Special Issue "Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Theo H. Varzakas

Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese, Kalamata, Greece
E-Mail
Interests: food quality; foodborne pathogens; food safety; food microbiology and safety; food preservation; food analysis; food technology; food safety management systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fermented foods are food substrates that are invaded or overgrown by edible microorganisms whose enzymes, particularly amylases, proteases, and lipases, hydrolyze the polysaccharides, proteins and lipids to nontoxic products with flavors, aromas, and textures pleasant and attractive to the human consumer. Fermentation plays at least five roles in food processing: (1) Enrichment of the human dietary through development of a wide diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food; (2) preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcoholic, acetic acid, alkaline fermentations, and high salt fermentations; (3) enrichment of food substrates biologically with vitamins, protein, essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids; (4) detoxification during food fermentation processing; and (5) a decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements (Steinkraus, 2002).

Classified fermentations include:

  1. Fermentations producing textured vegetable protein meat substitutes in legume/cereal mixtures.

  2. High salt/savory meat-flavored/amino acid/peptide sauce and paste fermentation.

  3. Lactic acid fermentations. Examples of vegetable lactic acid fermentations are: sauerkraut, cucumber pickles, and olives in the Western world.

  4. Alcoholic fermentations.

  5. Acetic acid/vinegar fermentations.

  6. Alkaline fermentations.

  7. Leavened breads.

  8. Flat unleavened breads.

The aim of this Special Issue is to describe in detail and advance all these fermentations, describing, not only the microbiology behind, but also the principal technologies of fermented foods and beverages.

Prof. Dr. Theo H Varzakas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 650 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fermented foods

  • Fermented beverages

  • Microbiology

  • Lactic acid fermentations

  • Alcoholic fermentations

  • Other fermentations

Published Papers (5 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-5
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Microbial Community Analysis of Sauerkraut Fermentation Reveals a Stable and Rapidly Established Community
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite recent interest in microbial communities of fermented foods, there has been little inquiry into the bacterial community dynamics of sauerkraut, one of the world’s oldest and most prevalent fermented foods. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to profile the [...] Read more.
Despite recent interest in microbial communities of fermented foods, there has been little inquiry into the bacterial community dynamics of sauerkraut, one of the world’s oldest and most prevalent fermented foods. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to profile the microbial community of naturally fermented sauerkraut throughout the fermentation process while also analyzing the bacterial communities of the starting ingredients and the production environment. Our results indicate that the sauerkraut microbiome is rapidly established after fermentation begins and that the community is stable through fermentation and packaging for commercial sale. Our high-throughput analysis is in agreement with previous studies that utilized traditional microbiological assessments but expands the identified taxonomy. Additionally, we find that the microbial communities of the starting ingredients and the production facility environment exhibit low relative abundance of the lactic acid bacteria that dominate fermented sauerkraut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Lactobacillus plantarum with Broad Antifungal Activity as a Protective Starter Culture for Bread Production
Foods 2017, 6(12), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6120110
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide on a daily basis. Fungal contamination of bread is a critical concern for producers since it is related to important economic losses and safety hazards due to the negative impact of sensorial quality and to the [...] Read more.
Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide on a daily basis. Fungal contamination of bread is a critical concern for producers since it is related to important economic losses and safety hazards due to the negative impact of sensorial quality and to the potential occurrence of mycotoxins. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum UFG 121, a strain with characterized broad antifungal activity, was analyzed as a potential protective culture for bread production. Six different molds belonging to Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Fusarium culmorum were used to artificially contaminate bread produced with two experimental modes: (i) inoculation of the dough with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (control) and (ii) co-inoculation of the dough with the commercial S. cerevisiae strain and with L. plantarum UFG 121. L. plantarum strain completely inhibited the growth of F. culmorum after one week of storage. The lactic acid bacterium modulated the mold growth in samples contaminated with Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium expansum, while no antagonistic effect was found against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium roqueforti. These results indicate the potential of L. plantarum UFG 121 as a biocontrol agent in bread production and suggest a species- or strain-depending sensitivity of the molds to the same microbial-based control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review [...] Read more.
This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Baker’s Yeast Production on Date Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
PDF Full-text (2642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to [...] Read more.
This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation. The kinetic performance of the S. cerevisiae strain was investigated with three unstructured models i.e., Monod, Verhulst, and Tessier. The conformity of the experimental data fitted showed a good consistency with Monod and Tessier models with R2 = 0.945 and 0.979, respectively. An excellent adequacy was noted in the case of the Verhulst model (R2 = 0.981). The values of kinetic parameters (Ks, Xm, μm, p and q) calculated by the Excel software, confirmed that Monod and Verhulst were suitable models, in contrast, the Tessier model was inappropriately fitted with the experimental data due to the illogical value of Ks (−9.434). The profiles prediction of the biomass production with the Verhulst model, and that of the substrate consumption using Leudeking Piret model over time, demonstrated a good agreement between the simulation models and the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview One Health, Fermented Foods, and Gut Microbiota
Foods 2018, 7(12), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120195
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in present-day society such as diets with more sugar, salt, and saturated fat, bad habits and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to the likelihood of the involvement of the microbiota in inflammatory diseases, which contribute to global epidemics of obesity, depression, and mental health [...] Read more.
Changes in present-day society such as diets with more sugar, salt, and saturated fat, bad habits and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to the likelihood of the involvement of the microbiota in inflammatory diseases, which contribute to global epidemics of obesity, depression, and mental health concerns. The microbiota is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research, and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods and beverages are generally defined as products made by microbial organisms and enzymatic conversions of major and minor food components. Further to the commonly-recognized effects of nutrition on the digestive health (e.g., dysbiosis) and well-being, there is now strong evidence for the impact of fermented foods and beverages (e.g., yoghurt, pickles, bread, kefir, beers, wines, mead), produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms, on general health, namely their significance on the gut microbiota balance and brain functionality. Fermented products require microorganisms, i.e., Saccharomyces yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, yielding alcohol and lactic acid. Ingestion of vibrant probiotics, especially those contained in fermented foods, is found to cause significant positive improvements in balancing intestinal permeability and barrier function. Our guts control and deal with every aspect of our health. How we digest our food and even the food sensitivities we have is linked with our mood, behavior, energy, weight, food cravings, hormone balance, immunity, and overall wellness. We highlight some impacts in this domain and debate calls for the convergence of interdisciplinary research fields from the United Nations’ initiative. Worldwide human and animal medicine are practiced separately; veterinary science and animal health are generally neither considered nor inserted within national or international Health discussions. The absence of a clear definition and subsequent vision for the future of One Health may act as a barrier to transdisciplinary collaboration. The point of this mini review is to highlight the role of fermented foods and beverages on gut microbiota and debate if the need for confluence of transdisciplinary fields of One Health is feasible and achievable, since they are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top