Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Improving Hunted Wild Boar Carcass Hygiene: Roles of Different Factors Involved in the Harvest Phase
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071548 - 04 Jul 2021
Abstract
Game meat production strongly differs from that of other meats, as peculiar factors present in the field and in the steps prior to transfer to a game-handling establishment can influence the hygiene of the carcasses and, therefore, of the meat. The effects of [...] Read more.
Game meat production strongly differs from that of other meats, as peculiar factors present in the field and in the steps prior to transfer to a game-handling establishment can influence the hygiene of the carcasses and, therefore, of the meat. The effects of such factors were considered in hunted wild boars based on the main hygienic criteria adopted in meat processing. Environmental, animal, and hunting conditions were studied during two selective hunting seasons in Central Italy. A total of 120 hunted wild boar carcasses were sampled after the skinning process and analyzed for aerobic colony count, Enterobacteriaceae count, and Salmonella spp. isolation. The calculated mean values for aerobic colony and Enterobacteriaceae counts were 3.66 and 2.05 CFU/cm2, respectively, in line with the limits set for the meat of other ungulates by EU legislation. Salmonella spp. showed a prevalence of 2.5% (IC 95%: 1.72–3.27%). Statistical analysis of the data performed with the AIC criterion showed that the main parameter to consider for improving the hygienic level of carcasses is to reduce the time in the refrigerator before skinning, followed by hunting on cold days (<10 °C) without rain, hunting animals <60 kg, and reducing the time between shooting and evisceration. Full article
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Article
Assessed versus Perceived Risks: Innovative Communications in Agri-Food Supply Chains
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051001 - 03 May 2021
Abstract
Food preparations, especially those based on animal products, are often accused of being responsible for the increase in food-borne infections, contributing to increased pressure on healthcare systems. The risk assessment in agri-food supply chains is of utmost importance for the food industry and [...] Read more.
Food preparations, especially those based on animal products, are often accused of being responsible for the increase in food-borne infections, contributing to increased pressure on healthcare systems. The risk assessment in agri-food supply chains is of utmost importance for the food industry and for policymakers. A wrong perception of risks may alter the functioning of supply chains; thus, efforts should be devoted to communicating risks in an efficient way. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to investigate how consumers perceive different food risks. Our analysis shows that planning effective communication strategies is very much important for efficiently informing consumers on food risks. We also comment on potential innovative ways to better organise the supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Highly-Efficient Release of Ferulic Acid from Agro-Industrial By-Products via Enzymatic Hydrolysis with Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes: Part I–The Superiority of Hydrolytic Enzymes Versus Conventional Hydrolysis
Foods 2021, 10(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040782 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Historically Triticum aestívum L. and Secale cereále L. are widely used in the production of bakery products. From the total volume of grain cultivated, roughly 85% is used for the manufacturing of flour, while the remaining part is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. [...] Read more.
Historically Triticum aestívum L. and Secale cereále L. are widely used in the production of bakery products. From the total volume of grain cultivated, roughly 85% is used for the manufacturing of flour, while the remaining part is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. The limited value attached to bran is associated with their structural complexity, i.e., the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which makes this material suitable mostly as a feed supplement, while in food production its use presents a challenge. To valorize these materials to food and pharmaceutical applications, additional pre-treatment is required. In the present study, an effective, sustainable, and eco-friendly approach to ferulic acid (FA) production was demonstrated through the biorefining process accomplished by non-starch polysaccharides degrading enzymes. Up to 11.3 and 8.6 g kg−1 of FA was released from rye and wheat bran upon 24 h enzymatic hydrolysis with multi-enzyme complex Viscozyme® L, respectively. Full article
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Article
Using Einkorn and Tritordeum Brewers’ Spent Grain to Increase the Nutritional Potential of Durum Wheat Pasta
Foods 2021, 10(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030502 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to [...] Read more.
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to produce four macaroni pasta formulations enriched with BSG at ratios of 5 g and 10 g/100 g of semolina. Einkorn BSG showed the highest values for all the parameters analyzed—proteins, total dietary fiber (TDF) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)—except for β-glucan. TDF increased up to 42 and 68% in pasta samples enriched with 10% of BSG from tritordeum and einkorn, respectively. The replacement of 10% of semolina with BSG from both cereals significantly increased the β-glucan content and TAC values. Finally, the addition of BSG from einkorn and tritordeum affected to a minimal extent the sensory properties of cooked pasta, which showed higher values of optimal cooking time and cooking loss, but lower total organic matter compared to semolina pasta. Results from the sensorial judgment fell in the good quality ranges for durum wheat pasta; the incorporation of 10% of einkorn BSG resulted in the best compromise in terms of technological, nutritional and sensorial aspects of enriched pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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Article
Food Choice Determinants and Perceptions of a Healthy Diet among Italian Consumers
Foods 2021, 10(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020318 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
Healthy food choices are crucial for a healthy lifestyle. However, food choices are complex and affected by various factors. Understanding the determinant factors affecting food choices could aid policy-makers in designing better strategies to promote healthy food choices in the general public. This [...] Read more.
Healthy food choices are crucial for a healthy lifestyle. However, food choices are complex and affected by various factors. Understanding the determinant factors affecting food choices could aid policy-makers in designing better strategies to promote healthy food choices in the general public. This study aims to evaluate the food choice motivations and to segment consumer groups, according to their food choice motivations, in a sample of 531 Italian consumers (collected by convenience sampling), through offline and online survey platforms. K-means cluster analysis was applied to identify consumer groups using six food choice motivation categories (health, emotional, economic and availability, social and cultural, environmental and political, and marketing and commercial). The results suggest that the strongest determinants for the food choices of Italian consumers are Environmental factors and Health. Two consumer profiles were identified through the segmentation analysis: Emotional eating and Health-driven consumers. The respondents were found to have a good awareness of what comprises a healthy diet. There is a potential market for healthy and sustainable food products, especially products with minimal or environmentally friendly packages. Food labels and information strategies could be promoted as tools to assist consumers to make healthy food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivations Associated with Food Choices and Eating Practices)
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Article
COVID-19 Lockdown and Self-Perceived Changes of Food Choice, Waste, Impulse Buying and Their Determinants in Italy: QuarantEat, a Cross-Sectional Study
Foods 2021, 10(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020306 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 12
Abstract
Data about self-perceived food choice (FC) changes and their determinants during COVID-19 lockdowns are limited. This study investigated how the Italian lockdown affected self-perceived food purchases (FP), occurrence of impulse buying (IB), household food waste production (HFWP) and their determinants. A web-based cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Data about self-perceived food choice (FC) changes and their determinants during COVID-19 lockdowns are limited. This study investigated how the Italian lockdown affected self-perceived food purchases (FP), occurrence of impulse buying (IB), household food waste production (HFWP) and their determinants. A web-based cross-sectional survey was distributed in May 2020, collecting an opportunistic sample of the Italian population. A total of 1865 (70% females) people were enrolled, the median age was 29 (IQR 16.0). Most of the sample increased overall FP (53.4%), food consumption (43.4%), reduced HFWP (53.7%) and halved the prevalence of IB (20.9%) compared to the period before the lockdown (42.5%). Baking ingredients, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit and chocolate had the largest sales increase by individuals, while bakery products, fresh fish and salted snacks purchases highly decreased. Increased FP was associated with the occurrence of IB (adjOR 2.48, p < 0.001) and inversely associated with not having worked during lockdown (adjOR 0.71, p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regressions revealed occurrence of IB was associated with low perceived dietary quality (adjOR 2.22, p < 0.001), resulting at risk, according to the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ, adjOR 1.68, p < 0.001), and inversely associated with decreased HFWP (adjOR 0.73, p < 0.012). Reduced HFWP was associated with higher perceived dietary quality (adjOR 2.27, p < 0.001) and negatively associated with low score at WHO-5 Well-Being Index (adjOR 0.72, p = 0.002). The Italian lockdown highly affected FC behaviours, leading to positive and sustainable habits towards food purchase and consumption. Public health interventions are needed to keep these new positive effects and avoid negative consequences in case of future lockdowns. Full article
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Article
Genotype and Successive Harvests Interaction Affects Phenolic Acids and Aroma Profile of Genovese Basil for Pesto Sauce Production
Foods 2021, 10(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020278 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an essential ingredient of the Mediterranean cuisine due to its distinctive aroma. Genovese basil leaves are used to prepare “pesto”, a condiment that has always caught the interest of consumers and producers. Usually, basil for industrial processing [...] Read more.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an essential ingredient of the Mediterranean cuisine due to its distinctive aroma. Genovese basil leaves are used to prepare “pesto”, a condiment that has always caught the interest of consumers and producers. Usually, basil for industrial processing is harvested more than once to extract a higher yield. However, successive cuts can affect quality traits that play a crucial role in defining the product’s final sensory profile. This research was aimed to evaluate the impact of cut on the quantitative and qualitative properties of three Genovese basil cultivars (Aroma 2, Eleonora and Italiano Classico) grown in an open field. Nitrate content, phenolic acids and aromatic profile were determined by ion chromatography (IC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis, respectively. The second harvest increased fresh biomass and total phenolic acids content by 172% and 413%, respectively, with Italiano Classico recording the highest values. The combination of second-cut Aroma 2 yielded the lowest nitrate (473.8 mg kg−1 of fresh weight) and Eugenol (2.4%) levels. In the second harvest, Eleonora showed an increase in eugenol and trans-α-bergamotene of 75.3% and 48.2%, respectively; whereas, eucalyptol and β-cis-ocimene decreased by 34.4% and 51.6%, respectively. Although successive harvests may increase basil yield and quality overall, the cultivar-dependent response to successive cuts needs to be accounted for in order to accomplish standardization of industrial “pesto” sauce. Full article
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Article
Changes in the Food-Related Behaviour of Italian Consumers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Foods 2021, 10(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010169 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 10
Abstract
The principal aim of this study is to explore the effects of the first lockdown of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on changes in food consumption and food-related behaviour on a diverse sample of Italian consumers aged ≥18 years. To achieve this [...] Read more.
The principal aim of this study is to explore the effects of the first lockdown of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on changes in food consumption and food-related behaviour on a diverse sample of Italian consumers aged ≥18 years. To achieve this aim, the research path starts with an investigation of some of the first few studies conducted on Italian consumers. It then reports the findings of a pilot survey carried out on a small sample of Italian consumes who live in Molise. The studies chosen for investigation were published as articles or research reports. In total, six relevant studies were chosen, each involving a different sized sample of Italian consumers. The average number of respondents is 2142, with a standard deviation of 1260.56. A distinction is made between the results of the articles, the research reports, and the pilot survey. The latter was conducted to develop and validate the components of a new questionnaire and, furthermore, to assess changes in the eating habits of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that the effects of the pandemic on consumer behaviour can, above all, be grouped into changes related to shopping for food, eating habits, and food-related behaviour. This article can serve as the basis for future research in this area as it identifies and highlights key changes, in addition to comparing the earliest evidence available, using a critical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Basil Essential Oil: Composition, Antimicrobial Properties, and Microencapsulation to Produce Active Chitosan Films for Food Packaging
Foods 2021, 10(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010121 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 12
Abstract
The essential oil (EO) from basil—Ocimum basilicum—was characterized, microencapsulated by vibration technology, and used to prepare a new type of packaging system designed to extend the food shelf life. The basil essential oil (BEO) chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were analyzed, [...] Read more.
The essential oil (EO) from basil—Ocimum basilicum—was characterized, microencapsulated by vibration technology, and used to prepare a new type of packaging system designed to extend the food shelf life. The basil essential oil (BEO) chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were analyzed, as well as the morphological and biological properties of the derived BEO microcapsules (BEOMC). Analysis of BEO by gas chromatography demonstrated that the main component was linalool, whereas the study of its antimicrobial activity showed a significant inhibitory effect against all the microorganisms tested, mostly Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the prepared BEOMC showed a spheroidal shape and retained the EO antimicrobial activity. Finally, chitosan-based edible films were produced, grafted with BEOMC, and characterized for their physicochemical and biological properties. Since their effective antimicrobial activity was demonstrated, these films were tested as packaging system by wrapping cooked ham samples during 10 days of storage, with the aim of their possible use to extend the shelf life of the product. It was demonstrated that the obtained active film can both control the bacterial growth of the cooked ham and markedly inhibit the pH increase of the packaged food. Full article
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Article
Screening and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Their Antioxidant Capacity in Different Fruit Peels
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091206 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
Fruit peels have a diverse range of phytochemicals including carotenoids, vitamins, dietary fibres, and phenolic compounds, some with remarkable antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, the comprehensive screening and characterization of the complex array of phenolic compounds in different fruit peels is limited. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Fruit peels have a diverse range of phytochemicals including carotenoids, vitamins, dietary fibres, and phenolic compounds, some with remarkable antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, the comprehensive screening and characterization of the complex array of phenolic compounds in different fruit peels is limited. This study aimed to determine the polyphenol content and their antioxidant potential in twenty different fruit peel samples in an ethanolic extraction, including their comprehensive characterization and quantification using the LC-MS/MS and HPLC. The obtained results showed that the mango peel exhibited the highest phenolic content for TPC (27.51 ± 0.63 mg GAE/g) and TFC (1.75 ± 0.08 mg QE/g), while the TTC (9.01 ± 0.20 mg CE/g) was slightly higher in the avocado peel than mango peel (8.99 ± 0.13 mg CE/g). In terms of antioxidant potential, the grapefruit peel had the highest radical scavenging capacities for the DPPH (9.17 ± 0.19 mg AAE/g), ABTS (10.79 ± 0.56 mg AAE/g), ferric reducing capacity in FRAP (9.22 ± 0.25 mg AA/g), and total antioxidant capacity, TAC (8.77 ± 0.34 mg AAE/g) compared to other fruit peel samples. The application of LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS tentatively identified and characterized a total of 176 phenolics, including phenolic acids (49), flavonoids (86), lignans (11), stilbene (5) and other polyphenols (25) in all twenty peel samples. From HPLC-PDA quantification, the mango peel sample showed significantly higher phenolic content, particularly for phenolic acids (gallic acid, 14.5 ± 0.4 mg/g) and flavonoids (quercetin, 11.9 ± 0.4 mg/g), as compared to other fruit peel samples. These results highlight the importance of fruit peels as a potential source of polyphenols. This study provides supportive information for the utilization of different phenolic rich fruit peels as ingredients in food, feed, and nutraceutical products. Full article
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Article
European Markets for Cultured Meat: A Comparison of Germany and France
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091152 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 17
Abstract
The negative impacts of meat consumption for animals, the environment, and human health are more pressing than ever. Although some evidence points to an ongoing reduction in meat consumption in Europe, consumers are overall unwilling to cut their meat consumption in a substantial [...] Read more.
The negative impacts of meat consumption for animals, the environment, and human health are more pressing than ever. Although some evidence points to an ongoing reduction in meat consumption in Europe, consumers are overall unwilling to cut their meat consumption in a substantial way. The present study investigates dietary identities and perceptions of cultured meat in nationally representative samples from Germany (n = 1000) and France (n = 1000). Participants were recruited through an Ipsos panel to answer an online survey, which included questions about their current and intended consumption of conventional meat, as well as questions about their opinions of cultured meat. We find that, whilst rates of vegetarianism were relatively low in France, unrestricted meat-eaters were a minority in Germany, and concern for animal welfare was the most common reason given for meat reduction. Substantial markets for cultured meat exist in both countries, although German consumers are significantly more open to the concept than the French. Strikingly, cultured meat acceptance is significantly higher amongst agricultural and meat workers, indicating that those who are closest to existing meat production methods are most likely to prefer alternatives. We found some evidence that pro-cultured meat messages, which focus on antibiotic resistance and food safety, are significantly more persuasive than those that focus on animals or the environment. Furthermore, consumers project that they would be significantly more likely to consume cultured meat that does not contain genetically modified ingredients. Overall, we find substantially large markets for cultured meat in Germany and France, and identify some potential ways to further increase acceptance in these markets. We conclude by highlighting the most promising markets for cultured meat, and highlighting a lack of antibiotics as a potentially persuasive message about cultured meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered and Cell-Based Meat and Seafood)
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Article
Sourdough Fermentation Degrades Wheat Alpha-Amylase/Trypsin Inhibitor (ATI) and Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activity
Foods 2020, 9(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070943 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 18
Abstract
The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease [...] Read more.
The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease and non-celiac wheat sensitivity. ATI are involved in plant self-defense against insects and possibly in grain development. Notably, they are largely resistant to gastrointestinal proteases and heat, and their inflammatory activity affects not only the intestine, but also peripheral organs. The aim of this study was to understand the changes of ATI throughout the sourdough and yeast-fermented bread-making processes. ATI tetramers were isolated, fluorescein-labelled, and added to a mini-dough bread-making system. When the pH decreased below 4.0 in sourdough fermentation, the ATI tetramers were degraded due to the activation of aspartic proteases, whilst in yeast fermentation, ATI tetramers remained intact. The amylase inhibitory activity after sourdough fermentation decreased significantly, while the concentration of free thiol groups increased. The glutathione reductase activity of Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis did not contribute to the reduction of ATI tetramers. Compared to the unfermented wheat, sourdough fermentation was able to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in quantitative ATI extracts added to the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The current data suggest that sourdough fermentation can degrade ATI structure and bioactivity, and point to strategies to improve product development for wheat sensitivity patients. Full article
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Article
Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of High Concentration of Bioactive Compounds Fragments from Euphorbia hirta L. Extract and Their Effect on Diabetes Mellitus
Foods 2020, 9(7), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070881 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
The present study was performed to spray-dry the high concentration of bioactive compounds from Euphorbia hirta L. extracts that have antidiabetic activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four different extracts (crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract [...] Read more.
The present study was performed to spray-dry the high concentration of bioactive compounds from Euphorbia hirta L. extracts that have antidiabetic activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four different extracts (crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract) from the dried powder of Euphorbia hirta L. were determined using a spectrophotometer. After that, the fragment containing a high number of bioactive compounds underwent spray-dried microencapsulation to produce powder which had antidiabetic potential. The total phenolic content values of the crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract were 194.55 ± 0.82, 51.85 ± 3.12, 81.56 ± 1.72 and 214.21 ± 2.53 mg/g extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extracts showed total flavonoids 40.56 ± 7.27, 29.49 ± 1.66, 64.99 ± 2.60 and 91.69 ± 1.67 mg/g extract, as rutin equivalents. Ethyl acetate extract was mixed with 20% maltodextrin in a ratio of 1:10 to spray-dry microencapsulation. The results revealed that the moisture content, bulk density, color characteristic, solubility and hygroscopicity of the samples were 4.9567 ± 0.00577%, 0.3715 ± 0.01286 g/mL, 3.7367 ± 0.1424 Hue, 95.83 ± 1.44% and 9.9890 ± 1.4538 g H2O/100 g, respectively. The spray powder was inhibited 51.19% α-amylase at 10 mg/mL and reduced 51% in fast blood glucose (FBG) after 4 h treatment. Furthermore, the administration of spray powder for 15 days significantly lowered the fast blood glucose level in streptozotocin-diabetic mice by 23.32%, whereas, acarbose—a standard antidiabetic drug—and distilled water reduced the fast blood glucose level by 30.87% and 16.89%. Our results show that obtained Euphorbia hirta L. powder has potential antidiabetic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Article
Development of High-Moisture Meat Analogues with Hemp and Soy Protein Using Extrusion Cooking
Foods 2020, 9(6), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060772 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
The interest in plant-based products is growing in Western countries, mostly due to health and environmental issues that arise from the consumption and production of animal-based food products. Many vegan products today are made from soy, but drawbacks include the challenges of cultivating [...] Read more.
The interest in plant-based products is growing in Western countries, mostly due to health and environmental issues that arise from the consumption and production of animal-based food products. Many vegan products today are made from soy, but drawbacks include the challenges of cultivating soy in colder climates such as northern Europe. Therefore, the present study investigates whether industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) could substitute soy in the production of high moisture meat analogues (HMMA). A twin screw co-rotating extruder was used to investigate to what extent hemp protein concentrate (HPC) could replace soy protein isolate (SPI) in HMMAs. The substitution levels of HPC were 20 wt%, 40 wt% and 60 wt%. Pasting properties and melting temperature of the protein powders were characterized by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), respectively and the produced HMMA was analysed by determining the texture and colour attributes. The results showed that it is possible to extrude a mixture with up to 60% HPC. HPC absorbed less water and needed a higher denaturing temperature compared to SPI. Increasing the moisture content by 5% would have resulted in a reduction of hardness and chewiness. The lightness (L* value) was found to be significantly higher in SPI product and decreased in the mixture with higher HPC (p < 0.05). Full article
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Article
Physicochemical Composition and Nutritional Properties of Deer Burger Enhanced with Healthier Oils
Foods 2020, 9(5), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050571 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 20
Abstract
Deer meat is characterized by low fat and cholesterol contents and high amounts of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this regard, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of pork backfat substitution by healthier oils on chemical composition, fatty [...] Read more.
Deer meat is characterized by low fat and cholesterol contents and high amounts of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this regard, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of pork backfat substitution by healthier oils on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, texture profile and sensory analysis of deer burger. In addition, pH, color parameters and lipid oxidation were evaluated at 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of storage. For this study, four different treatments of deer burgers—100% pork backfat, 100% tiger nut oil, 100% chia oil, and 100% linseed oil—were elaborated. The fat replacement reduced fat and protein contents and increased moisture amounts, whereas ashes and texture parameters of deer burgers were not affected. Fatty acid profile was significantly improved with the animal fat replacement. In this regard, a significant decrease in saturated fatty acids was found in all reformulated batches, whereas in chia and linseed burger samples a dramatic increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 content and a reduction of n-3/n-6 ratio was observed. In the deer burger prepared with tiger nut oil a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids was found. Another important aspect is that the replacement of animal fat by tiger nut or linseed oil emulsion did not affect the global acceptance of deer burgers. Regarding color parameters, redness was the most affected during the whole display presenting a reduction around 50% after 18 days of storage. On the other hand, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were also affected by fat replacement and storage time, observing the highest values (2.43 mg MDA/kg) in deer burgers prepared with chia at the end of refrigerated period. Finally, from a commercial point of view, the possibility of making claims such as “low fat burgers”, “reduced saturated fat” or “high content of omega-3” makes the reformulated burgers more attractive to the consumer. Full article
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Article
Effects of Traditional Processing Techniques on the Nutritional and Microbiological Quality of Four Edible Insect Species Used for Food and Feed in East Africa
Foods 2020, 9(5), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050574 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 23
Abstract
Edible insects are increasingly being considered as food and feed ingredients because of their rich nutrient content. Already, edible insect farming has taken-off in Africa, but quality and safety concerns call for simple, actionable hazard control mechanisms. We examined the effects of traditional [...] Read more.
Edible insects are increasingly being considered as food and feed ingredients because of their rich nutrient content. Already, edible insect farming has taken-off in Africa, but quality and safety concerns call for simple, actionable hazard control mechanisms. We examined the effects of traditional processing techniques—boiling, toasting, solar-drying, oven-drying, boiling + oven-drying, boiling + solar-drying, toasting + oven-drying, toasting + solar-drying—on the proximate composition and microbiological quality of adult Acheta domesticus and Ruspolia differens, the prepupae of Hermetia illucens and 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Boiling, toasting, and drying decreased the dry matter crude fat by 0.8–51% in the order: toasting > boiling > oven-drying > solar-drying, whereas the protein contents increased by 1.2–22% following the same order. Boiling and toasting decreased aerobic mesophilic bacterial populations, lowered Staphylococcus aureus, and eliminated the yeasts and moulds, Lac+ enteric bacteria, and Salmonella. Oven-drying alone marginally lowered bacterial populations as well as yeast and moulds, whereas solar-drying alone had no effect on these parameters. Oven-drying of the boiled or toasted products increased the aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts but the products remained negative on Lac+ enteric bacteria and Salmonella. Traditional processing improves microbial safety but alters the nutritional value. Species- and treatment-specific patterns exist. Full article
Article
Physicochemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Compounds of Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Fruits Species for Potential Use in Food Applications
Foods 2020, 9(4), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040436 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
Hawthorn belongs to the Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae family and is an important medicinal plant. Due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity hawthorn has recently become quite a popular herbal medicine in phytotherapy and [...] Read more.
Hawthorn belongs to the Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae family and is an important medicinal plant. Due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity hawthorn has recently become quite a popular herbal medicine in phytotherapy and food applications. In this study, physicochemical characterization (color parameters, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, soluble carbohydrate, total carotenoid, total phenols, and flavonoid contents), antioxidant activity (by ferric-reducing antioxidant power, FRAP assay), and quantification of some individual phenolic compounds of fruits of 15 samples of different hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) collected from different regions of Iran were investigated. According to findings, the total phenols, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were in the range of 21.19–69.12 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (dw), 2.44–6.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QUE)/g dw and 0.32–1.84 mmol Fe++/g dw, respectively. Hyperoside (0.87–2.94 mg/g dw), chlorogenic acid (0.06–1.16 mg/g dw), and isoquercetin (0.24–1.59 mg/g dw) were found to be the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts of hawthorn fruits. The considerable variations in the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of hawthorn species were demonstrated by our results. Hence, the evaluation of hawthorn genetic resources could supply precious data for screening genotypes with high bioactive contents for producing natural antioxidants and other phytochemical compounds valuable for food and pharma industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Natural Products in Foods)
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Article
Insects as Novel Food: A Consumer Attitude Analysis through the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach
Foods 2020, 9(4), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040387 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 19
Abstract
In Western societies, the unfamiliarity with insect-based food is a hindrance for consumption and market development. This may depend on neophobia and reactions of disgust, individual characteristics and socio-cultural background, and risk-perceptions for health and production technologies. In addition, in many European countries, [...] Read more.
In Western societies, the unfamiliarity with insect-based food is a hindrance for consumption and market development. This may depend on neophobia and reactions of disgust, individual characteristics and socio-cultural background, and risk-perceptions for health and production technologies. In addition, in many European countries, the sale of insects for human consumption is still illegal, although European Union (EU) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are developing regulatory frameworks and environmental and quality standards. This research aims to advance the knowledge on entomophagy, providing insights to improve consumer acceptance in Italy. This is done by carrying out the characterization of a sample of consumers according to their willingness to taste several types of insect-based food and taking into account the connections among the consumers’ features. Thus, the dominance-based rough set approach is applied using the data collected from 310 Italian consumers. This approach provided 206 certain decision rules characterizing the consumers into five groups, showing the consumers’ features determining their specific classification. Although many Italian consumers are willing to accept only insects in the form of feed stuffs or supplements, this choice is a first step towards entomophagy. Conversely, young Italian people are a niche market, but they can play a role in changing trends. Full article
Article
Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Edible Films, Based on κ- and ι-Carrageenans with the Addition of Lapacho Tea Extract
Foods 2020, 9(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030357 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
The aim of the study was to characterize antioxidant and textural property differences of edible films prepared with the addition of lapacho extract (LE). The experimentally produced edible films also contained different carrageenans (ι- and κ-carrageenan). The κ- and ι-carrageenan, glycerol and the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to characterize antioxidant and textural property differences of edible films prepared with the addition of lapacho extract (LE). The experimentally produced edible films also contained different carrageenans (ι- and κ-carrageenan). The κ- and ι-carrageenan, glycerol and the different addition of LE (5%, 10%, 20%) were used as ingredients for forming films. The pH and viscosity were measured for film forming solutions (before drying). The following analyses were performed on films: the total polyphenol content (TPC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2-Diphenyl–1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Optical parameters were analyzed by the determination of UV-Vis spectra. The structure of films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The gained results indicated that the use of different gelling agents (ι- and κ-carrageenan) resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in textural properties (strength and breaking strain) of produced edible films. The highest antioxidant properties and TPC had a κ film with 20% LE (DPPH: 87.63 ± 0.03%; TPC: 233.75 ± 0.104 mg gallic acid/g). According to these results, it can be concluded that edible films with the highest concentrations of added lapacho extract can serve as a good source of antioxidant compounds. Certainly, these properties can be usefully incorporated into the wrapped food commodity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Novel Packaging Technology on Food Safety and Quality)
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Article
Comparison of Faba Bean Protein Ingredients Produced Using Dry Fractionation and Isoelectric Precipitation: Techno-Functional, Nutritional and Environmental Performance
Foods 2020, 9(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030322 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
Dry fractionated faba bean protein-rich flour (FPR) produced by milling/air classification, and faba bean protein isolate (FPI) produced by acid extraction/isoelectric precipitation were compared in terms of composition, techno-functional properties, nutritional properties and environmental impacts. FPR had a lower protein content (64.1%, dry [...] Read more.
Dry fractionated faba bean protein-rich flour (FPR) produced by milling/air classification, and faba bean protein isolate (FPI) produced by acid extraction/isoelectric precipitation were compared in terms of composition, techno-functional properties, nutritional properties and environmental impacts. FPR had a lower protein content (64.1%, dry matter (DM)) compared to FPI (90.1%, DM), due to the inherent limitations of air classification. Of the two ingredients, FPR demonstrated superior functionality, including higher protein solubility (85%), compared to FPI (32%) at pH 7. Foaming capacity was higher for FPR, although foam stability was similar for both ingredients. FPR had greater gelling ability compared to FPI. The higher carbohydrate content of FPR may have contributed to this difference. An amino acid (AA) analysis revealed that both ingredients were low in sulfur-containing AAs, with FPR having a slightly higher level than FPI. The potential nutritional benefits of the aqueous process compared to the dry process used in this study were apparent in the higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and lower trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) in FPI compared to FPR. Additionally, vicine/convicine were detected in FPR, but not in FPI. Furthermore, much lower levels of fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) were found in FPI compared to FPR. The life cycle assessment (LCA) revealed a lower environmental impact for FPR, partly due to the extra water and energy required for aqueous processing. However, in a comparison with cow’s milk protein, both FPR and FPI were shown to have considerably lower environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Individual Phenolics and Physicochemical Parameters Suitability for Romanian Honey Authentication
Foods 2020, 9(3), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030306 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 28
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of honey (raspberry, mint, rape, sunflower, thyme and polyfloral) produced in Romania. The honey samples were from the 2017 to 2018 harvest and were subjected to melissopalynological analysis, alongside the determination of the following [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of honey (raspberry, mint, rape, sunflower, thyme and polyfloral) produced in Romania. The honey samples were from the 2017 to 2018 harvest and were subjected to melissopalynological analysis, alongside the determination of the following physicochemical parameters: moisture content, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, color, total polyphenols content (TPC), flavonoids content (FC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, phenolic acids, flavonols, sugars and organic acids in order to evaluate the usefulness of this parameters for the classification of honey according to botanical origin. The results of the melissopalynological analysis revealed that five types of honey samples had a percentage of pollen grains above the minimum of 45%, which was required in order to classify the samples as monofloral honey. The total polyphenols content reached the maximum value in the case of dark honey such as mint honey, followed by raspberry, thyme and polifloral honey. Fructose, glucose, maltose, sucrose, turanose, trehalose, melesitose, and raffinose were identified and quantified in all samples. Gluconic acid was the main organic acid in the composition of all honey samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility of the botanical authentication of honey based on these physicochemical parameters. Full article
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Article
Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient
Foods 2020, 9(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 20
Abstract
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of germination time (0.8–6 days) and temperature (12–20 °C) on barley quality was studied. Non-germinated barley was used as the control. The content of vitamins B1, B2 and C, and proteins increased notably after germination, especially at longer times, while levels of fat, carbohydrates, fibre, and β-glucan were reduced. Total phenolic compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid and antioxidant activity determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity increased between 2-fold and 4-fold during sprouting, depending on germination conditions and this increase was more pronounced at higher temperatures (16–20 °C) and longer times (5–6 days). Procyanidin B and ferulic acid were the main phenolics in the soluble and insoluble fraction, respectively. Procyanidin B levels decreased while bound ferulic acid content increased during germination. Germinated barley flours exhibited lower brightness and a higher glycemic index than the control ones. This study shows that germination at 16 °C for 3.5 days was the optimum process to obtain nutritious and functional barley flours. Under these conditions, sprouts retained 87% of the initial β-glucan content, and exhibited levels of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, phenolic compounds and GABA between 1.4-fold and 2.5-fold higher than the non-sprouted grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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Article
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Essential Oil for Its Application in Foods
Foods 2020, 9(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030282 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the Coriandrum sativum essential oil. Changes in the biofilm profile of Stenotropomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis were studied using MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper on glass and wooden [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the Coriandrum sativum essential oil. Changes in the biofilm profile of Stenotropomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis were studied using MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper on glass and wooden surfaces. The molecular differences of biofilms in different days were observed as well. The major volatile compounds of the coriander essential oil in the present study were β-linalool 66.07%. Coriander essential oil radical scavenging activity was 51.05% of inhibition. Coriander essential oil expressed the strongest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis followed by S. maltophilia and Penicillium expansum. The strongest antibiofilm activity of the coriander essential oil was found against S. maltophilia. A clearly differentiated branch was obtained for early growth variants of S. maltophilia in case of planktonic cells and all experimental groups and time span can be reported for the grouping pattern of B. subtilis preferentially when comparing to the media matrix, but without clear differences among variants. The results indicate that coriander was effective against the tested Penicillium expansum in the vapor phase after 14 days with MID50 367.19 and MID90 445.92 µL/L of air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Natural Compounds)
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Article
Composition, Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Commercial Plant-Based Yogurts
Foods 2020, 9(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030252 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the key physicochemical, sensory and quality attributes of plant-based yogurts made from soy, coconut, cashew, almond and hemp, including a dairy benchmark yogurt. The soy, coconut and cashew-based yogurts showed textural parameters comparable to the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the key physicochemical, sensory and quality attributes of plant-based yogurts made from soy, coconut, cashew, almond and hemp, including a dairy benchmark yogurt. The soy, coconut and cashew-based yogurts showed textural parameters comparable to the dairy yogurt, with firmness values of 0.46, 0.44, 0.51 and 0.36 N, respectively. Rheological analysis showed that one of the soy-based yogurts was similar to the dairy yogurt in terms of apparent viscosity, in addition to water-holding capacity (82.8% and 75.7%, respectively). Other plant-based yogurts, e.g., hemp, showed different rheological and textural parameters to the other plant-based products, relating this to the agar and rice starch components of the hemp formulation. The sensory analysis demonstrated that some plant-based yogurts were similarly appreciated to dairy-based products. This was due mainly to the presence of specific hydrocolloids, sweeteners and flavours in the formulations; for example, the acceptability of the soy- and dairy-based yogurts were identical (5.95). The results obtained in this study allowed identification of key quality attributes of plant-based yogurt products and highlighted relationships between such attributes and formulation, which can be exploited in future product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Article
Rapid Identification and Visualization of Jowl Meat Adulteration in Pork Using Hyperspectral Imaging
Foods 2020, 9(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020154 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
Minced pork jowl meat, also called the sticking-piece, is commonly used to be adulterated in minced pork, which influences the overall product quality and safety. In this study, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methodology was proposed to identify and visualize this kind of meat adulteration. [...] Read more.
Minced pork jowl meat, also called the sticking-piece, is commonly used to be adulterated in minced pork, which influences the overall product quality and safety. In this study, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methodology was proposed to identify and visualize this kind of meat adulteration. A total of 176 hyperspectral images were acquired from adulterated meat samples in the range of 0%–100% (w/w) at 10% increments using a visible and near-infrared (400–1000 nm) HSI system in reflectance mode. Mean spectra were extracted from the regions of interests (ROIs) and represented each sample accordingly. The performance comparison of established partial least square regression (PLSR) models showed that spectra pretreated by standard normal variate (SNV) performed best with Rp2 = 0.9549 and residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 4.54. Furthermore, functional wavelengths related to adulteration identification were individually selected using methods of principal component (PC) loadings, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS), and regression coefficients (RC). After that, the multispectral RC-PLSR model exhibited the most satisfactory results in prediction set that Rp2 was 0.9063, RPD was 2.30, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 6.50%. Spatial distribution was visualized based on the preferred model, and adulteration levels were clearly discernible. Lastly, the visualization was further verified that prediction results well matched the known distribution in samples. Overall, HSI was tested to be a promising methodology for detecting and visualizing minced jowl meat in pork. Full article
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Article
Screening and Spontaneous Mutation of Pickle-Derived Lactobacillus plantarum with Overproduction of Riboflavin, Related Mechanism, and Food Application
Foods 2020, 9(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010088 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 17
Abstract
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin [...] Read more.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin in these LAB were about 0.096–0.700 mg/L, and one strain, Lactobacillus plantarum RYG-YYG-9049, was found to produce the highest riboflavin content. Next, roseoflavin was used to induce the spontaneous mutation of RYG-YYG-9049, and selected roseoflavin-resistant colonies generally produced higher riboflavin contents, ranging from 1.013 to 2.332 mg/L. The No. 10 mutant, L. plantarum RYG-YYG-9049-M10, had the highest riboflavin content. Next, the molecular mechanism of enhancing riboflavin production in RYG-YYG-9049-M10 was explored, leading to the finding that roseoflavin treatment did not change the rib operons including the ribA, ribB, ribC, ribH, and ribG genes. Unexpectedly, however, this mechanism did induce an insertion of a 1059-bp DNA fragment in the upstream regulatory region of the rib operon, as compared to the wild-type RYG-YYG-9049. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that roseoflavin could induce an insertion of DNA fragment in LAB to increase riboflavin content, representing a new mutation type that is induced by roseoflavin. Finally, in order to fortify riboflavin content in soymilk, RYG-YYG-9049 and RYG-YYG-9049-M10 were used to ferment soymilk, and several fermentation parameters were optimized to obtain the fermented soymilk with riboflavin contents of up to 2.920 mg/L. In general, roseoflavin induction is an economical and feasible biotechnological strategy to induce riboflavin-overproducing LAB, and this strategy can be used to develop LAB-fermented functional foods that are rich in riboflavin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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Article
Validation of a Quantitative Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Screening Method for Coffee Quality and Authenticity (NMR Coffee Screener)
Foods 2020, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010047 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 17
Abstract
Monitoring coffee quality as a means of detecting and preventing economically motivated fraud is an important aspect of international commerce today. Therefore, there is a compelling need for rapid high throughput validated analytical techniques such as quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Monitoring coffee quality as a means of detecting and preventing economically motivated fraud is an important aspect of international commerce today. Therefore, there is a compelling need for rapid high throughput validated analytical techniques such as quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for screening and authenticity testing. For this reason, we sought to validate an 1H NMR spectroscopic method for the routine screening of coffee for quality and authenticity. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate the influence of the NMR device, extraction time, and nature of coffee on the content of caffeine, 16-O-methylcafestol (OMC), kahweol, furfuryl alcohol, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in coffee. The method was successfully validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, and linearity of detector response. The proposed method produced satisfactory precision for all analytes in roasted coffee, except for kahweol in canephora (robusta) coffee. The proposed validated method may be used for routine screening of roasted coffee for quality and authenticity control (i.e., arabica/robusta discrimination), as its applicability was demonstrated during the recent OPSON VIII Europol-Interpol operation on coffee fraud control. Full article
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Article
Use of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Oil Emulsion as Animal Fat Replacement in Beef Burgers
Foods 2020, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010044 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 43
Abstract
The present study evaluated the replacement of beef fat in beef burgers using a tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil emulsion, in order to reduce total fat and saturated fatty acids in the studied samples. Three formulations were processed: Control—100% beef fat; [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the replacement of beef fat in beef burgers using a tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil emulsion, in order to reduce total fat and saturated fatty acids in the studied samples. Three formulations were processed: Control—100% beef fat; tiger nut 50% (TN50)—50% of beef fat replaced using tiger nut oil emulsion and tiger nut 100% (TN100)—100% of beef fat replaced by tiger nut oil emulsion. The physicochemical parameters were affected after fat replacement. Moreover, the protein and fat contents decreased in those sample with tiger nut oil emulsion, thus the formulation TN100 can be considered as “reduced fat content”. Regarding color, an increased L* and b* value parameters was observed after TN100 while the values of a* remained similar to the Control samples. The hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were similar in all formulations. The addition of tiger nut oil emulsion as a substitute for beef fat reduced saturated fat and increased the mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was found to be in highest proportions in burgers. The TN100 samples were considered as acceptable by consumers. Therefore, total replacement of beef fat using tiger nut oil emulsions in beef burger resulted in a well-accepted and healthier meat product with reduced total and saturated fat contents, as well as increased unsaturated fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Article
Could Defatted Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) and Mealworm Oil Be Used as Food Ingredients?
Foods 2020, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010040 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 25
Abstract
Before edible insects may be used as an alternative food, it is necessary to develop basic product forms and evaluate their characteristics. We made two basic commercial products (defatted powder and oil) from mealworm, a popular edible insect. The defatted mealworm powder possessed [...] Read more.
Before edible insects may be used as an alternative food, it is necessary to develop basic product forms and evaluate their characteristics. We made two basic commercial products (defatted powder and oil) from mealworm, a popular edible insect. The defatted mealworm powder possessed a sufficient amount of protein, and it had a savory taste due to plentiful free amino acids. Additionally, it had abundant minor nutrients and bioactive compounds. The physicochemical properties of mealworm oil were very similar to vegetable oil, and mealworm oil was also abundant in bioactive nutrients, especially γ-tocopherol. In addition, the predicted shelf life of mealworm oil was suitable for commercial use. Moreover, mealworm had high antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities, which may arise from functional peptides and glucosamine derivatives such as chitin and chitosan. In short, the defatted mealworm powder and mealworm oil could be successfully used as novel food ingredients. Full article
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Article
The Essential Oil and Hydrolats from Myristica fragrans Seeds with Magnesium Aluminometasilicate as Excipient: Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anti-inflammatory Activity
Foods 2020, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010037 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 15
Abstract
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil has antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. We have recently demonstrated that hydrodistillation of nutmeg essential oil by applying magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient significantly increases both the content and amount of bioactive substances in [...] Read more.
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil has antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. We have recently demonstrated that hydrodistillation of nutmeg essential oil by applying magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient significantly increases both the content and amount of bioactive substances in the oil and hydrolats. In this study, we aimed to compare the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity of hydrolats and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the presence and absence of magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method revealed that magnesium aluminometasilicate did not significantly improved antioxidant activity of both essential oil and hydrolat. Antibacterial efficiency was evaluated by monitoring growth of 15 bacterial strains treated by a range of dilutions of the essential oil and the hydrolats. Essential oil with an excipient completely inhibited the growth of E. faecalis, S. mutans (referent), and P. multocida, whereas the pure oil was only efficient against the latter strain. Finally, the anti-inflammatory properties of the substances were assessed in a fibroblast cell culture treated with viral dsRNR mimetic Poly I:C. The essential oil with an excipient protected cells against Poly I:C-induced necrosis more efficiently compared to pure essential oil. Also, both the oil and the hydrolats with aluminometasilicate were more efficient in preventing IL-6 release in the presence of Poly I:C. Our results show that the use of magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient might change and in some cases improve the biological activities of nutmeg essential oil and hydrolats. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Freeze-Drying Conditions on the Physico-Chemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds of a Freeze-Dried Orange Puree
Foods 2020, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010032 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 20
Abstract
Fruits are essential for a healthy diet, as they contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some cancers, which is attributed to their high bioactive compound content contributing to their antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, fruits have a short shelf life due to their [...] Read more.
Fruits are essential for a healthy diet, as they contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some cancers, which is attributed to their high bioactive compound content contributing to their antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, fruits have a short shelf life due to their high-water content, and freeze-drying is a well-known technique to preserve their nutritive quality. However, it is an expensive technology, both due to the use of low pressure and long processing time. Therefore, an optimisation of variables such as the freezing rate, working pressure and shelf temperature during freeze-drying may preserve fruit quality while reducing the time and costs. The impact of these variables on colour, porosity, mechanical properties, water content, vitamin C, total phenols, β-carotene, and antioxidant activity of a freeze-dried orange puree was evaluated. The results showed a great impact of pressure and shelf temperature on luminosity, chroma and water content. Vitamin C and β-carotene were more preserved with higher shelf temperatures (shorter times of processing) and lower pressure, respectively. The optimum freeze-drying conditions preserving the nutrients, and with an interesting structural property, perceived as a crunchy product by consumers, are low pressure (5 Pa) and high shelf temperature (50 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freeze-Drying Technology in Foods)
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Communication
Grape Seeds: Chromatographic Profile of Fatty Acids and Phenolic Compounds and Qualitative Analysis by FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy
Foods 2020, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010010 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 35
Abstract
The primary product of the oenological sector is wine. Nonetheless, the grape processing produces large amounts of by-products and wastes, e.g., the grape seeds. In the context of a sustainable production, there is a strong push towards reutilizing these by-products and waste for [...] Read more.
The primary product of the oenological sector is wine. Nonetheless, the grape processing produces large amounts of by-products and wastes, e.g., the grape seeds. In the context of a sustainable production, there is a strong push towards reutilizing these by-products and waste for making useful derivatives since they are rich of bioactive substances with high additional value. As it is true for the wine itself, bringing these by-products derivatives to the market calls for quality measures and analytical tools to assess quality itself. One of the main objectives is to collect analytical data regarding bioactive compounds using potentially green techniques. In the present work, the profile of fatty acids and the main phenolic compounds were investigated by conventional methods. The qualitative analysis of the main functional groups was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, the successful use of FTIR technique in combination with chemometric data analysis is shown to be a suitable analytical tool for discriminating the grape seeds. Grape seeds of different origin have different content of bioactive substances, making this technique useful when planning to recover a certain substance with specific potential application in health area as food supplement or nutraceutical. For example, Cesanese d’Affile seeds were found to have a rather high fat content with a significant fraction of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, the seeds of Nero d’Avola exhibit the highest amount of phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health)
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Article
LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Medicinal Plants (Hops and Juniper Berries) and Their Antioxidant Activity
Foods 2020, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010007 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 35
Abstract
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study [...] Read more.
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study is conducted to comprehensively characterize polyphenols from hops and juniper berries using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) to assess their antioxidant capacity. For polyphenol estimation, total phenolic content, flavonoids and tannins were measured, while for antioxidant capacity, three different antioxidant assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay and the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Hops presented the higher phenolic content (23.11 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) which corresponded to its strong antioxidant activity as compared to the juniper berries. Using LC-ESI-QTOF/MS, a total of 148 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in juniper and hops, among which phenolic acids (including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids) and flavonoids (mainly anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavonoids) were the main polyphenols, which may contribute to their antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the HPLC quantitative analysis showed that both samples had a high concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the HPLC quantification, the predominant phenolic acids in hops and juniper berries were chlorogenic acid (16.48 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) and protocatechuic acid (11.46 ± 0.03 mg/g dw), respectively. The obtained results highlight the importance of hops and juniper berries as a rich source of functional ingredients in different food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Characterization of Polyphenols from Food Matrix)
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Article
Food-Grade Gelatin Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and Preliminary Application for Stabilizing Pickering Emulsions
Foods 2019, 8(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100479 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
In this paper, the food-grade gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method and using genipin as a cross-linker. The GNPs with narrow size distribution and good dispersion could be obtained only at pH 12. The effect of the genipin dosage [...] Read more.
In this paper, the food-grade gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method and using genipin as a cross-linker. The GNPs with narrow size distribution and good dispersion could be obtained only at pH 12. The effect of the genipin dosage (8–12 wt%) on the GNPs was systematically investigated. The results showed that the cross-linking degree of the GNPs increased with the increasing dosage of genipin, thus leading to a more obvious cross-linking morphology observed from scanning electron microscope (SEM). The obtained GNPs showed a good dispersibility with a size range of 386–438 nm. However, the GNPs cross-linked by 8 wt% genipin dosage revealed a relatively higher size because of the aggregation induced by hydrogen bond. The 10 wt% group had good thermal stability and storage stability. The optical microscopy results showed that the Pickering emulsions (30–50 vol% internal phase) stabilized by the GNPs had good uniformity and stability, even after 30 days of storage time, suggesting that the stable GNPs had great potential in food-grade Pickering emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
Polyphenolic Characterization of Grape Skins and Seeds of Four Italian Red Cultivars at Harvest and after Fermentative Maceration
Foods 2019, 8(9), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090395 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
Agro-industry byproducts can still contain large amounts of phenolic compounds, and one of the richest sources are grape skins and seeds as grape pomace, both fermented (red winemaking) and unfermented (white winemaking). The residual polyphenolic content depends on various factors such as grape [...] Read more.
Agro-industry byproducts can still contain large amounts of phenolic compounds, and one of the richest sources are grape skins and seeds as grape pomace, both fermented (red winemaking) and unfermented (white winemaking). The residual polyphenolic content depends on various factors such as grape variety, vintage, and winemaking technique. In this work, four red grape varieties cultivated in northern Italy were studied: Albarossa, Barbera, Nebbiolo, and Uvalino. The work was aimed at studying the polyphenolic composition of skins and seeds from fresh grapes and from the corresponding pomace after fermentative maceration, to assess the actual importance of the varietal differences when processing winemaking byproducts for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The skin and seed extracts were prepared by solvent extraction with a 50% hydroalcoholic solution. The polyphenolic composition of all extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the content and the monomer composition of condensed tannins were determined by phloroglucinolysis; the antioxidant capacity was measured with the ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonate)) method. The antioxidant capacity was higher for the seeds than for the skins, and it was positively correlated with the condensed tannins content. Significant differences in polyphenolic composition of fresh grape skins and seeds were observed between the different cultivars. In particular, Barbera and Albarossa skins were significantly distinguished from Nebbiolo and Uvalino skins for a higher content of anthocyanins and a lower content of vanillin-reactive flavans and condensed tannins; regarding seeds, Barbera and Albarossa had a lower content of vanillin-reactive flavans, proanthocyanidins, and condensed tannins than Nebbiolo and Uvalino. The winemaking process extracted the phenolic compounds to a different extent from skins and seeds, regardless of the cultivar. The differences between cultivars in the polyphenolic profile disappeared after fermentative maceration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Health Benefits of Wine Polyphenols)
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Article
Strategy towards Replacing Pork Backfat with a Linseed Oleogel in Frankfurter Sausages and Its Evaluation on Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Sensory Characteristics
Foods 2019, 8(9), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090366 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 34
Abstract
Different health institutions from western countries ha–ve recommended a diet higher in polyunsaturated fats, especially of the n-3 family. However, this is not a trivial task, especially for meat-processing sectors. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of replacing [...] Read more.
Different health institutions from western countries ha–ve recommended a diet higher in polyunsaturated fats, especially of the n-3 family. However, this is not a trivial task, especially for meat-processing sectors. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of replacing pork backfat with linseed oleogel on the main quality parameters of frankfurters. The frankfurters were formulated by the pork backfat replacement of 0% (control), 25% (SF-25), and 50% (SF-50), using a linseed oleogel gelled with beeswax. The determination of quality parameters (pH, colour, chemical composition, and texture parameters), the fatty acid profile, and the sensory evaluation was carried out for each batch. The fatty acid profile was substantially improved, and the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content was reduced from 35.15g/100g in control sausages to 33.95 and 32.34g/100 g in SF-25 and SF-50, respectively, and more balanced ratios n-6/n-3 were achieved. In addition, the sausages with linseed oleogel also decreased the cholesterol content from 25.08 mg/100 g in control sausages to 20.12 and 17.23 mg/100 g in SF-25 and SF-50, respectively. It may therefore be concluded that these innovative meat products are a healthier alternative. However, sensory parameters should be improved in order to increase consumer acceptability, and further research is needed. Full article
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Article
Consumer Avoidance of Insect Containing Foods: Primary Emotions, Perceptions and Sensory Characteristics Driving Consumers Considerations
Foods 2019, 8(8), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080351 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 19
Abstract
Why do many human beings find bugs repulsive? Disgust, a psychological factor, is believed to be the main reason why consumers would not consider eating foods containing insect ingredients. This study aimed to understand specific consumers’ behaviors toward insect based products. A global [...] Read more.
Why do many human beings find bugs repulsive? Disgust, a psychological factor, is believed to be the main reason why consumers would not consider eating foods containing insect ingredients. This study aimed to understand specific consumers’ behaviors toward insect based products. A global survey was launched in 13 different countries. The participants (n = 630 from each country) completed the survey that included demographic questions and questions about why they would or would not eat insect-based products. The results show, particularly for some of the Asian countries, that it is necessary to start exposing and familiarizing the populations about insects in order to diminish the disgust factor associated with insects. It is strongly recommended that an insect-based product should not contain visible insect pieces, which trigger negative associations. The exceptions were consumers in countries such as Mexico and Thailand, evaluated in this study, which did not show significant negative beliefs associated with including insects in their diets. Additional research to promote insect-based product consumption with popular product types might be the first strategy to break the disgust barriers and build acquaintance about insect-based products. The need to educate consumers that not all insects are unhygienic is crucial to eliminating the potentially erroneous concepts from consumer mindsets. Full article
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Article
Cold Brew Coffee: Consumer Acceptability and Characterization Using the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Method
Foods 2019, 8(8), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080344 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ acceptability and perceived sensory attributes of cold brew coffee, which is increasing in popularity. A total of 120 consumers evaluated liking of 13 cold brew coffee samples and checked sensory attributes they perceived using [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ acceptability and perceived sensory attributes of cold brew coffee, which is increasing in popularity. A total of 120 consumers evaluated liking of 13 cold brew coffee samples and checked sensory attributes they perceived using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Correspondence analysis identified characteristics of each cold brew sample and brewing methods, namely cold brew, coffee machine brewed but served cold, ready-to-drink, and purchased from a coffee shop. In addition, a reduced number of terms were reviewed for common-to-all cold brew samples (17 terms) and specific to each sample (48 terms), which also discriminated among samples. Furthermore, data on consumers’ liking were not influenced by caffeine contents and most of the volatile compounds, but chlorogenic acid and trigonelline contents were negatively related with sensory data. This study specifies the characteristics of cold brew coffee using the CATA method, shows consumers’ segmentation using acceptability, and investigates the relationship between sensory liking data and non-volatile, volatile compounds of coffee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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Article
Pure Polyphenols and Cranberry Juice High in Anthocyanins Increase Antioxidant Capacity in Animal Organs
Foods 2019, 8(8), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080340 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order to be bioactive in vivo, they need to be bioavailable and be transported from the circulation to target organs. To date, there have been few studies testing the extent to which polyphenols and especially anthocyanins affect the antioxidant capacity of animal organs. In our first pilot study, we investigated how three pure polyphenols (the flavonoids quercetin, catechin and hesperetin) given to rats by intraperitoneal injection (49 to 63 mg/kg) affected their organ antioxidant capacity. This was followed by a subsequent study that injected one ml of 100% cranberry juice (high in anthocyanins) to hamsters. Antioxidant capacity of animal organs was determined by using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the hamster organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, bladder and brain). Overall the results showed that antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in experimental vs. control organs. Analysis of organs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from both animal studies provided evidence of polyphenol metabolites in the organ extracts. Taken together, this study provides data that the administration of anthocyanins and other polyphenols cause an increase in organ antioxidant capacity in two animal models. This result supports the growing evidence for the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols reduce the risk and extent of various chronic disease at the disease site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins in Foods)
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Article
Phytosterol Contents of Edible Oils and Their Contributions to Estimated Phytosterol Intake in the Chinese Diet
Foods 2019, 8(8), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080334 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 35
Abstract
Phytosterols are important micronutrients in human diets. Evidence has shown that phytosterols play an essential role in the reduction of cholesterol in blood and therefore decrease cardiovascular morbidity. In this study, the content and composition of phytosterols in different kinds of vegetable oils [...] Read more.
Phytosterols are important micronutrients in human diets. Evidence has shown that phytosterols play an essential role in the reduction of cholesterol in blood and therefore decrease cardiovascular morbidity. In this study, the content and composition of phytosterols in different kinds of vegetable oils were analyzed, and the total phytosterol intake and contribution of foods to intake were estimated based on consumption data. The results showed that the phytosterol contents of rice bran oil, corn oil, and rapeseed oil were higher than those of other vegetable oils and the intake of phytosterol in the Chinese diet was about 392.3 mg/day. The main sources of phytosterols were edible vegetable oils (46.3%), followed by cereals (38.9%), vegetables (9.2%), nuts (2.0%), fruits (1.5%), beans and bean products (1.4%), and tubers (0.8%). Among all vegetable oils, rapeseed oil was the main individual contributor to phytosterol intake (22.9%), especially for the southern residents of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Functionality of Plant Foods)
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Article
The Use of Upcycled Defatted Sunflower Seed Flour as a Functional Ingredient in Biscuits
Foods 2019, 8(8), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080305 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Defatted sunflower seed flour (DSSF) is an upcycled by-product of sunflower oil extraction, rich in protein, fibre and antioxidants. This study assessed the instrumental and sensory quality of biscuits enriched with DSSF at 18% and 36% w/w as a replacement for [...] Read more.
Defatted sunflower seed flour (DSSF) is an upcycled by-product of sunflower oil extraction, rich in protein, fibre and antioxidants. This study assessed the instrumental and sensory quality of biscuits enriched with DSSF at 18% and 36% w/w as a replacement for wheat flour. Measurements included colour, texture, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity. Sensory analysis was carried out with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The inclusion of DSSF significantly increased the protein content of the biscuits, as well as the TPC and antioxidant capacity of the biscuits. The resulting products were significantly darker, less red and less yellow with increasing DSSF levels, while hardness (measured instrumentally) increased. Sensory results agreed with colour measurements, concluding that DSSF biscuits were more “Brown” than the control, and with texture measurements where biscuits with 36% DSSF had a significantly firmer bite. In addition, DSSF biscuits at 36% inclusion had higher QDA scores for “Off-note” and the lowest scores for “Crumbly” and “Crumb aeration”. DSSF biscuits at 18% inclusion were similar to the control in most parameters and should be considered for further developments. These results show the potential of the upcycled DSSF by-product as a novel, sustainable and healthy food ingredient. Full article
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Article
Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) Flower as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Chicken Meat Nuggets
Foods 2019, 8(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080307 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 22
Abstract
The present work investigated the efficacy of Moringa flower (MF) extract to develop a functional chicken product. Three groups of cooked chicken nuggets—control (C), T1 (with 1% MF) and T2 (2% MF)—were elaborated and their physicochemical, nutritional, storage stability and sensory attributes were [...] Read more.
The present work investigated the efficacy of Moringa flower (MF) extract to develop a functional chicken product. Three groups of cooked chicken nuggets—control (C), T1 (with 1% MF) and T2 (2% MF)—were elaborated and their physicochemical, nutritional, storage stability and sensory attributes were assessed during refrigerated storage at 4 °C up to 20 days. In addition, MF extracts were characterised in terms of chemical composition, total phenolic content and its components using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD), dietary fibre and antioxidant capacity. MF contained high protein (17.87 ± 0.28 dry matter), dietary fibre (36.14 ± 0.77 dry matter) and total phenolics (18.34 ± 1.16 to 19.49 ± 1.35 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry matter) content. The treated nuggets (T1 and T2) had significantly enhanced cooking yield, emulsion stability, ash, protein, total phenolics and dietary fibre compared to control. Incorporation of MF extract at 2% not only significantly reduced the redness/increased the lightness, but also decreased the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the product compared to control. Moreover, the addition of MF extract significantly improved the oxidative stability and odour scores by reducing lipid oxidation during storage time. Sensory attributes of nuggets were not affected by the addition of MF extract and the products remained stable and acceptable even on 15th day of storage. These results showed that MF extract could be considered as an effective natural functional ingredient for quality improvement and reducing lipid oxidation in cooked chicken nuggets. Full article
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Article
Reutilization of Food Waste: One-Step Extration, Purification and Characterization of Ovalbumin from Salted Egg White by Aqueous Two-Phase Flotation
Foods 2019, 8(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080286 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 28
Abstract
For the purpose of reducing pollution and the reutilization of salted egg whites, which are byproducts of the manufacturing process of salted egg yolks and normally treated as waste, an aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) composed of polyethylene glycols (PEG 1000) and (NH4 [...] Read more.
For the purpose of reducing pollution and the reutilization of salted egg whites, which are byproducts of the manufacturing process of salted egg yolks and normally treated as waste, an aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) composed of polyethylene glycols (PEG 1000) and (NH4)2SO4 was applied to develop a simple, inexpensive and efficient process for the separation of ovalbumin (OVA) from salted egg whites. The effects of the concentration of PEG, the concentration of (NH4)2SO4, the flow rate and the flotation time on the flotation efficiency (Y) and purity (P) of OVA were investigated. A response surface method (RSM) experiment was carried out on the basis of a single-factor experiment. An efficient separation was achieved using ATPF containing 5 mL of 80% PEG 1000 (w/w), 28 mL of 28% (NH4)2SO4 (w/w), 35 mL/min of the flow rate and 30 min of the flotation time, while 2 mL of the salted egg white solution (salted eggs white (v): water (v) = 1:4) was loaded. Under the optimal conditions, Y and P of OVA could reach 82.15 ± 0.24% and 92.98 ± 0.68%, respectively. The purified OVA was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (Nano LC-ESI-MS/MS), ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum (FL) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the purity of OVA obtained by ATPF was satisfactory and there was no obvious difference in the structure of the OVA separated by ATPF and the standard. The results of the functional properties revealed no significant differences between OVA obtained by ATPF and the standard in oil binding capacity, viscosity, emulsibility and foam capacity. Full article
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Article
Factors Predicting the Intention of Eating an Insect-Based Product
Foods 2019, 8(7), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070270 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 45
Abstract
This study provides a framework of the factors predicting the intention of eating an insect-based product. As part of the study, a seminar was carried out to explore how the provision of information about ecological, health, and gastronomic aspects of entomophagy would modify [...] Read more.
This study provides a framework of the factors predicting the intention of eating an insect-based product. As part of the study, a seminar was carried out to explore how the provision of information about ecological, health, and gastronomic aspects of entomophagy would modify consumer beliefs regarding insects as food. Before and after the informative seminar, two questionnaires about sociodemographic attributes and beliefs about the consumption of insects as food were given. Participants were then asked to carry out a sensory evaluation of two identical bread samples, but one was claimed to be supplemented with insect powder. Results showed that perceived behavioral control is the main predictor of the intention, followed by neophobia and personal insect food rejection. The disgust factor significantly decreased after the participants attended the informative seminar. Sensory scores highlighted that participants gave “insect-labelled” samples higher scores for flavor, texture, and overall liking, nevertheless, participants indicated that they were less likely to use the “insect-labelled” bread in the future. Our findings provide a better understanding of insect food rejection behavior and help to predict the willingness to try insect-based products based on some important individual traits and information. Full article
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Article
Consumer Preference Heterogeneity Evaluation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Decisions Using the Best–Worst Approach
Foods 2019, 8(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070266 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 27
Abstract
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were [...] Read more.
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were interviewed at different FV purchase points (mass retail chains and open-air markets) using a paper questionnaire. The relative importance assigned by consumers to 12 fruit and vegetable product attributes, including both intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues, was assessed by using the best–worst scaling (BWS) methodology. The BWS results showed that “origin”, “seasonality”, and “freshness” were the most preferred attributes that Italian consumers took into account for purchases, while no importance was given to “organic certification”, “variety”, or “brand”. Additionally, a latent class analysis was employed to divide the total sample into five different clusters of consumers, characterized by the same preferences related to FV attributes. Each group of individuals is described on the basis of sociodemographic variables and by the declared fruit and vegetable point of purchase. This research demonstrates that age, average annual income, and families with children are all discriminating factors that influence consumer preference and behavior, in addition to affecting which point of purchase the consumer prefers to acquire FV products from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preference and Acceptance of Food Products)
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Article
Influence of Cooking Methods on Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates Content in Novel Cruciferous Foods
Foods 2019, 8(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070257 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 22
Abstract
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, [...] Read more.
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, the influence of several common domestic cooking practices on the degradation of GLS and ITC in two novel Brassica spp.: broccolini (Brassica oleracea var italica Group x alboglabra Group) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.) was determined. On one hand, results showed that both varieties were rich in health-promoter compounds, broccolini being a good source of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane (≈79 and 2.5 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight (F.W.), respectively), and kale rich in glucoiberin and iberin (≈12 and 0.8 mg 100 g−1 F.W., respectively). On the other hand, regarding cooking treatments, stir-frying and steaming were suitable techniques to preserve GLS and ITC (≥50% of the uncooked samples), while boiling was deleterious for the retention of these bioactive compounds (20–40% of the uncooked samples). Accordingly, the appropriate cooking method should be considered an important factor to preserve the health-promoting effects in these trending Brassica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Article
Evaluation of the Bioaccessibility of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds and Minerals of Four Genotypes of Brassicaceae Microgreens
Foods 2019, 8(7), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070250 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 32
Abstract
Microgreens constitute an emerging class of fresh, healthy foods due to their nutritional composition. In this study the content of minerals and antioxidant bioactive compounds, and for the first time bioaccessibility, were evaluated in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), green [...] Read more.
Microgreens constitute an emerging class of fresh, healthy foods due to their nutritional composition. In this study the content of minerals and antioxidant bioactive compounds, and for the first time bioaccessibility, were evaluated in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), green curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.), red mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) hydroponic microgreens. Macro- (K, Ca, Mg) and oligo-elements (Fe, Zn), ascorbic acid, total soluble polyphenols, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, total isothiocyanates and total antioxidant capacity (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) were determined before and after the standardized simulated gastrointestinal digestion process. All microgreens provided relevant amounts of vitamin C (31–56 mg/100 g fresh weight) and total carotenoids (162–224 mg β-carotene/100 g dry weight). Mineral content was comparable to that normally found in hydroponic microgreens and the low potassium levels observed would allow their dietetic recommendation for patients with impaired kidney function. Both total soluble polyphenols and total isothiocyanates were the greatest contributors to the total antioxidant capacity after digestion (43–70% and 31–63% bioaccessibility, respectively) while macroelements showed an important bioaccessibility (34–90%). In general, radish and mustard presented the highest bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and minerals. Overall, the four hydroponic Brassicaceae microgreens present a wide array of antioxidant bioactive compounds. Full article
Article
Phenolic and Antioxidant Analysis of Olive Leaves Extracts (Olea europaea L.) Obtained by High Voltage Electrical Discharges (HVED)
Foods 2019, 8(7), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070248 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 27
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) as a green technology, in order to establish the effectiveness of phenolic extraction from olive leaves against conventional extraction (CE). HVED parameters included different green solvents (water, ethanol), treatment [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) as a green technology, in order to establish the effectiveness of phenolic extraction from olive leaves against conventional extraction (CE). HVED parameters included different green solvents (water, ethanol), treatment times (3 and 9 min), gases (nitrogen, argon), and voltages (15, 20, 25 kV). Methods: Phenolic compounds were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS), while antioxidant potency (total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity) were monitored spectrophotometrically. Data for Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) spectroscopy, colorimetry, zeta potential, particle size, and conductivity were also reported. Results: The highest yield of phenolic compounds was obtained for the sample treated with argon/9 min/20 kV/50% (3.2 times higher as compared to CE). Obtained results suggested the usage of HVED technology in simultaneous extraction and nanoformulation, and production of stable emulsion systems. Antioxidant capacity (AOC) of obtained extracts showed no significant difference upon the HVED treatment. Conclusions: Ethanol with HVED destroys the linkage between phenolic compounds and components of the plant material to which they are bound. All extracts were compliant with legal requirements regarding content of contaminants, pesticide residues and toxic metals. In conclusion, HVED presents an excellent potential for phenolic compounds extraction for further use in functional food manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crop Commodities in the Philippines: A Review
Foods 2019, 8(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070249 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 20
Abstract
The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated [...] Read more.
The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated from various agricultural crop commodities in the country. There are five mycotoxin groups (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin, nivalenol, and zearalenone) that have been detected in both the raw form and the by-products of major crops grown in the country. Since the first scientific report of aflatoxin contamination in the Philippines in 1972, new information has been generated on mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi, but little has been known of other mycotoxins until the last two decades. Further, despite the increase in the understanding of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the country, very limited knowledge exists on practices and measures that control both the fungi and the toxins. This paper reviews the current literature on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the Philippines with emphasis on the last two decades and on other mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops)
Article
Gluten-Free Bread with Cricket Powder—Mechanical Properties and Molecular Water Dynamics in Dough and Ready Product
Foods 2019, 8(7), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070240 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
Published data indicate that cricket powder (CP) is a good source of not only protein, fat and fiber, but also minerals. Due to the fact that this product naturally does not contain gluten, it is an interesting addition to the enrichment of gluten-free [...] Read more.
Published data indicate that cricket powder (CP) is a good source of not only protein, fat and fiber, but also minerals. Due to the fact that this product naturally does not contain gluten, it is an interesting addition to the enrichment of gluten-free foods. This paper is a report on the results of starch substitution with CP (at 2%, 6% and 10%) on the properties of dough and bread. The rheology of dough and the texture of the final product were studied. While the changes caused in the dough by the introduction of CP were not pronounced, the bread obtained from it was characterized by significantly increased hardness and improved consistency. Analyses of water behavior at the molecular level with the use of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) indicated that CP altered both the bound and bulk water fractions. Moreover, examination of water activity revealed a decreased rate of water transport in samples of bread that contained CP. These results indicate improved availability of water to the biopolymers of bread, which likely plays a role in shaping the textural properties of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
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Protein Digestibility of Cereal Products
Foods 2019, 8(6), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060199 - 08 Jun 2019
Cited by 42
Abstract
Protein digestibility is currently a hot research topic and is of big interest to the food industry. Different scoring methods have been developed to describe protein quality. Cereal protein scores are typically low due to a suboptimal amino acid profile and low protein [...] Read more.
Protein digestibility is currently a hot research topic and is of big interest to the food industry. Different scoring methods have been developed to describe protein quality. Cereal protein scores are typically low due to a suboptimal amino acid profile and low protein digestibility. Protein digestibility is a result of both external and internal factors. Examples of external factors are physical inaccessibility due to entrapment in e.g., intact cell structures and the presence of antinutritional factors. The main internal factors are the amino acid sequence of the proteins and protein folding and crosslinking. Processing of food is generally designed to increase the overall digestibility through affecting these external and internal factors. However, with proteins, processing may eventually also lead to a decrease in digestibility. In this review, protein digestion and digestibility are discussed with emphasis on the proteins of (pseudo)cereals. Full article
Article
Quality Control of Fresh-Cut Apples after Coating Application
Foods 2019, 8(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060189 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 23
Abstract
The growing demand for ready-to-eat fresh fruits has led to set-up appropriate strategies for preserving fruit quality and freshness of such commodities. To slow down the deterioration events such as respiration, moisture loss and enzymatic activity, ready-to-eat products should be protected with an [...] Read more.
The growing demand for ready-to-eat fresh fruits has led to set-up appropriate strategies for preserving fruit quality and freshness of such commodities. To slow down the deterioration events such as respiration, moisture loss and enzymatic activity, ready-to-eat products should be protected with an edible film. A suitable coating should combine hydrophilic and hydrophobic features to ensure good mechanical and gas barrier properties. Alginate/essential oil nanoformulations, one with low and the other with high oil content, here proposed to protect apple pieces during storage, were first characterized through dynamic light scattering and rheology. The effect of the application of the nanoformulations on the quality parameters of apples stored at 4 °C was considered by evaluating weight loss, pH and titratable acidity, total phenols content and the fruit appearance during storage. Mainly on the basis of pH and titratable acididty variation, the nanoformulation with low oil content resulted eligible for preserving the quality of fresh-cut apple pieces during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Edible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Untargeted Metabolomics to Evaluate the Stability of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Added Lycium barbarum Carotenoids during Storage
Foods 2019, 8(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060179 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
A carotenoid-rich extract from Lycium barbarum L. was added to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), obtaining a carotenoid-enriched oil (EVOOCar). The oxidative stability of EVOO and EVOOCar was evaluated during long-term storage of 28 weeks at room temperature, by measuring some classical parameters [...] Read more.
A carotenoid-rich extract from Lycium barbarum L. was added to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), obtaining a carotenoid-enriched oil (EVOOCar). The oxidative stability of EVOO and EVOOCar was evaluated during long-term storage of 28 weeks at room temperature, by measuring some classical parameters (acidity and peroxide values, spectrophotometric coefficients, fatty acid composition) and the content of minor compounds (i.e., α-tocopherol and lutein). At the end of the storage, higher content (p < 0.01) of α-tocopherol in EVOOCar in respect to EVOO were observed. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate, the most abundant carotenoid compound of Goji berries, decreased slightly (p < 0.05) in EVOOCar until the end of the storage. In regard to polyphenols, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) using untargeted metabolomics was carried out. This latter approach discriminated the two oil samples during long-term storage, allowing to identify also the phenolic classes most exposed to significant variations during storage (i.e., mainly lignans and flavones). Besides, the addition of Goji carotenoids preserved the stability of tyrosol equivalents in EVOOCar during long-term storage. These results highlighted that the enrichment of EVOO with a carotenoid-rich extract can improve the shelf-life and nutritional value of added-oil, protecting EVOO natural antioxidants during long-term storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Milk Protein Fractionation by Means of Spiral-Wound Microfiltration Membranes: Effect of the Pressure Adjustment Mode and Temperature on Flux and Protein Permeation
Foods 2019, 8(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060180 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
Protein fractionation by means of microfiltration (MF) is significantly affected by fouling, especially when spiral-wound membranes (SWMs) are used. We investigated the influence of the mode of transmembrane pressure (ΔpTM) increase to target level and the deposit layer pressure history on [...] Read more.
Protein fractionation by means of microfiltration (MF) is significantly affected by fouling, especially when spiral-wound membranes (SWMs) are used. We investigated the influence of the mode of transmembrane pressure (ΔpTM) increase to target level and the deposit layer pressure history on the filtration performance during skim milk MF at temperatures of 10 °C and 50 °C. Two filtration protocols were established: No. 1: ΔpTM was set directly to various target values. No. 2: Starting from a low ΔpTM, we increased and subsequently decreased ΔpTM stepwise. The comparison of both protocols tested the effect of the mode of ΔpTM increase to target level. The latter protocol alone tested the effect of the deposit layer history with regard to the ΔpTM. As expected, flux and protein permeation were both found to be functions of the ΔpTM. Further, both measures were independent of the filtration protocol as long as ΔpTM was held at a constant level or, as part of protocol No. 2, ΔpTM was increased. Thus, we can state that the mode of ΔpTM increase to target level does not affect filtration performance in SWM. We found that after completion of a full cycle of stepping ΔpTM up from 0.5 bar to 3.0 bar and back down, flux and deposit layer resistance were not affected by the deposit layer history at 10 °C, but they were at 50 °C. Protein permeation, however, was lower for both 10 °C and 50 °C, when the ΔpTM cycle was completed. The processing history had a significant impact on filtration performance due to remaining structural compression effects in the deposited layer, which occur most notably at higher temperatures. Furthermore, temperatures of 50 °C lead to deposit layer aging, which is probably due to an enhanced crosslinking of particles in the deposit layer. Apart from that, we could show that fouling resistance does not directly correlate with protein permeation during skim milk MF using SWM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Article
Total, Neutral, and Polar Lipids of Brewing Ingredients, By-Products and Beer: Evaluation of Antithrombotic Activities
Foods 2019, 8(5), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050171 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer’s spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted [...] Read more.
The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer’s spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted according to the Bligh and Dyer method and further separated into the total neutral lipids (TNL) and total polar lipids (TPL) extracts by counter-current distribution. The TL, TNL, and TPL extracts of all samples were assessed for their ability to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation. The raw materials, by-products, wort, and beer lipid extracts all exhibited antithrombotic properties against PAF and thrombin. However, the beer TPL exhibited the lowest IC50 values against PAF-induced (7.8 ± 3.9 µg) and thrombin-induced (4.3 ± 3.0 µg) platelet aggregation indicating that these polar lipids were the most antithrombotic. The lipid extracts tended to be more bioactive against the thrombin pathway. The fatty acid content of all the TPL extracts were assessed using GC-MS. The fatty acid composition of the most bioactive TPL extracts, the wort and the beer, shared similar fatty acid profiles. Indeed, it was noted that fermentation seems to play a role in increasing the antithrombotic properties of polar lipids against PAF and thrombin by moderately altering the polar lipid fatty acid composition. Furthermore, the use of brewing by-products as a source of functional cardioprotective lipids warrants further investigation and valorisation. Full article
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Article
Production and Refinement of Omega-3 Rich Oils from Processing By-Products of Farmed Fish Species
Foods 2019, 8(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040125 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
In this study, the effect of a four-stage chemical refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization) on the quality parameters, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of crude oils produced from processing by-products of farmed fish species (tuna, seabass and gilthead seabream) was evaluated. [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of a four-stage chemical refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization) on the quality parameters, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of crude oils produced from processing by-products of farmed fish species (tuna, seabass and gilthead seabream) was evaluated. The quality of the oils was compared to commercially available cod liver oil on the basis of free fatty acid, peroxide value, p-anisidine, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), oxidative stability at 80, 100 and 120 °C, tocopherol content, and volatile components, while the fatty acid profile and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were used as an indicator of the nutritional values of fish oils. Quality parameters of the studied oils and oil oxidative stability were enhanced with refining and were within the limits recommended for fish oils without the loss of PUFAs. In tuna by-product refined oils, the proportion of PUFAs was over 40%, with 30% of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The volatile compounds of the oils were quantified (in mg/kg) and major components were 2,4-heptadienal, pentadecane, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-nonadienal and dodecane. The use of aquaculture by-products as an alternative source for fish oil production could contribute to a more sustainable and profitable aquaculture production, providing economic benefits for the producers and setting new standards for a fish by-product disposal strategy. Full article
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Article
Affordable Production of Antioxidant Aqueous Solutions by Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing of Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) Needles
Foods 2019, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020065 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of [...] Read more.
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of the bioactive properties, the complexity of the extraction methods, and the use of potentially harmful synthetic chemicals, still represent an obstacle to the spreading of such valuable natural compounds. Hydrodynamic cavitation is emerging as a promising innovative technique for the extraction of precious food components and by-products from waste raw material of the agro-food production chain, which can improve processing efficiency, reduce resource consumption, and produce healthy, high-quality products. In this study, a process based on controlled hydrodynamic cavitation was applied for the first time to the production of aqueous solutions of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) needles with enhanced antioxidant activity. The observed levels of the in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable or higher than those found for reference substances, pure extracts, and other water extracts and beverages, highlight the very good potential of the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) process for the creation of solvent-free, aqueous solutions endowed with bioactive compounds extracted from silver fir needles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Varietal Authentication of Extra Virgin Olive Oils by Triacylglycerols and Volatiles Analysis
Foods 2019, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020058 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 20
Abstract
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present [...] Read more.
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present research, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and volatiles have been studied as chemical markers for the authentication of EVOO samples from four Italian varieties of Olea europea (Dolce Agogia, Frantoio, Leccino, and Moraiolo). The monocultivar EVOO samples have been subjected to a chemical–enzymatic chromatographic method in order to perform a stereospecific analysis, an important procedure for the characterization of TAG of food products. The results, combined with chemometric analysis (linear discriminant analysis, LDA), were elaborated in order to classify Italian EVOO monocultivar samples. In accordance with the total and intrapositional fatty acid (FA) composition of TAG fraction, the results were allowed to carry out a varietal discrimination. In addition, volatile compounds were also determined by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All EVOO samples were correctly classified when TAG stereospecific data and volatile results were elaborated by the LDA procedure, even if volatile compounds showed a higher discriminant power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Article
Quality and Nutritional/Textural Properties of Durum Wheat Pasta Enriched with Cricket Powder
Foods 2019, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020046 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 38
Abstract
Cricket powder (CP) contains significant amounts of protein, fat (including unsaturated fatty acids), and fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals. The high nutritional value and low price make it an interesting addition to food production. This paper is a report on the [...] Read more.
Cricket powder (CP) contains significant amounts of protein, fat (including unsaturated fatty acids), and fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals. The high nutritional value and low price make it an interesting addition to food production. This paper is a report on the results of the addition of cricket powder to pasta. Three levels of durum semolina replacement were chosen: 5%, 10%, and 15%. The obtained products were analyzed for their nutritional composition, cooking and textural properties, and color, as well as consumer acceptance. The results indicate that the addition of CP influenced the cooking weight and cooking loss (reducing losses and water absorption), as well as the color of the pasta, reducing its lightness and shifting color balances to blue and red. The firmness of pasta was also influenced. The firmness was strengthened by addition of CP. Principal components analysis indicated that the flavor change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that protein-enriched pasta produced with CP has consumer acceptance comparable with that of conventional products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
Separation and Enrichment of Antioxidant Peptides from Whey Protein Isolate Hydrolysate by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction and Aqueous Two-Phase Flotation
Foods 2019, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010034 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 19
Abstract
At present, peptides are separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography. A separation method is needed in any case, which can be scaled up for industrial scale. In this study, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) were applied to [...] Read more.
At present, peptides are separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography. A separation method is needed in any case, which can be scaled up for industrial scale. In this study, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) were applied to separate and enrich antioxidant peptides from trypsin hydrolysates of whey protein isolates (WPI). The best experimental conditions were investigated, and the results were evaluated using the 2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity of the peptides-per-unit concentration and the recovery rate (Y) of peptides in the top phase of both ATPE and ATPF. Under optimal conditions, the Y and ABTS free radical scavenging activity per unit concentration in top phase of ATPE could reach 38.75% and 12.94%, respectively, and in ATPF could reach 11.71% and 29.18%, respectively. The purified peptides were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). PeptideCutter and PeptideMass were applied to analyze and calculate the peptide sequencing. KILDKVGINYWLAHK, VGINYWLAHKALCSEK, and TPEVDDEALEKFDKALK sequences having antioxidant activity were detected in the top phase of ATPE, and VGINYWLAHKALCSEK, KILLDKVGINYWLAHK, ILLDKVGINYWLAHK, IIAEKTKIPAVFK, KIIAEKTKIPAVFK, and VYVEELKPTPEGDLEILLQK sequences having antioxidant activity were detected in the top phase of ATPF. In conclusion, antioxidant peptides were successfully separated from the WPI hydrolysate by ATPE and ATPF; compared with ATPE, ATPF has superior specificity in separating antioxidant peptides. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
The Flavor Chemistry of Fortified Wines—A Comprehensive Approach
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061239 - 29 May 2021
Abstract
For centuries, wine has had a fundamental role in the culture and habits of different civilizations. Amongst numerous wine types that involve specific winemaking processes, fortified wines possess an added value and are greatly honored worldwide. This review comprises the description of the [...] Read more.
For centuries, wine has had a fundamental role in the culture and habits of different civilizations. Amongst numerous wine types that involve specific winemaking processes, fortified wines possess an added value and are greatly honored worldwide. This review comprises the description of the most important characteristics of the main worldwide fortified wines—Madeira, Port, Sherry, Muscat, and Vermouth—structured in three parts. The first part briefly describes the chemistry of wine flavor, the origin of typical aroma (primary, secondary and tertiary), and the influencing parameters during the winemaking process. The second part describes some specificities of worldwide fortified wine, highlighting the volatile composition with particular emphasis on aroma compounds. The third part reports the volatile composition of the most important fortified wines, including the principal characteristics, vinification process, the evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging processes, and the most important odor descriptors. Given the worldwide popularity and the economic relevance of fortified wines, much research should be done to better understand accurately the reactions and mechanisms that occur in different stages of winemaking, mainly during the oxidative and thermal aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Wine)
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Review
Transformation of the Food Sector: Security and Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Foods 2021, 10(3), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030497 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 12
Abstract
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a new era in the efficacy of the food supply chain, while the consequences of this new era on humanity, the economy, and the food sector are still under examination. For example, food security is one [...] Read more.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a new era in the efficacy of the food supply chain, while the consequences of this new era on humanity, the economy, and the food sector are still under examination. For example, food security is one vital aspect of food systems which is directly affected. This review summarizes food security during epidemics and pandemics before moving on to panic buying, food shortages, and price spikes observed during the current crisis. The importance of food resilience, together with the need for addressing issues related to food loss and food waste, is underlined in the review towards food security and sustainable development. As a result, the pandemic has shown that our food systems are fragile. Since the global population and urbanization will grow in the coming decades, pandemics will likely occur more often, and climate change will intensify. Consequently, there is a need to ensure that our food systems become more sustainable and resilient. To that end, we have highlighted the need to develop contingency plans and mitigation strategies that would allow a more rapid response to extreme events (e.g., disasters from climate change) and transform the food sector by making it more resilient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Review
Edible Films and Coatings as Food-Quality Preservers: An Overview
Foods 2021, 10(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020249 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 15
Abstract
Food preservation technologies are currently facing important challenges at extending the shelf-life of perishable food products (e.g., meat, fish, milk, eggs, and many raw fruits and vegetables) that help to meet the daily nutrient requirement demand. In addition, food preservation has gone beyond [...] Read more.
Food preservation technologies are currently facing important challenges at extending the shelf-life of perishable food products (e.g., meat, fish, milk, eggs, and many raw fruits and vegetables) that help to meet the daily nutrient requirement demand. In addition, food preservation has gone beyond only preservation; the current techniques are focused on the fulfillment of two additional objectives, the suitability of the used processes and generation of environmentally friendly products with non-presence of any side effect on health. Moreover, they are also looking for additional nutritional properties. One of these preservation protocols deals with the use of edible films and coatings. Therefore, this review shows an overview of synthetic materials (e.g., glass, aluminum, plastic, and paperboard), as well as the regulations that limit their application in food packaging. Further, this review releases the current-state-of-the-art of the use of films and edible coatings as an alternative to conventional packaging, providing the main features that these biodegradable packaging should meet towards specific uses for the conservation and improvement of various food products. Herein, particular attention has been paid to the main used components (e.g., biopolymers, additives, bioactive, and probiotic components), manufacturing methods (for edible films or coatings) and their application to specific products. In addition, an outlook of the application of edible films and coatings as quality indicators of perishable products is shown. Full article
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Review
Innovative Digital Technologies for Purchasing and Consumption in Urban and Regional Agro-Food Systems: A Systematic Review
Foods 2021, 10(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020208 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
The use of digital technologies in the agro-food sector is growing worldwide, and applications in the urban and regional food systems represent a relevant segment of such growth. The present paper aims at reviewing the literature on which and how digital technologies support [...] Read more.
The use of digital technologies in the agro-food sector is growing worldwide, and applications in the urban and regional food systems represent a relevant segment of such growth. The present paper aims at reviewing the literature on which and how digital technologies support urban and regional agro-food purchasing and consumption, as well as their characteristics. Data collection was performed on Scopus and Web of Science. Articles were selected using a research string and according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow approach was adopted to explain data screening and selection. The 57 resulting studies were included in the final qualitative analysis, which explored the characteristics of the research studies and of the digital technologies analysed. Most of the studies analysed concerned the implications of digital technologies on local food consumption, especially focusing on consumption, primary production and hotel-restaurant-café-catering sector (HORECA), and to a limited extent on the retail sector. Consumers and farmers are the main targets of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools, whose principal aims are providing information on agro-food products and enhancing networking along the food supply chain. Analysing digital technologies allows a better understanding of their most popular features in order to support their spread among citizens. Digital technologies, and particularly Apps, can be a valuable instrument to strengthen agro-food chain actor relations and to promote urban and regional food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption and Sustainable Agri-Food Chains)
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Review
Functionality of Food Components and Emerging Technologies
Foods 2021, 10(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010128 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 31
Abstract
This review article introduces nutrition and functional food ingredients, explaining the widely cited terms of bioactivity, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. The factors affecting these critical properties of food components are analyzed together with their interaction and preservation during processing. Ultimately, the effect of emerging [...] Read more.
This review article introduces nutrition and functional food ingredients, explaining the widely cited terms of bioactivity, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. The factors affecting these critical properties of food components are analyzed together with their interaction and preservation during processing. Ultimately, the effect of emerging (non-thermal) technologies on different food components (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins, polyphenols, glucosinolates, polyphenols, aroma compounds, and enzymes) is discussed in spite of preserving their functional properties. Non-thermal technologies can maintain the bioavailability of food components, improve their functional and technological properties, and increase the recovery yields from agricultural products. However, the optimization of operational parameters is vital to avoid degradation of macromolecules and the oxidation of labile compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Review
Food Bioactive Compounds and Emerging Techniques for Their Extraction: Polyphenols as a Case Study
Foods 2021, 10(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010037 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that food bioactive compounds (FBCs) have a positive biological impact on human health, exerting protective effects against non-communicable diseases (NCD) including cancer and cardiovascular (CVDs), metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). These benefits have been associated with the [...] Read more.
Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that food bioactive compounds (FBCs) have a positive biological impact on human health, exerting protective effects against non-communicable diseases (NCD) including cancer and cardiovascular (CVDs), metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). These benefits have been associated with the presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, and fibres, among others, derived from their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, cardioprotective, and vasodilator properties. Polyphenols as one of the most abundant classes of bioactive compounds present in plant-based foods emerge as a promising approach for the development of efficacious preventive agents against NCDs with reduced side effects. The aim of this review is to present comprehensive and deep insights into the potential of polyphenols, from their chemical structure classification and biosynthesis to preventive effects on NCDs, namely cancer, CVDs, and NDDS. The challenge of polyphenols bioavailability and bioaccessibility will be explored in addition to useful industrial and environmental applications. Advanced and emerging extraction techniques will be highlighted and the high-resolution analytical techniques used for FBCs characterization, identification, and quantification will be considered. Full article
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Review
Food Ingredients and Active Compounds against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111701 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 48
Abstract
As media reports have noted, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated market mainstreaming of immune-boosting food bioactives, supplements, and nutraceuticals. However, most studies reporting on the potential of bioactives against COVID-19 transmission have been uploaded as preprints with little opportunity to revise content for [...] Read more.
As media reports have noted, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated market mainstreaming of immune-boosting food bioactives, supplements, and nutraceuticals. However, most studies reporting on the potential of bioactives against COVID-19 transmission have been uploaded as preprints with little opportunity to revise content for benefit and impact. The current review discusses current best evidence and information underpinning the role of food ingredients and bioactive compounds in supporting immune functions in humans and animals, specifically in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 disease. Up to now, some evidence from randomized population and clinical trials has suggested that vitamin D levels may be linked to COVID-19 transmission and severity. Numerous theoretical studies have pointed to polyphenols and particularly flavonoids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is also inconclusive evidence to support the future use of β-glucan to address COVID-19 due in part to variability in immune response arising from heterogeneity in polysaccharide branch and chain length for different sources and the absence of a standardized extraction method. To confirm the promising outcomes and hypotheses for bioactive compounds, more randomized and controlled clinical studies are needed. The results of such studies would have a profound effect on the prospects of food supplements and nutraceuticals as potential prophylaxis against COVID-19 and serve to help consumers to protect themselves during the post-lockdown recovery era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
Review
Biodegradable Antimicrobial Food Packaging: Trends and Perspectives
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101438 - 11 Oct 2020
Cited by 37
Abstract
This review presents a perspective on the research trends and solutions from recent years in the domain of antimicrobial packaging materials. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities can be induced by the main polymer used for packaging or by addition of various components [...] Read more.
This review presents a perspective on the research trends and solutions from recent years in the domain of antimicrobial packaging materials. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities can be induced by the main polymer used for packaging or by addition of various components from natural agents (bacteriocins, essential oils, natural extracts, etc.) to synthetic agents, both organic and inorganic (Ag, ZnO, TiO2 nanoparticles, synthetic antibiotics etc.). The general trend for the packaging evolution is from the inert and polluting plastic waste to the antimicrobial active, biodegradable or edible, biopolymer film packaging. Like in many domains this transition is an evolution rather than a revolution, and changes are coming in small steps. Changing the public perception and industry focus on the antimicrobial packaging solutions will enhance the shelf life and provide healthier food, thus diminishing the waste of agricultural resources, but will also reduce the plastic pollution generated by humankind as most new polymers used for packaging are from renewable sources and are biodegradable. Polysaccharides (like chitosan, cellulose and derivatives, starch etc.), lipids and proteins (from vegetal or animal origin), and some other specific biopolymers (like polylactic acid or polyvinyl alcohol) have been used as single component or in blends to obtain antimicrobial packaging materials. Where the package’s antimicrobial and antioxidant activities need a larger spectrum or a boost, certain active substances are embedded, encapsulated, coated, grafted into or onto the polymeric film. This review tries to cover the latest updates on the antimicrobial packaging, edible or not, using as support traditional and new polymers, with emphasis on natural compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging Strategies)
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Review
The Link between the Consumer and the Innovations in Food Product Development
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091317 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 23
Abstract
New lifestyles, higher incomes and better consumer awareness are increasing the demand for a year-round supply of innovative food products. In past decades, important developments have been achieved in areas related to food and the food industry. This review shows that factors influencing [...] Read more.
New lifestyles, higher incomes and better consumer awareness are increasing the demand for a year-round supply of innovative food products. In past decades, important developments have been achieved in areas related to food and the food industry. This review shows that factors influencing performance in new product development (NPD) are dynamic and continuously guiding project development. The data obtained by direct involvement of consumers can impact positively successful product development and enhance the company’s financial performance. The study of consumer behaviour and attitudes towards new foods encompasses multiple aspects, such as preference, choice, desire to eat certain foods, buying intentions and frequency of consumption. Additionally, both the consumers’ willingness to purchase and the willingness to pay a premium are important in NPD, launching and success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivations Associated with Food Choices and Eating Practices)
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Review
Botrytis cinerea and Table Grapes: A Review of the Main Physical, Chemical, and Bio-Based Control Treatments in Post-Harvest
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091138 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 25
Abstract
Consumers highly appreciate table grapes for their pleasant sensory attributes and as good sources of nutritional and functional compounds. This explains the rising market and global interest in this product. Along with other fruits and vegetables, table grapes are considerably perishable post-harvest due [...] Read more.
Consumers highly appreciate table grapes for their pleasant sensory attributes and as good sources of nutritional and functional compounds. This explains the rising market and global interest in this product. Along with other fruits and vegetables, table grapes are considerably perishable post-harvest due to the growth of undesired microorganisms. Among the microbial spoilers, Botrytis cinerea represents a model organism because of its degrading potential and the huge economic losses caused by its infection. The present review provides an overview of the recent primary physical, chemical, and biological control treatments adopted against the development of B. cinerea in table grapes to extend shelf life. These treatments preserve product quality and safety. This article also focuses on the compliance of different approaches with organic and sustainable production processes. Tailored approaches include those that rely on controlled atmosphere and the application of edible coating and packaging, as well as microbial-based activities. These strategies, applied alone or in combination, are among the most promising solutions in order to prolong table grape quality during cold storage. In general, the innovative design of applications dealing with hurdle technologies holds great promise for future improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Preservation Technology for the Fresh Fruit and Vegetables)
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Review
Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081014 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 35
Abstract
(1) Background: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is responsible for a large part of many health benefits associated to Mediterranean diet as it is a fundamental ingredient of this diet. The peculiarities of this golden, highly valued product are in part due to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is responsible for a large part of many health benefits associated to Mediterranean diet as it is a fundamental ingredient of this diet. The peculiarities of this golden, highly valued product are in part due to the requirements that must be met to achieve this title, namely, it has to be obtained using exclusively mechanical procedures, its free acidity cannot be greater than 0.8%, it must not show sensory defects, and it has to possess a fruity taste. (2) Methods: All these characteristics are key factors to EVOO quality, thus the chemical composition of these many health-promoting compounds, such as unsaturated fatty acids (which are also the major compounds, especially oleic acid), as well as minor components such as tocopherols or phenolic compounds (which behave as natural antioxidants) must be preserved. (3) Results: Due to the presence of all these compounds, the daily consumption of EVOO entails health benefits such as cardioprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor properties or acting as regulator of the intestinal microbiota, among others. (4) Conclusions: Taking all together, conserving EVOO chemical composition is essential to preserve its properties, so it is worth to control certain factors during storage like exposure to light, temperature, oxygen presence or the chosen packaging material, to maintain its quality and extend its shelf-life until its consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Olive Oil)
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Review
Use of Legumes in Extrusion Cooking: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070958 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
The traditional perception that legumes would not be suitable for extrusion cooking is now completely outdated. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the behavior of various types of legume flours in extrusion cooking, proving that legumes [...] Read more.
The traditional perception that legumes would not be suitable for extrusion cooking is now completely outdated. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the behavior of various types of legume flours in extrusion cooking, proving that legumes have excellent potential for the production of extruded ready-to-eat foods by partially or totally replacing cereals. This review identifies the optimal processing conditions for legume-based and legume-added extruded foods, which allow the improvement of the expansion ratio and give the extrudates the spongy and crisp structure expected by consumers. In particular, the effect of the individual processing parameters on the physical-chemical and nutritional properties of the final product is highlighted. The extrusion cooking process, indeed, has a positive effect on nutritional characteristics, because it induces important modifications on starch and proteins, enhancing their digestibility, and reduces the content of trypsin inhibitors, lectins, phytic acid, and tannins, typically present in legumes. Therefore, the extrusion of legume flours is a viable strategy to improve their nutritional features while reducing home preparation time, so as to increase the consumption of these sustainable crops. Full article
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Review
Current Trends of Bioactive Peptides—New Sources and Therapeutic Effect
Foods 2020, 9(7), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070846 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
Generally, bioactive peptides are natural compounds of food or part of protein that are inactive in the precursor molecule. However, they may be active after hydrolysis and can be transported to the active site. Biologically active peptides can also be synthesized chemically and [...] Read more.
Generally, bioactive peptides are natural compounds of food or part of protein that are inactive in the precursor molecule. However, they may be active after hydrolysis and can be transported to the active site. Biologically active peptides can also be synthesized chemically and characterized. Peptides have many properties, including antihypertensive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, and chelating effects. They are also responsible for the taste of food or for the inhibition of enzymes involved in the development of diseases. The scientific literature has described many peptides with bioactive properties obtained from different sources. Information about the structure, origin, and properties of peptides can also be found in many databases. This review will describe peptides inhibiting the development of current diseases, peptides with antimicrobial properties, and new alternative sources of peptides based on the current knowledge and documentation of their bioactivity. All these issues are part of modern research on peptides and their use in current health or technological problems in food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Peptides: Characteristic, Bioavailability and Application)
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Review
A Review of Coffee By-Products Including Leaf, Flower, Cherry, Husk, Silver Skin, and Spent Grounds as Novel Foods within the European Union
Foods 2020, 9(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050665 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 27
Abstract
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. [...] Read more.
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of novel coffee products in the food sector and their current legal classification in the European Union (EU). For this purpose, we have reviewed the literature on the composition and safety of coffee flowers, leaves, pulp, husk, parchment, green coffee, silver skin, and spent coffee grounds. Some of these products have a history of consumption in Europe (green coffee), while others have already been used as traditional food in non-EU-member countries (coffee leaves, notification currently pending), or an application for authorization as novel food has already been submitted (husks, flour from spent coffee grounds). For the other products, toxicity and/or safety data appear to be lacking, necessitating further studies to fulfill the requirements of novel food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Foods and Nutritional Function)
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Review
Phenolic Acids of Plant Origin—A Review on Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro (O/W Emulsion Systems) Along with Their in Vivo Health Biochemical Properties
Foods 2020, 9(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040534 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 31
Abstract
Nature has generously offered a wide range of herbs (e.g., thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, basil) rich in many polyphenols and other phenolic compounds with strong antioxidant and biochemical properties. This paper focuses on several natural occurring phenolic acids (caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, [...] Read more.
Nature has generously offered a wide range of herbs (e.g., thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, basil) rich in many polyphenols and other phenolic compounds with strong antioxidant and biochemical properties. This paper focuses on several natural occurring phenolic acids (caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) and first gives an overview of their most common natural plant sources. A summary of the recently reported antioxidant activities of the phenolic acids in o/w emulsions is also provided as an in vitro lipid-based model system. Exploring the interfacial activity of phenolic acids could help to further elucidate their potential health properties against oxidative stress conditions of biological membranes (such as lipoproteins). Finally, this review reports on the latest literature evidence concerning specific biochemical properties of the examined phenolic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
Review
Advances in Analysis and Detection of Major Mycotoxins in Foods
Foods 2020, 9(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040518 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
Mycotoxins are the most widely studied biological toxins, which contaminate foods at very low concentrations. This review describes the emerging extraction techniques and the current and alternatives analytical techniques and methods that have been used to successfully detect and identify important mycotoxins. Some [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are the most widely studied biological toxins, which contaminate foods at very low concentrations. This review describes the emerging extraction techniques and the current and alternatives analytical techniques and methods that have been used to successfully detect and identify important mycotoxins. Some of them have proven to be particularly effective in not only the detection of mycotoxins, but also in detecting mycotoxin-producing fungi. Chromatographic techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with various detectors like fluorescence, diode array, UV, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, have been powerful tools for analyzing and detecting major mycotoxins. Recent progress of the development of rapid immunoaffinity-based detection techniques such as immunoassays and biosensors, as well as emerging technologies like proteomic and genomic methods, molecular techniques, electronic nose, aggregation-induced emission dye, quantitative NMR and hyperspectral imaging for the detection of mycotoxins in foods, have also been presented. Full article
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Review
Drivers of Consumer Liking for Beef, Pork, and Lamb: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040428 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor have been associated with consumer acceptance of beef, lamb, and pork. Drivers of consumer liking are interrelated across these species, but there are differences in consumer preferences. Animal age, animal diet, and subsequent marbling impact consumer liking across species. [...] Read more.
Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor have been associated with consumer acceptance of beef, lamb, and pork. Drivers of consumer liking are interrelated across these species, but there are differences in consumer preferences. Animal age, animal diet, and subsequent marbling impact consumer liking across species. For beef, consumer research prior to the 1990s showed that tenderness was the main driver of liking. Consumer tenderness and juiciness liking are highly correlated. More recent research has shown that as overall tenderness improved and tenderness variation decreased, flavor has become a more important driver of beef consumer liking. Flavor is affected by consumer preparation methods, familiarity with different flavor presentations, and animal production systems. Animal diet impacts consumer perception of beef tenderness and flavor, especially when comparing forage-fed versus grain-fed beef. Flavor preferences vary across countries more so than preferences for beef based on consumer tenderness preferences and are most likely influenced by the consumption of locally produced beef and the flavor-derived type of beef traditionally consumed. Drivers of pork consumer liking have been shown to be affected by pH, color, water holding capacity, animal diet, and the presence of boar taint compounds. While tenderness and juiciness continue to be drivers of consumer liking for pork, flavor, as impacted by animal diet and the presence of boar taint compounds, continues to be a driver for consumer liking. For lamb, the flavor, as affected by diet, and animal age continue to be the main drivers of consumer liking. Lamb consumers vary across countries based on the level of consumption and preferences for flavor based on cultural effects and production practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Meat Products)
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Review
Development of Next-Generation Nutritionally Fortified Plant-Based Milk Substitutes: Structural Design Principles
Foods 2020, 9(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040421 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 19
Abstract
Consumers are increasingly interested in decreasing their dietary intake of animal-based food products, due to health, sustainability, and ethical concerns. For this reason, the food industry is creating new products from plant-based ingredients that simulate many of the physicochemical and sensory attributes associated [...] Read more.
Consumers are increasingly interested in decreasing their dietary intake of animal-based food products, due to health, sustainability, and ethical concerns. For this reason, the food industry is creating new products from plant-based ingredients that simulate many of the physicochemical and sensory attributes associated with animal-derived foods, including milk, eggs, and meat. An understanding of how the ingredient type, amount, and organization influence the desirable physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional attributes of these plant-based foods is required to achieve this goal. A potential problem with plant-based diets is that they lack key micronutrients, such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and ω-3 fatty acids. The aim of this review is to present the science behind the creation of next-generation nutritionally fortified plant-based milk substitutes. These milk-like products may be formed by mechanically breaking down certain plant materials (including nuts, seeds, and legumes) to produce a dispersion of oil bodies and other colloidal matter in water, or by forming oil-in-water emulsions by homogenizing plant-based oils and emulsifiers with water. A brief overview of the formulation and fabrication of plant-based milks is given. The relationship between the optical properties, rheology, and stability of plant-based milks and their composition and structure is then covered. Approaches to fortify these products with micronutrients that may be missing from a plant-based diet are also highlighted. In conclusion, this article highlights how the knowledge of structural design principles can be used to facilitate the creation of higher quality and more sustainable plant-based food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
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Review
The Pharmacological Activity, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmacokinetics of the Major Natural Polyphenolic Flavonoid: Quercetin
Foods 2020, 9(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030374 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 68
Abstract
Flavonoids are a class of natural substances present in plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, bulbs, bark, stems, roots, and tea. Several attempts are being made to isolate such natural products, which are popular for their health benefits. Flavonoids are now seen as an essential [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are a class of natural substances present in plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, bulbs, bark, stems, roots, and tea. Several attempts are being made to isolate such natural products, which are popular for their health benefits. Flavonoids are now seen as an essential component in a number of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medicinal formulations. Quercetin is the major polyphenolic flavonoid found in food products, including berries, apples, cauliflower, tea, cabbage, nuts, and onions that have traditionally been treated as anticancer and antiviral, and used for the treatment of allergic, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders, eye and cardiovascular diseases, and arthritis. Pharmacologically, quercetin has been examined against various microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and Plasmodium, Babesia, and Theileria parasites. Additionally, it has shown beneficial effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and this activity is due to its inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. It has also been documented to possess antioxidant, antifungal, anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and cytotoxic activity. Quercetin has been documented to accumulate in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and small intestines, with lower levels seen in the brain, heart, and spleen, and it is extracted through the renal, fecal, and respiratory systems. The current review examines the pharmacokinetics, as well as the toxic and biological activities of quercetin. Full article
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Review
Essential Oils as Potential Alternative Biocontrol Products against Plant Pathogens and Weeds: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030365 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 44
Abstract
Naturally produced by aromatic plants, essential oils (EO) contain a wide range of volatile molecules, including mostly secondary metabolites, which possess several biological activities. Essential oils properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are known for a long time and hence widely [...] Read more.
Naturally produced by aromatic plants, essential oils (EO) contain a wide range of volatile molecules, including mostly secondary metabolites, which possess several biological activities. Essential oils properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are known for a long time and hence widely used in traditional medicines, cosmetics and food industries. However, despite their effects against many phytopathogenic fungi, oomycetes and bacteria as well as weeds, their use in agriculture remains surprisingly scarce. The purpose of the present review is to gather and discuss up-to-date biological activities of EO against weeds, plant pathogenic fungi, oomycetes and bacteria, reported in the scientific literature. Innovative methods, potentially valuable to improve the efficiency and reliability of EO, have been investigated. In particular, their use towards a more sustainable agriculture has been discussed, aiming at encouraging the use of alternative products to substitute synthetic pesticides to control weeds and plant diseases, without significantly affecting crop yields. An overview of the market and the recent advances on the regulation of these products as well as future challenges to promote their development and wider use in disease management programs is described. Because of several recent reviews on EO insecticidal properties, this topic is not covered in the present review. Full article
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