were detected in the top phase of ATPF. In conclusion, antioxidant peptides were successfully separated from the WPI hydrolysate by ATPE and ATPF; compared with ATPE, ATPF has superior specificity in separating antioxidant peptides. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Prevalence of Pathogens in Poultry Meat: A Meta-Analysis of European Published Surveys
Foods 2018, 7(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050069 - 03 May 2018
Cited by 30
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate and summarize the levels of incidence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat commercialized in Europe. After systematic review, incidence data and study characteristics were extracted from 78 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate and summarize the levels of incidence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat commercialized in Europe. After systematic review, incidence data and study characteristics were extracted from 78 studies conducted in 21 European countries. Pooled prevalence values from 203 extracted observations were estimated from random-effects meta-analysis models adjusted by pathogen, poultry type, sampling stage, cold preservation type, meat cutting type and packaging status. The results suggest that S. aureus is the main pathogen detected in poultry meat (38.5%; 95% CI: 25.4–53.4), followed by Campylobacter spp. (33.3%; 95% CI: 22.3–46.4%), while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. present lower prevalence (19.3%; 95% CI: 14.4–25.3% and 7.10%; 95% CI: 4.60–10.8%, respectively). Despite the differences in prevalence, all pathogens were found in chicken and other poultry meats, at both end-processing step and retail level, in packed and unpacked products and in several meat cutting types. Prevalence data on cold preservation products also revealed that chilling and freezing can reduce the proliferation of pathogens but might not be able to inactivate them. The results of this meta-analysis highlight that further risk management strategies are needed to reduce pathogen incidence in poultry meat throughout the entire food chain across Europe, in particular for S. aureus and Campylobacter spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Protein Determination—Method Matters
Foods 2018, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7010005 - 01 Jan 2018
Cited by 57
Abstract
The reported protein content of foods depends on the analytical method used for determination, making a direct comparison between studies difficult. The aim of this study was to examine and compare protein analytical methods. Some of these methods require extraction preceding analysis. The [...] Read more.
The reported protein content of foods depends on the analytical method used for determination, making a direct comparison between studies difficult. The aim of this study was to examine and compare protein analytical methods. Some of these methods require extraction preceding analysis. The efficacy of protein extraction differs depending on food matrices and thus extraction yield was determined. Overall, most analytical methods overestimated the protein contents. The inaccuracies were linked to indirect measurements, i.e. nitrogen determination and subsequent conversion to protein, or interference from other chemical substances. Amino acid analysis is the only protein analysis method where interfering substances do not affect the results. Although there is potential for improvement in regards to the hydrolysis method, we recommend that this method should be the preferred for food protein determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides) Printed Edition available

Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
How Fermentation Affects the Antioxidant Properties of Cereals and Legumes
Foods 2019, 8(9), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090362 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
The major role of antioxidant compounds in preserving food shelf life, as well as providing health promoting benefits, combined with the increasing concern towards synthetic antioxidants, has led the scientific community to focus on natural antioxidants present in food matrices or resulting from [...] Read more.
The major role of antioxidant compounds in preserving food shelf life, as well as providing health promoting benefits, combined with the increasing concern towards synthetic antioxidants, has led the scientific community to focus on natural antioxidants present in food matrices or resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant compounds of vegetables, with emphasis on cereals- and legumes- derived foods. Polyphenols are the main natural antioxidants in food. However, they are often bound to cell wall, glycosylated, or in polymeric forms, which affect their bioaccessibility, yet several metabolic activities are involved in their release or conversion in more active forms. In some cases, the antioxidant properties in vitro, were also confirmed during in vivo studies. Similarly, bioactive peptides resulted from bacterial and fungal proteolysis, were also found to have ex vivo protective effect against oxidation. Fermentation also influenced the bioaccessibility of other compounds, such as vitamins and exopolysaccharides, enabling a further improvement of antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. The ability of fermentation to improve food antioxidant properties strictly relies on the metabolic activities of the starter used, and to further demonstrate its potential, more in vivo studies should be carried out. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Understanding Food Loss and Waste—Why Are We Losing and Wasting Food?
Foods 2019, 8(8), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080297 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) reported that approximately one-third of all produced foods (1.3 billion tons of edible food) for human consumption is lost and wasted every year across the entire supply chain. Significant impacts of food loss and waste (FLW) have [...] Read more.
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) reported that approximately one-third of all produced foods (1.3 billion tons of edible food) for human consumption is lost and wasted every year across the entire supply chain. Significant impacts of food loss and waste (FLW) have increased interest in establishing prevention programs around the world. This paper aims to provide an overview of FLW occurrence and prevention. Economic, political, cultural, and socio-demographic drivers of FLW are described, highlighting the global variation. This approach might be particularly helpful for scientists, governors, and policy makers to identify the global variation and to focus on future implications. The main focus here was to identify the cause of the FLW occurrence throughout the food supply chain. We have created a framework for FLW occurrence at each stage of the food supply chain. Several feasible solutions are provided based on the framework. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): A Powerful and Greener Alternative to the Latest Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques
Foods 2019, 8(7), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070245 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The [...] Read more.
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The objective of this procedure is the extraction of any compounds that can be carried out from the inner solid material to the outlet, resulting in a solution containing colorants, bioactive compounds, odorous substances, etc. Over the years, in the extraction techniques sector, there have been many important changes from the points of view of production, quality, and human and environmental safety due to improvements in technology. In more recent times, the interest of the scientific community has been aimed at the study of sustainable processes for the valorization of extracts from vegetables and food by-products, through the use of non-conventional (innovative) technologies that represent a valid alternative to conventional methods, generally through saving time and energy and the formation of fewer by-products. Therefore, with the development of principles based on the prevention of pollution, on a lower risk for human health, and on a low environmental impact, new systems have been implemented to reduce extraction times and solvent consumption, to improve efficiency, and to increase the productivity of the extracts. From this point of view, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), performed using the Naviglio extractor, compared to traditional applications, is a technique that is able to reduce extraction times, generally leads to higher yields, does not require heating of the system, allows one to extract the active ingredients, and avoids their degradation. This technique is based on a new solid-liquid extraction principle named Naviglio’s principle. In this review, after reviewing the latest extraction techniques, an overview of RSLDE applications in various research and production sectors over the past two decades is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Bioactive Compounds and Biological Functions of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Foods 2019, 8(7), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070246 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 38
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a widely consumed spice in the world. Garlic contains diverse bioactive compounds, such as allicin, alliin, diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene, and S-allyl-cysteine. Substantial studies have shown that garlic and its bioactive constituents exhibit antioxidant, [...] Read more.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a widely consumed spice in the world. Garlic contains diverse bioactive compounds, such as allicin, alliin, diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene, and S-allyl-cysteine. Substantial studies have shown that garlic and its bioactive constituents exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular protective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, digestive system protective, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, neuroprotective, and renal protective properties. In this review, the main bioactive compounds and important biological functions of garlic are summarized, highlighting and discussing the relevant mechanisms of actions. Overall, garlic is an excellent natural source of bioactive sulfur-containing compounds and has promising applications in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and management of certain diseases. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Bioactive Compounds and Bioactivities of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
Foods 2019, 8(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060185 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 33
Abstract
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common and widely used spice. It is rich in various chemical constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and raw fibers. The health benefits of ginger are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds, such [...] Read more.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common and widely used spice. It is rich in various chemical constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and raw fibers. The health benefits of ginger are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds, such as gingerols and shogaols. Accumulated investigations have demonstrated that ginger possesses multiple biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, neuroprotective, cardiovascular protective, respiratory protective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antinausea, and antiemetic activities. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger, and the mechanisms of action are also discussed. We hope that this updated review paper will attract more attention to ginger and its further applications, including its potential to be developed into functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Recent Advances in the Use of Sourdough Biotechnology in Pasta Making
Foods 2019, 8(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040129 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
The growing consumers’ request for foods with well-balanced nutritional profile and functional properties promotes research on innovation in pasta making. As a staple food and a common component of diet, pasta can be considered as a vector of dietary fiber, vegetable proteins, vitamins, [...] Read more.
The growing consumers’ request for foods with well-balanced nutritional profile and functional properties promotes research on innovation in pasta making. As a staple food and a common component of diet, pasta can be considered as a vector of dietary fiber, vegetable proteins, vitamins, minerals, and functional compounds. The conventional process for pasta production does not include a fermentation step. However, novel recipes including sourdough-fermented ingredients have been recently proposed, aiming at enhancing the nutritional and functional properties of this product and at enriching commercial offerings with products with new sensorial profiles. The use of sourdough for pasta fortification has been investigated under several aspects, including fortification in vitamin B, the reduction of starch digestibility, and gluten content. Sourdough fermentation has also been successfully applied to non-conventional flours, (e.g., from pseudocereals and legumes), in which an overall increase of the nutritional value and health-promoting compounds, such as a significant decrease of antinutritional factors, were observed. Fermented non-conventional flours, obtained through spontaneous fermentation or using selected starters, have been proposed as pasta ingredients. As the result of wheat replacement, modification in textural properties of pasta may occur. Nonetheless, fermentation represents an efficient tool in improving, besides nutritional and functional profile, the sensory and technological features of fortified pasta. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Quality Aspects of Insects as Food—Nutritional, Sensory, and Related Concepts
Foods 2019, 8(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030095 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
In the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need for nutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as human food. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making [...] Read more.
In the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need for nutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as human food. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making it difficult to evaluate each individual insect species as food because of the generalized data. This study assessed some common edible insects, but concentrated on mealworms. Insects, especially mealworms, have a similar or higher nutritional value than many conventional food sources. For example, the protein content of mealworm larvae is reported to be almost 50% of dry weight, while the fat content is about 30% of larval dry weight. Mealworms can be cooked by different methods, such as hot air drying, oven broiling, roasting, pan frying, deep frying, boiling, steaming, and microwaving. Oven broiling in particular gives a desirable aroma of steamed corn for consumers. Changes in the flavor, taste, and texture of mealworm products during storage have not been studied, but must be determined before mealworms can be used as a commercial food source. Factors controlling the shelf-life of mealworms, such as their packaging and storage, should be identified and considered with respect to the feasibility of using mealworms on a commercial scale. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications
Foods 2019, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030092 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 55
Abstract
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that [...] Read more.
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that are released into blood circulation, consequently, affecting not only the gastrointestinal tracts but also other distant organs. Fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides are the two important groups of prebiotics with beneficial effects on human health. Since low quantities of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides naturally exist in foods, scientists are attempting to produce prebiotics on an industrial scale. Considering the health benefits of prebiotics and their safety, as well as their production and storage advantages compared to probiotics, they seem to be fascinating candidates for promoting human health condition as a replacement or in association with probiotics. This review discusses different aspects of prebiotics, including their crucial role in human well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
Bacterial Production and Control of Biogenic Amines in Asian Fermented Soybean Foods
Foods 2019, 8(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020085 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Fermented soybean foods possess significant health-promoting effects and are consumed worldwide, especially within Asia, but less attention has been paid to the safety of the foods. Since fermented soybean foods contain abundant amino acids and biogenic amine-producing microorganisms, it is necessary to understand [...] Read more.
Fermented soybean foods possess significant health-promoting effects and are consumed worldwide, especially within Asia, but less attention has been paid to the safety of the foods. Since fermented soybean foods contain abundant amino acids and biogenic amine-producing microorganisms, it is necessary to understand the presence of biogenic amines in the foods. The amounts of biogenic amines in most products have been reported to be within safe levels. Conversely, certain products contain vasoactive biogenic amines greater than toxic levels. Nonetheless, government legislation regulating biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods is not found throughout the world. Therefore, it is necessary to provide strategies to reduce biogenic amine formation in the foods. Alongside numerous existing intervention methods, the use of Bacillus starter cultures capable of degrading and/or incapable of producing biogenic amines has been proposed as a guaranteed way to reduce biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods, considering that Bacillus species have been known as fermenting microorganisms responsible for biogenic amine formation in the foods. Molecular genetic studies of Bacillus genes involved in the formation and degradation of biogenic amines would be helpful in selecting starter cultures. This review summarizes the presence and control strategies of biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Impact of Biogenic Amines on Food Quality and Safety
Foods 2019, 8(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020062 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 52
Abstract
Today, food safety and quality are some of the main concerns of consumer and health agencies around the world. Our current lifestyle and market globalization have led to an increase in the number of people affected by food poisoning. Foodborne illness and food [...] Read more.
Today, food safety and quality are some of the main concerns of consumer and health agencies around the world. Our current lifestyle and market globalization have led to an increase in the number of people affected by food poisoning. Foodborne illness and food poisoning have different origins (bacteria, virus, parasites, mold, contaminants, etc.), and some cases of food poisoning can be traced back to chemical and natural toxins. One of the toxins targeted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the biogenic amine histamine. Biogenic amines (BAs) in food constitute a potential public health concern due to their physiological and toxicological effects. The consumption of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines has been associated with health hazards. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning cases associated with BAs in food, mainly in relation to histamines in fish. We need to gain a better understanding of the origin of foodborne disease and how to control it if we expect to keep people from getting ill. Biogenic amines are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.), and BA formation is influenced by different factors associated with the raw material making up food products, microorganisms, processing, and conservation conditions. Moreover, BAs are thermostable. Biogenic amines also play an important role as indicators of food quality and/or acceptability. Hence, BAs need to be controlled in order to ensure high levels of food quality and safety. All of these aspects will be addressed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Application of Sensory Descriptive Analysis and Consumer Studies to Investigate Traditional and Authentic Foods: A Review
Foods 2019, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020054 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
As globalization progresses, consumers are readily exposed to many foods from various cultures. The need for studying specialty and unique food products, sometimes known as traditional, authentic, ethnic, exotic, or artisanal foods, is increasing to accommodate consumers’ growing demands. However, the number of [...] Read more.
As globalization progresses, consumers are readily exposed to many foods from various cultures. The need for studying specialty and unique food products, sometimes known as traditional, authentic, ethnic, exotic, or artisanal foods, is increasing to accommodate consumers’ growing demands. However, the number of studies conducted on these types of products with good quality sensory testing is limited. In this review, we analyzed and reviewed sensory and consumer research on specialty and unique food products. Various factors such as manufacturing, processing, or preparation methods of the samples influence the characteristics of food products and their acceptability. Sensory descriptive analysis can be used to distinguish characteristics that highlight these differences, and consumer research is used to identify factors that affect acceptability. Familiarity with product attributes contributes to consumer acceptance. When cross-cultural consumer research is conducted to support product market placement and expansion, sensory descriptive analysis should be conducted in parallel to define product characteristics. This allows better prediction of descriptors that influence consumer acceptability, leading to appropriate product modification and successful introduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Biogenic Amine Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria: A Review
Foods 2019, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010017 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 47
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered as the main biogenic amine (BA) producers in fermented foods. These compounds derive from amino acid decarboxylation through microbial activities and can cause toxic effects on humans, with symptoms (headache, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea) depending also on [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered as the main biogenic amine (BA) producers in fermented foods. These compounds derive from amino acid decarboxylation through microbial activities and can cause toxic effects on humans, with symptoms (headache, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea) depending also on individual sensitivity. Many studies have focused on the aminobiogenic potential of LAB associated with fermented foods, taking into consideration the conditions affecting BA accumulation and enzymes/genes involved in the biosynthetic mechanisms. This review describes in detail the different LAB (used as starter cultures to improve technological and sensorial properties, as well as those naturally occurring during ripening or in spontaneous fermentations) able to produce BAs in model or in real systems. The groups considered were enterococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, lactococci, pediococci, oenococci and, as minor producers, LAB belonging to Leuconostoc and Weissella genus. A deeper knowledge of this issue is important because decarboxylase activities are often related to strains rather than to species or genera. Moreover, this information can help to improve the selection of strains for further applications as starter or bioprotective cultures, in order to obtain high quality foods with reduced BA content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Intelligent Packaging in the Food Sector: A Brief Overview
Foods 2019, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010016 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
The trend towards sustainability, improved product safety, and high-quality standards are important in all areas of life sciences. In order to satisfy these requirements, intelligent packaging is used in the food sector. These systems can monitor permanently the quality status of a product [...] Read more.
The trend towards sustainability, improved product safety, and high-quality standards are important in all areas of life sciences. In order to satisfy these requirements, intelligent packaging is used in the food sector. These systems can monitor permanently the quality status of a product and share the information with the customer. In this way, food waste can be reduced and customer satisfaction can be optimized. Depending on the product, different types of intelligent packaging technologies are used and discussed in this review. The three main groups are: data carriers, indicators, and sensors. At this time, they are not that widespread, but their potential is already known. In which areas intelligent packaging should be implemented, how the systems work, and which values they offer are dealt in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Alginate-Based Edible Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications
Foods 2018, 7(10), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100170 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 54
Abstract
Alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide used in the bio industry. It is mainly derived from brown algae species. Alginate-based edible coatings and films attract interest for improving/maintaining quality and extending the shelf-life of fruit, vegetable, meat, poultry, seafood, and cheese by reducing [...] Read more.
Alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide used in the bio industry. It is mainly derived from brown algae species. Alginate-based edible coatings and films attract interest for improving/maintaining quality and extending the shelf-life of fruit, vegetable, meat, poultry, seafood, and cheese by reducing dehydration (as sacrificial moisture agent), controlling respiration, enhancing product appearance, improving mechanical properties, etc. This paper reviews the most recent essential information about alginate-based edible coatings. The categorization of alginate-based coatings/film in food packaging concept is formed gradually with the explanation of the most important titles. Emphasis will be placed on active ingredients incorporated into alginate-based formulations, edible coating/film application methods, research and development studies of coated food products and mass transfer and barrier characteristics of the alginate-based coatings/films. Future trends are also reviewed to identify research gaps and recommend new research areas. The summarized information presented in this article will enable researchers to thoroughly understand the fundamentals of the coating process and to develop alginate-based edible films and coatings more readily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Edible Films and Coatings)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Chemical and Biological Sensors for Food-Quality Monitoring and Smart Packaging
Foods 2018, 7(10), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100168 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 27
Abstract
The growing interest in food quality and safety requires the development of sensitive and reliable methods of analysis as well as technology for freshness preservation and food quality. This review describes the status of chemical and biological sensors for food monitoring and smart [...] Read more.
The growing interest in food quality and safety requires the development of sensitive and reliable methods of analysis as well as technology for freshness preservation and food quality. This review describes the status of chemical and biological sensors for food monitoring and smart packaging. Sensing designs and their analytical features for measuring freshness markers, allergens, pathogens, adulterants and toxicants are discussed with example of applications. Their potential implementation in smart packaging could facilitate food-status monitoring, reduce food waste, extend shelf-life, and improve overall food quality. However, most sensors are still in the development stage and need significant work before implementation in real-world applications. Issues like sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and safety of the sensing materials due to potential contact or migration in food need to be established. The current development status of these technologies, along with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities for future research, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Application in Food Analysis and Detection)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control
Foods 2018, 7(10), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100167 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 37
Abstract
Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans. The emergence of several Salmonella serotypes resistant to multiple antibiotics in food animals underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discuss the various antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serotypes in food animals and the food supply, factors that contributed to their emergence, their antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the public health implications of their spread through the food supply, and the potential antibiotic alternatives for controlling them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies of High-Added Value Compounds from Plant Materials
Foods 2018, 7(7), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7070106 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 56
Abstract
Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). Global food markets demand foods from plant materials that are “safe”, “fresh”, “natural”, and with “nutritional value” while processed in [...] Read more.
Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). Global food markets demand foods from plant materials that are “safe”, “fresh”, “natural”, and with “nutritional value” while processed in sustainable ways. Functional foods commonly incorporate some plant extract(s) rich with BACs produced by conventional extraction. This approach implies negative thermal influences on extraction yield and quality with a large expenditure of organic solvents and energy. On the other hand, sustainable extractions, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), high-pressure assisted extraction (HPAE), high voltage electric discharges assisted extraction (HVED), pulsed electric fields assisted extraction (PEF), supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and others are aligned with the “green” concepts and able to provide raw materials on industrial scale with optimal expenditure of energy and chemicals. This review provides an overview of relevant innovative food processing and extraction technologies applied to various plant matrices as raw materials for functional foods production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Pharma-Nutritional Properties of Olive Oil Phenols. Transfer of New Findings to Human Nutrition
Foods 2018, 7(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060090 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 24
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of olive oil and some of its components are being rapidly decoded. In this paper we review the most recent pharma-nutritional investigations on olive oil biophenols and their health effects, chiefly focusing on recent findings that elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Nanoparticles and Controlled Delivery for Bioactive Compounds: Outlining Challenges for New “Smart-Foods” for Health
Foods 2018, 7(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050072 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 33
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations. [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations. Actually, industry has applied this technology in the search for new oral delivery alternatives obtained upon the modification of the solubility properties of bioactive compounds. Significant works have been made in the last years for testing the input that nanomaterials and nanoparticles provide for an array of pathophysiological situations. In this frame, this review addresses general questions concerning the extent to which nanoparticles offer alternatives that improve therapeutic value, while avoid toxicity, by releasing bioactive compounds specifically to target tissues affected by specific chemical and pathophysiological settings. In this regard, to date, the contribution of nanoparticles to protect encapsulated bioactive compounds from degradation as a result of gastrointestinal digestion and cellular metabolism, to enable their release in a controlled manner, enhancing biodistribution of bioactive compounds, and to allow them to target those tissues affected by biological disturbances has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems
Foods 2018, 7(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7030037 - 13 Mar 2018
Cited by 31
Abstract
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm [...] Read more.
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very little quantitative studies have been carried out to date. Some studies have highlighted potential correlation of pasture with enhanced “barny” or “cowy” sensory attributes and subsequently linked these to accumulation of p-cresol from the metabolism of β-carotene and aromatic amino acids or possibly isoflavones in the rumen. p-Cresol has also been suggested as a potential biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Other studies have linked terpenes to specific sensory properties in milk and cheese but this only appears to be relevant in milk and cheese derived from unseeded wild pasture where high concentrations accumulate, as their odour threshold is quite high. Toluene also a product of β-carotene metabolism has been identified as a potential biomarker for pasture derived dairy products but it has little impact on sensory perception due to its high odour threshold. Dimethyl sulfone has been linked to pasture diets and could influence sensory perception as its odour threshold is low. Other studies have linked the presence of maize and legumes (clover) in silage with adverse sensory impacts in milk and cheese. Considerably more research is required to define key dietary related impacts on the flavour of milk and cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Animal Origin)
Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to Be Concerned?
Foods 2018, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7030029 - 01 Mar 2018
Cited by 75
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, the relationship between dairy consumption, cardiometabolic risk factors and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are discussed. Functional dairy foods and the health implications of dairy alternatives are also considered. In general, evidence suggests that milk has a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes but fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese may have a positive or neutral effect. Particular focus is placed on the effects of the lipid content on cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Dairy Foods)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
The Role of Bacteria, Probiotics and Diet in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Foods 2018, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7020013 - 26 Jan 2018
Cited by 27
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that threatens the quality of life of millions and poses a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Intense research into the human microbiome has led to fascinating discoveries which directly and [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that threatens the quality of life of millions and poses a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Intense research into the human microbiome has led to fascinating discoveries which directly and indirectly implicate the diversity and function of this occult organ in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The benefit of manipulating the gastrointestinal microbiota with diet and probiotics to improve symptoms has been demonstrated in a wealth of both animal and human studies. The positive and negative mechanistic roles bacteria play in IBS will be explored and practical probiotic and dietary choices offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Human Health)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Effects of Cold Plasma on Food Quality: A Review
Foods 2018, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7010004 - 01 Jan 2018
Cited by 66
Abstract
Cold plasma (CP) technology has proven very effective as an alternative tool for food decontamination and shelf-life extension. The impact of CP on food quality is very crucial for its acceptance as an alternative food processing technology. Due to the non-thermal nature, CP [...] Read more.
Cold plasma (CP) technology has proven very effective as an alternative tool for food decontamination and shelf-life extension. The impact of CP on food quality is very crucial for its acceptance as an alternative food processing technology. Due to the non-thermal nature, CP treatments have shown no or minimal impacts on the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory attributes of various products. This review also discusses the negative impacts and limitations posed by CP technology for food products. The limited studies on interactions of CP species with food components at the molecular level offers future research opportunities. It also highlights the need for optimization studies to mitigate the negative impacts on visual, chemical, nutritional and functional properties of food products. The design versatility, non-thermal, economical and environmentally friendly nature of CP offers unique advantages over traditional processing technologies. However, CP processing is still in its nascent form and needs further research to reach its potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonthermal Modification of Food Structure and Functionality)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoicePerspective
Cheese Whey Processing: Integrated Biorefinery Concepts and Emerging Food Applications
Foods 2019, 8(8), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080347 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
Cheese whey constitutes one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, due to its high organic load. Thus, in order to mitigate the environmental concerns, a large number of valorization approaches have been reported; mainly targeting the recovery of whey proteins [...] Read more.
Cheese whey constitutes one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, due to its high organic load. Thus, in order to mitigate the environmental concerns, a large number of valorization approaches have been reported; mainly targeting the recovery of whey proteins and whey lactose from cheese whey for further exploitation as renewable resources. Most studies are predominantly focused on the separate implementation, either of whey protein or lactose, to configure processes that will formulate value-added products. Likewise, approaches for cheese whey valorization, so far, do not exploit the full potential of cheese whey, particularly with respect to food applications. Nonetheless, within the concept of integrated biorefinery design and the transition to circular economy, it is imperative to develop consolidated bioprocesses that will foster a holistic exploitation of cheese whey. Therefore, the aim of this article is to elaborate on the recent advances regarding the conversion of whey to high value-added products, focusing on food applications. Moreover, novel integrated biorefining concepts are proposed, to inaugurate the complete exploitation of cheese whey to formulate novel products with diversified end applications. Within the context of circular economy, it is envisaged that high value-added products will be reintroduced in the food supply chain, thereby enhancing sustainability and creating “zero waste” processes. Full article
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