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Special Issue "Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Diego A. Moreno
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
1. Phytochemistry and Healthy Foods Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, National Council for Scientific Research (CEBAS-CSIC), Murcia, Spain2. Associated Unit of R&D and Innovation CEBAS-CSIC+UPCT on “Quality and Risk Assessment of Foods”, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Espinardo - 25, E-30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: food science and technology; phytochemistry; bioactive compounds; health-promoters, functional ingredients; natural foods; healthy foods; energy metabolism (obesity and diabetes); human nutrition; wellbeing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Débora Villaño
Website
Guest Editor
Pharmacy Degree, Catholic University ‘San Antonio’ – Murcia (UCAM), Murcia, Spain
Interests: pharmacology; pharmacognosy; natural products; health-promoting bioactives; human nutrition; oxidative stress; bioavailability and metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactives and functional ingredients are natural non-essential nutrients with the potential for exerting health-protective or disease-preventive properties beyond their nutritive value. There are thousands of compounds, many of them understudied, that work differently, presenting a wide range of biological properties, namely: antioxidants, activators or inhibitors of enzymes, DNA protective compounds, hormone modulators, anti-bacterial, immune-modulatory substances, and so on.

Foods and beverages containing bioactives are already part of our daily diets, but it is expected that new designs and developments incorporating valuable bioavailable ingredients with the potential to modulate the metabolism and the physiological processes necessary for a claimed beneficial effect on the health of human subjects will arise. In particular, improving the current state of the art in demonstrating a cause–effect relationship between the consumption of the given food product and the health-promoting characteristic/s claimed, which are associated with the fully characterized bioactive molecules and metabolites in the food or the formulated edible product.

The present Issue intends to reflect, as far as possible, the recent advances connecting and integrating “from farm to food and health” the many factors involved in obtaining new foods and beverages enriched in bioactives and functional ingredients, as follows:

  • The ingredient sourcing, its quality, and the sustainability of the production systems.
  • The influence of the agronomical, industrial, and domestic processes to condition the maintenance of quality during shelf-life, and the expected functionality.
  • The demonstration of biological effects based on studies of the quality, bioavailability, and bioactivity of the new foods and beverages enriched in bioactive compounds; the elucidation of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the organic forms, conjugates, circulating forms of the bioactives; and the markers of intake and bioactivity, with the support of advanced omics technologies.
  • The consumer-driven design of new foods and beverages, as well as the novel designs for specific population groups with special needs (e.g., aging adults, allergies, caloric intake control or restricted diets, chronic conditions, and immuno-depressed situations).
  • And much more.

Dr. Diego A. Moreno
Dr. Débora Villaño
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Added value food products
  • New developments and trends in foods and beverages
  • Bioactive compounds, biomolecules, and health-promoters
  • Bioaccessible, bioavailable, and bioactive compounds
  • Health-promotion and disease prevention and management
  • Chemical characterization of foods and beverages
  • Shelf-life, organoleptic, and functional quality
  • Structure–bioactivity relationship for claimed benefits

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Microencapsulated Pomegranate Modifies the Composition and Function of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) in New Zealand Rabbits
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3297; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143297 - 21 Jul 2020
Abstract
Previous studies demonstrated that pomegranate, which is a source of several bioactive molecules, induces modifications of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) lipid composition and functionality. However, it remains unclear whether the beneficial effects of pomegranate are related to improvement in the lipid components of HDL. [...] Read more.
Previous studies demonstrated that pomegranate, which is a source of several bioactive molecules, induces modifications of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) lipid composition and functionality. However, it remains unclear whether the beneficial effects of pomegranate are related to improvement in the lipid components of HDL. Therefore, in this placebo-controlled study, we characterized the size and lipid composition of HDL subclasses and assessed the functionality of these lipoproteins after 30 days of supplementation with a pomegranate microencapsulated (MiPo) in New Zealand white rabbits. We observed a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and non−HDL sphingomyelin, as well as increases in HDL cholesterol and HDL phospholipids after supplementation with MiPo. Concomitantly, the triglycerides of the five HDL subclasses isolated by electrophoresis significantly decreased, whereas phospholipids, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin of HDL subclasses, as well as the HDL size distribution remained unchanged. Of particular interest, the triglycerides content of HDL, estimated by the triglycerides-to-phospholipids ratio, decreased significantly after MiPo supplementation. The modification on the lipid content after the supplementation was associated with an increased resistance of HDL to oxidation as determined by the conjugated dienes formation catalyzed by Cu2+. Accordingly, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity determined with phenylacetate as substrate increased after MiPo. The effect of HDL on endothelial function was analyzed by the response to increasing doses of acetylcholine of aorta rings co-incubated with the lipoproteins in an isolated organ bath. The HDL from rabbits that received placebo partially inhibited the endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In contrast, the negative effect of HDL on endothelial function was reverted by MiPo supplementation. These results show that the beneficial effects of pomegranate are mediated at least in part by improving the functionality of HDL, probably via the reduction of the content of triglycerides in these lipoproteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Protein from Four Different Seaweeds Using Three Different Physical Pre-Treatment Strategies
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25082005 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Seaweeds are a rich source of protein and can contain up to 47% on the dry weight basis. It is challenging to extract proteins from the raw biomass of seaweed due to resilient cell-wall complexes. Four species of macroalgae were used in this [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are a rich source of protein and can contain up to 47% on the dry weight basis. It is challenging to extract proteins from the raw biomass of seaweed due to resilient cell-wall complexes. Four species of macroalgae were used in this study-two brown, Fucus vesiculosus and Alaria esculenta, and two red, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus. Three treatments were applied individually to the macroalgal species: (I) high-pressure processing (HPP); (II) laboratory autoclave processing and (III) a classical sonication and salting out method. The protein, ash and lipid contents of the resulting extracts were estimated. Yields of protein recovered ranged from 3.2% for Fucus vesiculosus pre-treated with high pressure processing to 28.9% protein recovered for Chondrus crispus treated with the classical method. The yields of protein recovered using the classical, HPP and autoclave pre-treatments applied to Fucus vesiculosus were 35.1, 23.7% and 24.3%, respectively; yields from Alaria esculenta were 18.2%, 15.0% and 17.1% respectively; yields from Palmaria palmata were 12.5%, 14.9% and 21.5% respectively, and finally, yields from Chondrus crispus were 35.2%, 16.1% and 21.9%, respectively. These results demonstrate that while macroalgal proteins may be extracted using either physical or enzymatic methods, the specific extraction procedure should be tailored to individual species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
An Overview of Effects Induced by Pasteurization and High-Power Ultrasound Treatment on the Quality of Red Grape Juice
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071669 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In juice processing, ultrasound treatment has been tested as a potential alternative to conventional thermal methods to inactivate microorganisms and to enhance the nutritional status of juice. In this study, the impact of pasteurization and high-power ultrasound treatment on the quality of red [...] Read more.
In juice processing, ultrasound treatment has been tested as a potential alternative to conventional thermal methods to inactivate microorganisms and to enhance the nutritional status of juice. In this study, the impact of pasteurization and high-power ultrasound treatment on the quality of red grape juice was investigated in terms of the content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and l-ascorbic acid as well as regarding the microbiological and physicochemical properties. The grape juice was subjected to pasteurization (80 °C, 2 min) as well as to ultrasound treatment with an amplitude of 50 and 70% for 5 and 10 min. The results indicated the same level of total phenolic content for pasteurized and sonicated samples for 10 min with an amplitude of 70%, while the highest level of l-ascorbic acid was recorded for sonicated samples with an amplitude of 70% for 10 min. pH of sonicated samples decreased with amplitude and treatment time while total soluble solids and titratable acidity increased with amplitude and time. Moreover, the results indicated the usefulness of juice sonication to enhance the inactivation of microorganisms. Thus, the high-power ultrasound treatment might represent a viable technique to replace the conventional thermal treatment in grape juice processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of the Method for Determination of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSCs) in Fruit Brandy with the Use of HS–SPME/GC–MS
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051232 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) play an important role in the aroma profile of fermented beverages. However, because of their low concentration in samples, their analysis is difficult. The headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS–SPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is one [...] Read more.
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) play an important role in the aroma profile of fermented beverages. However, because of their low concentration in samples, their analysis is difficult. The headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS–SPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is one of the methods successfully used to identify VSCs in wine and beer samples. However, this method encounters more obstacles when spirit beverages are analyzed, as the ethanol content of the matrix decreases the method sensitivity. In this work, different conditions applied during HS–SPME/GC–MS analysis, namely: ethanol concentration, salt addition, time and temperature of extraction, as well as fiber coating, were evaluated in regard to 19 sulfur compounds. The best results were obtained when 50/30 μm Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) was used to preconcentrate the analytes from the sample at 35 °C for 30 min. The dilution of samples to 2.5% v/v ethanol and the addition of 20% w/v NaCl along with 1% EDTA significantly improves the sensitivity of extraction. The optimized method was applied to three fruit brandy samples (plum, pear, and apple) and quantification of VSCs was performed. A total of 10 compounds were identified in brandy samples and their concentration varied greatly depending on the raw material used from production. The highest concentration of identified VSCs was found in apple brandy (82 µg/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Varieties as Sources of Health-Beneficial Substances
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3729; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203729 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is becoming more and more important in the health food market as a functional food, since its seeds and oil represent a rich source of bioactive compounds. Its chemical composition is strongly correlated with, and dependent on, genetic [...] Read more.
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is becoming more and more important in the health food market as a functional food, since its seeds and oil represent a rich source of bioactive compounds. Its chemical composition is strongly correlated with, and dependent on, genetic characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation in seed yield, oil content, fatty acid composition and secondary metabolite profiles between a low-linolenic linseed variety, belonging to the Solin-type group (Solal), and a high-linolenic traditional one (Bethune), cultivated, both as spring crops, in open field conditions of Central Italy. The achieved results pointed out the different behavior of the two varieties in terms of growth cycle, oil content, and some important yield components, such as capsule number per plant and thousand seed weight. There were also significant differences in seed composition regarding total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activities as well as in carotenoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol profiles between the two varieties. In particular, Solal was characterized by the greatest contents of oil, phenols, flavonoids, α- and δ- tocotrienol, together with the highest antioxidant activity. Bethune, on the contrary, showed the highest amounts of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene). These results indicate a clear effect of the genetic characteristics on the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites and, consequently, on the related antioxidant activity. Our findings suggest that the mutation process, responsible for the selection of the low-linolenic cultivar, is able to modify the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids and phenolics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Metabolite Profiling in a Date Pit Based Coffee Substitute and in Response to Roasting as Analyzed via Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183377 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Interest in developing coffee substitutes is on the rise, to minimizing its health side effects. In the Middle East, date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pits are often used as a coffee substitute post roasting. In this study, commercially-roasted date pit products, along [...] Read more.
Interest in developing coffee substitutes is on the rise, to minimizing its health side effects. In the Middle East, date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pits are often used as a coffee substitute post roasting. In this study, commercially-roasted date pit products, along with unroasted and home-prepared roasted date pits, were subjected to analyses for their metabolite composition, and neuropharmacological evaluation in mice. Headspace SPME-GCMS and GCMS post silylation were employed for characterizing its volatile and non-volatile metabolite profile. For comparison to roasted coffee, coffee product was also included. There is evidence that some commercial date pit products appear to contain undeclared additives. SPME headspace analysis revealed the abundance of furans, pyrans, terpenoids and sulfur compounds in roasted date pits, whereas pyrroles and caffeine were absent. GCMS-post silylation employed for primary metabolite profiling revealed fatty acids’ enrichment in roasted pits versus sugars’ abundance in coffee. Biological investigations affirmed that date pit showed safer margin than coffee from its LD50, albeit it exhibits no CNS stimulant properties. This study provides the first insight into the roasting impact on the date pit through its metabolome and its neuropharmacological aspects to rationalize its use as a coffee substitute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Effects of Lactose Hydrolysis Modeling on the Main Oligosaccharides in Goat Milk Whey Permeate
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3294; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183294 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is a crucial step to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of milk oligosaccharides free from simple sugars. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects temperature (25.9 to 54.1 °C) and amount [...] Read more.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is a crucial step to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of milk oligosaccharides free from simple sugars. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects temperature (25.9 to 54.1 °C) and amount of enzyme (0.17 to 0.32% w/w) at 1, 2, and 4 h of reaction on the efficiency of lactose hydrolysis by Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase, preservation of major goat whey oligosaccharides, and on the de-novo formation of oligosaccharides. Lactose hydrolysis above 99% was achieved at 1, 2, and 4 h, not being significantly affected by temperature and amount of enzyme within the tested conditions. Formation of 4 Hexose (Hex) and 4 Hex 1 Hex and an increased de-novo formation of 2 Hex 1 N-Acetyl-Neuraminic Acid (NeuAc) and 2 Hex 1 N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) was observed in all treatments. Overall, processing conditions using temperatures ≤40 °C and enzyme concentration ≤0.25% resulted in higher preservation/formation of goat whey oligosaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Phenolic Composition of Byproducts (Seeds and Peels) of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Cultivated in Colombia
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173209 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The byproducts (seeds and peels) of an avocado cultivated in the south of Colombia were extracted with aqueous acetone and their antioxidant properties were measured with ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and total polyphenol content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. A [...] Read more.
The byproducts (seeds and peels) of an avocado cultivated in the south of Colombia were extracted with aqueous acetone and their antioxidant properties were measured with ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and total polyphenol content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. A bioguided fractionation was performed, first by SPE (solid phase extraction) on Amberlite XAD-7, and then by size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. The polyphenolic-rich extracts and their fractions were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS), finding the presence of organic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, catechins, free and glycosylated flavonoids, and dimeric and trimeric procyanidins. Catechin, epicatechin, six quercetin derivatives, four dimeric procyanidins (three type B and one type A), and three trimeric procyanidins (two type B and one type A) were detected in the most active fractions of avocado peel and seeds. The most antioxidant fractions contain the higher molecular weight phenolic compounds (condensed tannins). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrition Quality Parameters of Almonds as Affected by Deficit Irrigation Strategies
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142646 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The influence of full irrigation, double-regulated (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) treatments on almond quality was assessed by analyzing different parameters: sugars, organic acids, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and volatile compounds. Almond quality studies for plants submitted to water stress [...] Read more.
The influence of full irrigation, double-regulated (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) treatments on almond quality was assessed by analyzing different parameters: sugars, organic acids, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and volatile compounds. Almond quality studies for plants submitted to water stress are scarce, and it is essential to understand the biochemical responses of plants to water stress in maintaining fruit yield and quality. Citric acid, sucrose, antioxidant activity, and TPC were not affected by the application of studied deficit irrigation strategies (DI). An increase in malic acid and a decrease in glucose was observed for stressed samples (T3 and T4), while a higher number of total volatiles compounds was found for moderate RDI (T2). Using deficit irrigation strategies, the almond yield and quality was not changed, and in fact, some parameters, such as glucose and key volatile compounds, slightly increased under moderate RDI. This finding might encourage farmers to implement these strategies and contribute to sustainable agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Aroma Compounds of Brandy ‘Lozovača′ Produced from Muscat Table Grapevine Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132485 - 06 Jul 2019
Abstract
Grape brandy, known as ‘Lozovača’, is one of the most produced alcoholic beverages in the Republic of Serbia. Muscat cultivars are highly priced in grape brandy manufacturing. Among the numerous factors, cultivar-specific characteristics have a significant influence on its quality and aroma profile. [...] Read more.
Grape brandy, known as ‘Lozovača’, is one of the most produced alcoholic beverages in the Republic of Serbia. Muscat cultivars are highly priced in grape brandy manufacturing. Among the numerous factors, cultivar-specific characteristics have a significant influence on its quality and aroma profile. Pectolytic enzymes play a part in increasing intensity of the prefermentative aroma by hydrolysis of terpenic glycosides, from which the compounds that contribute to the aroma of brandy are released. In this study, grape brandy samples were produced from five Muscat table grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) namely, Early Muscat, Radmilovac Muscat, Banat Muscat, Italia Muscat, and Muscat Hamburg, with the addition of pectolytic enzyme in two different concentrations or without it (control). A total of 58 volatile aroma compounds were detected by means of combined gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method. Ethyl esters of C8–C18 fatty acids (21) and terpene (16) compounds were considerably more abundant in all grape brandy samples compared to the other volatile compounds identified. Pectolytic enzyme, positively affected terpenes content in the brandy of all studied cultivars. The similarities between brandy samples produced from Muscat Hamburg (MH) and other Muscat cultivars may be attributed to the parentage of MH to those cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Agitation Speed and Kinetic Studies on Probiotication of Pomegranate Juice with Lactobacillus casei
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132357 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The issues of lactose intolerance and vegetarianism have encouraged the introduction of non-dairy fermented food into the market. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of agitation speed on the bioactive compounds and functional characteristics of probioticated pomegranate juice. Pomegranate juice was [...] Read more.
The issues of lactose intolerance and vegetarianism have encouraged the introduction of non-dairy fermented food into the market. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of agitation speed on the bioactive compounds and functional characteristics of probioticated pomegranate juice. Pomegranate juice was fermented with Lactobacillus casei at different agitation speeds ranging from 0 (microaerophilic) to 150 rpm at 37 °C. The functional properties of probioticated pomegranate juice were evaluated in terms of growth (biomass), lactic acid production, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and key metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The growth kinetics of fermentation was monitored at the optimal condition using one factor at a time method. High cell growth (3.58 × 1010 cfu/mL or 7.9 gL−1) was observed for L. casei probioticated pomegranate juice agitated at 0 rpm. The findings of this study reveal the potential of pomegranate juice as a medium for L. casei cultivation without nutrient supplementation. The improvement of antioxidant activity in the probioticated juice could be due to the increment of quercetin-3-glucoside. Therefore, L. casei grew well in pomegranate juice with a high cell viability and antioxidant activity at a non-agitated condition. Probioticated pomegranate juice is a potentially functional drink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Catechins Controlled Bioavailability of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[α]P) from the Gastrointestinal Tract to the Brain towards Reducing Brain Toxicity Using the In Vitro Bio-Mimic System Coupled with Sequential Co-Cultures
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112175 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to examine the preventive effect of green tea catechins on the transport of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[α]P) into the brain using an in vitro bio-mimic system coupled with sequential co-cultures. When 72 μM of catechins was pre-treated, cellular [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to examine the preventive effect of green tea catechins on the transport of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[α]P) into the brain using an in vitro bio-mimic system coupled with sequential co-cultures. When 72 μM of catechins was pre-treated, cellular cytotoxicity induced by IC50 of B[α]P in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was reduced by 27% and 26%, respectively. The cellular integrity measured in HBMECs, which was exposed to IC50 of B[α]P, slowly decreased. However, the pre-treatment of catechins retained cellular integrity that was 1.14 times higher than with the absence of catechins. Co-consumption of catechins reduced not only the bio-accessibility of B[α]P in digestive fluid, but it also decreased absorption of B[α]P in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) with a HepG2 co-culture system. It was found that approximately a two times lower amount of B[α]P was transported via the blood-brain barrier (BBB) compared to only the B[α]P intake. These results are taken in conjunction with each other support that catechins could be able to prevent brain toxicity induced by B[α]P in the human body by limiting the bio-availability of B[α]P. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quality Attributes and Fatty Acid, Volatile and Sensory Profiles of “Arbequina” hydroSOStainable Olive Oil
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112148 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The use of deficit irrigation techniques on olive orchards is the main trend aiming to optimize water savings while improving functional and sensory characteristics of oils from trees under deficit irrigation techniques. The brand hydroSOStainable has been defined for crops produced under water [...] Read more.
The use of deficit irrigation techniques on olive orchards is the main trend aiming to optimize water savings while improving functional and sensory characteristics of oils from trees under deficit irrigation techniques. The brand hydroSOStainable has been defined for crops produced under water restriction conditions. HydroSOStainable olive oils obtained under two new regulated deficit irrigation and one sustained deficit irrigation treatments in “Arbequina” olive trees were evaluated by analyzing quality parameters, antioxidant activity, total phenol content, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and sensory descriptors. Results showed that some of these irrigation strategies improved the phenol content at “moderate” stress levels, slightly enriched the fatty acid profile (~3.5% increased oleic acid and simultaneously decreased saturated fatty acids), and increased some key volatile compounds and also several key sensory attributes. Therefore, hydroSOStainable olive oil may be more attractive to consumers as it is environmentally friendly, has a higher content of several bioactive compounds, and has improved sensory characteristics as compared to control (fully irrigated) oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Role of Brassica Bioactives on Human Health: Are We Studying It the Right Way?
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071591 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Brassica vegetables and their components, the glucosinolates, have been suggested as good candidates as dietary coadjutants to improve health in non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Different preclinical and clinical studies have been performed in the last decade; however, some concerns have been posed on the [...] Read more.
Brassica vegetables and their components, the glucosinolates, have been suggested as good candidates as dietary coadjutants to improve health in non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Different preclinical and clinical studies have been performed in the last decade; however, some concerns have been posed on the lack of established and standardized protocols. The different concentration of bioactive compounds used, time of intervention or sample size, and the lack of blinding are some factors that may influence the studies’ outcomes. This review aims to analyze the critical points of the studies performed with Brassica-related biomolecules and propose some bases for future trials in order to avoid biases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
In Vitro Propagation and Variation of Antioxidant Properties in Micropropagated Vaccinium Berry Plants—A Review
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040788 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The berry crops in genus Vacciniun L. are the richest sources of antioxidant metabolites which have high potential to reduce the incidence of several degenerative diseases. In vitro propagation or micropropagation has been attractive to researchers for its incredible potential for mass production [...] Read more.
The berry crops in genus Vacciniun L. are the richest sources of antioxidant metabolites which have high potential to reduce the incidence of several degenerative diseases. In vitro propagation or micropropagation has been attractive to researchers for its incredible potential for mass production of a selected genotype in a short time, all year round. Propagation techniques affect the antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves. Total antioxidant activity was higher in the fruit of in vitro propagated plants compare to the plants grown ex vivo. This review provides critical information for better understanding the micropropagation and conventional propagation methods, and their effects on antioxidant properties and morphological differentiation in Vaccinium species, and fills an existing gap in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Functional Ingredients in Foods and Beverages)
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