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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 12 (June-2 2024) – 180 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Lipid metabolism is influenced by genetics, age, lifestyle, and disease conditions. This study investigated the association of dietary patterns and serum lipidomics in 396 participants from a Mediterranean area (type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes; non-diabetics). Using UHPLC/MS, lipid species were analyzed according to dietary patterns with linear regression. Acylcarnitines and triglycerides showed negative associations with healthy eating patterns in all subjects. The interaction between lipidomics and diet showed that lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines were positively correlated with healthy diet in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes, and a negative correlation in subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study emphasizes the influence of diet on lipid metabolism. View this paper
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14 pages, 2218 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association between Unsaturated Fatty Acid-Type Diet and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses
by Bozhou Wang, Hanzheng Wang, Jinge Huang and Ting Zhao
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121974 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems, with a higher prevalence among women in their reproductive years. The disease’s multifactorial etiology involves genetic, environmental, and hormonal components. Recent studies have highlighted the potential impact of [...] Read more.
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems, with a higher prevalence among women in their reproductive years. The disease’s multifactorial etiology involves genetic, environmental, and hormonal components. Recent studies have highlighted the potential impact of dietary factors, particularly unsaturated fatty acids, on the modulation of SLE due to their anti-inflammatory properties. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the association between unsaturated fatty acid consumption and the risk, progression, and clinical manifestations of SLE, providing evidence-based guidance for dietary management. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search across major medical databases up to January 2024, focusing on studies that examined the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and the impact of such intake on SLE. Using the PICOS (population, intervention, comparator, outcomes, study design) framework, we included randomized controlled trials and case–control studies, assessing outcomes such as SLE activity, measured by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) or the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index, inflammation biomarkers. Studies were analyzed using either a fixed- or random-effects model based on heterogeneity (I2 statistic), with sensitivity analyses performed to assess the robustness of the findings. Results: Our search included 10 studies, encompassing a wide variety of designs and populations. The meta-analysis showed that a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is significantly associated with a reduction in SLEDAI scores (pooled SMD) of −0.36, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.11, p = 0.007, indicating a beneficial effect on disease activity. Additionally, we found that unsaturated fatty acid intake has a significant impact on HDL levels, suggesting a positive effect on lipid profiles. However, no significant effects were observed on levels of the inflammatory marker IL-6 or other lipid components (LDL and cholesterol). With minimal heterogeneity among studies (I2 ≤ 15%), sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability and reliability of these results, highlighting the potential role of unsaturated fatty acids in SLE management. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids may play a positive role in reducing SLE activity and may significantly affect HDL levels without having significant effects on inflammation markers or other lipid profiles. These findings support the inclusion of unsaturated fatty acids in the dietary management of SLE patients, although further research is required to refine dietary recommendations and explore the mechanisms underlying these associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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20 pages, 4940 KiB  
Article
Taurine Neuroprotection and Neurogenesis Effect in Chronic Ethanol-Induced Rats
by Patricia Rodella, Diogo Boreski, Marcus Alexandre Mendes Luz, Edmo Atique Gabriel, Luiz Fernando Takase and Chung Man Chin
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121973 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a non-protein β-amino acid essential for cellular homeostasis, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties that are crucial for life maintenance. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of taurine administration on hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal preservation, or reverse damage in [...] Read more.
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a non-protein β-amino acid essential for cellular homeostasis, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties that are crucial for life maintenance. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of taurine administration on hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal preservation, or reverse damage in rats exposed to forced ethanol consumption in an animal model. Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (EtOH) for a 28-day period (5% in the 1st week, 10% in the 2nd week, and 20% in the 3rd and 4th weeks). Two taurine treatment protocols (300 mg/kg i.p.) were implemented: one during ethanol consumption to analyze neuroprotection, and another after ethanol consumption to assess the reversal of ethanol-induced damage. Overall, the results demonstrated that taurine treatment was effective in protecting against deficits induced by ethanol consumption in the dentate gyrus. The EtOH+TAU group showed a significant increase in cell proliferation (145.8%) and cell survival (54.0%) compared to the EtOH+Sal group. The results also indicated similar effects regarding the reversal of ethanol-induced damage 28 days after the cessation of ethanol consumption. The EtOH+TAU group exhibited a significant increase (41.3%) in the number of DCX-immunoreactive cells compared to the EtOH+Sal group. However, this amino acid did not induce neurogenesis in the tissues of healthy rats, implying that its activity may be contingent upon post-injury stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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24 pages, 1462 KiB  
Review
Duality of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Biomarkers versus Active Pathophysiological Promoters
by Daniela Maria Tanase, Emilia Valasciuc, Claudia Florida Costea, Dragos Viorel Scripcariu, Anca Ouatu, Loredana Liliana Hurjui, Claudia Cristina Tarniceriu, Diana Elena Floria, Manuela Ciocoiu, Livia Genoveva Baroi and Mariana Floria
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121972 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), comprising leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), are essential nutrients vital for protein synthesis and metabolic regulation via specialized signaling networks. Their association with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has become a focal point of scientific debate, with emerging evidence [...] Read more.
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), comprising leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), are essential nutrients vital for protein synthesis and metabolic regulation via specialized signaling networks. Their association with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has become a focal point of scientific debate, with emerging evidence suggesting both beneficial and detrimental roles. This review aims to dissect the multifaceted relationship between BCAAs and cardiovascular health, exploring the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Elevated BCAA levels have also been linked to insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), inflammation, and dyslipidemia, which are well-established risk factors for CVD. Central to these processes are key pathways such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activate B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammation, and oxidative stress. Additionally, the interplay between BCAA metabolism and gut microbiota, particularly the production of metabolites like trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), adds another layer of complexity. Contrarily, some studies propose that BCAAs may have cardioprotective effects under certain conditions, contributing to muscle maintenance and metabolic health. This review critically evaluates the evidence, addressing the biological basis and signal transduction mechanism, and also discusses the potential for BCAAs to act as biomarkers versus active mediators of cardiovascular pathology. By presenting a balanced analysis, this review seeks to clarify the contentious roles of BCAAs in CVD, providing a foundation for future research and therapeutic strategies required because of the rising prevalence, incidence, and total burden of CVDs. Full article
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17 pages, 2713 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Higher-Protein Nut versus Higher-Carbohydrate Cereal Enriched Diet on the Gut Microbiomes of Chinese Participants with Overweight and Normoglycaemia or Prediabetes in the Tū Ora Study
by Saif Faraj, Ivana R. Sequeira-Bisson, Louise Lu, Jennifer L. Miles-Chan, Michael Hoggard, Daniel Barnett, Amber Parry-Strong, Meika Foster, Jeremy D. Krebs, Sally D. Poppitt, Michael W. Taylor and Akarsh Mathrani
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121971 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Global increases in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially within Asian populations, highlight the need for novel approaches to dietary intervention. The Tū Ora study previously evaluated the effects on metabolic health of including a nut product into the diet [...] Read more.
Global increases in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially within Asian populations, highlight the need for novel approaches to dietary intervention. The Tū Ora study previously evaluated the effects on metabolic health of including a nut product into the diet of a New Zealand cohort of Chinese participants with overweight and normoglycaemia or prediabetes through a 12-week randomised, parallel-group clinical trial. In this current study, we compared the impact of this higher-protein nut bar (HP-NB) versus a higher-carbohydrate cereal bar (HC-CB) on the faecal microbiome by employing both 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of pre- and post-intervention pairs from 84 participants. Despite the higher fibre, protein, and unsaturated fat content of nuts, there was little difference between dietary groups in gut microbiome composition or functional potential, with the bacterial phylum Firmicutes dominating irrespective of diet. The lack of observed change suggests the dietary impact of the bars may have been insufficient to affect the gut microbiome. Manipulating the interplay between the diet, microbiome, and metabolic health may require a more substantial and/or prolonged dietary perturbation to generate an impactful modification of the gut ecosystem and its functional potential to aid in T2D risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake of Phytochemicals, Gut Microbiota and Appetite Control)
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12 pages, 3690 KiB  
Article
What Lithuanian First-Graders Eat: Results of a 15-Year Semi-Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional Surveillance Study
by Ausra Petrauskiene, Silvija Daugelaite, Aurelija Salomskiene and Vita Speckauskiene
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121970 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 542
Abstract
This article presents the dietary habits of Lithuanian first-grade (7–8-year-old) students over a 15-year surveillance period to understand the trends and changes in their nutrition patterns. The presented data were collected from three study rounds of the Lithuanian Growth Surveillance Study conducted between [...] Read more.
This article presents the dietary habits of Lithuanian first-grade (7–8-year-old) students over a 15-year surveillance period to understand the trends and changes in their nutrition patterns. The presented data were collected from three study rounds of the Lithuanian Growth Surveillance Study conducted between 2008 and 2023, with a total sample of 11,594 first-grade students from all 10 counties of Lithuania. The main findings reveal significant shifts in breakfast consumption, with an increase in daily breakfast intake observed over the surveillance period. Conversely, the consumption of cereal porridge showed a notable decrease, particularly in the frequency of consumption. Positive changes were noted in the consumption of vegetables and fresh fruits, indicating an improvement in dietary quality. Also, a concerning trend of declining consumption of certain nutritious food groups like fish and dairy products is identified, whereas the consumption of sugary beverages is low. These findings underscore the importance of ongoing efforts to promote healthier eating habits among school-age children in Lithuania. Addressing these trends requires a multifaceted approach involving education, policy changes, and community-based interventions to ensure the long-term health and well-being of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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21 pages, 508 KiB  
Article
Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Parallel Group Nutritional Study to Evaluate the Effects of Routine Intake of Fresh vs. Pasteurized Yogurt on the Immune System in Healthy Adults
by Fernando Rivero-Pino, Mar Casquete, Maria José Castro, Paz Redondo del Rio, Eloina Gutierrez, Agustín Mayo-Iscar, Mercedes Nocito and Alfredo Corell
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121969 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 905
Abstract
The immune system is affected by the dietary products humans intake. Immune system regulation by nutrition has uses in the clinical context, but it can also benefit healthy populations by delaying or preventing the emergence of immune-mediated chronic illnesses. In this study, the [...] Read more.
The immune system is affected by the dietary products humans intake. Immune system regulation by nutrition has uses in the clinical context, but it can also benefit healthy populations by delaying or preventing the emergence of immune-mediated chronic illnesses. In this study, the purpose was to describe and compare the modulator effects on the immune system of the routine ingestion of fresh vs. pasteurized yogurt. A unicentral, prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group 8-week nutritional study was carried out comparing the ingestion of 125 g of the products in healthy adults three times a day. A complete battery of in vitro tests on the activity of the immune system, processes and phenomena was performed. Exclusive immune-modulatory effects of fresh yogurt with respect to base line were found in terms of increased systemic IgM (primary immune responses), increased synthesis of IFN-gamma upon stimulation (Th1) and increased peripheral T cells (mainly “naive” CD4s). In the three interventions, we observed an increased phagocytic activity and burst test in granulocytes, together with increased secretion of IL-6, IL-1 β and IL-8 (pro-inflammatory) and increased CD16 expression (FcR favoring phagocytosis) in granulocytes. Overall, it is concluded that regardless of bacteria being alive or thermally inactivated, yogurt has common effects on the innate system, but the presence of live bacteria is necessary to achieve a potentiating effect on the specific immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactive Compounds)
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13 pages, 1506 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Intradialytic Exercise Using Virtual Reality on the Body Composition of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
by Marta Romeu-Perales, Eva Segura-Ortí, Alicia Cana-Poyatos, Marina Toquero-Correa, Vicent Benavent-Caballer, Delia Pans-Alcaina, Rafael García-Maset and Alicia García-Testal
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121968 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Background: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often experience reduced muscle strength and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and engaging in regular exercise may improve them. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intradialytic exercise using non-immersive virtual [...] Read more.
Background: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often experience reduced muscle strength and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and engaging in regular exercise may improve them. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intradialytic exercise using non-immersive virtual reality (VR) on body composition of patients with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This was a substudy in a clinical trial of intradialytic exercise intervention using a non-immersive VR game in which the patient interacted by moving the lower limbs. Body composition was determined by BCM Fresenius multifrequency stereoscopic bioimpedance. Body mass index (BMI), fat tissue index (FTI), lean tissue index (LTI), extracellular/intracellular water (EIW), and phase angle (PA) were recorded in 52 patients, 24 in the control group (CG) and 28 in the exercise group (EG). Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups. The LTI increased in the EG while it decreased in the CG. The FTI and the EIW decreased in the EG compared to the increase observed in the CG. Conclusions: Intradialytic exercise using non-immersive VR was associated with an increase in LTI and a decrease in FTI of CKD patients on HD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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10 pages, 867 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bifidobacterium longum 35624 in Children and Adolescents with Irritable Bowel Syndrome
by Sylvia Cruchet Muñoz, Sandra Verbeke Palma, Lydia Lera Marqués, María Nelly Espinosa Pizarro, Jacqueline Malig Mechasqui and Katy Sorensen
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121967 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and vitamin D deficiency are common among children in Latin America. Previous studies show that Bifidobacterium longum35624TM improves IBS symptoms in adults. This real-world, single-arm, open-label study conducted in Chile investigated the effects of B. longum 35624 [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and vitamin D deficiency are common among children in Latin America. Previous studies show that Bifidobacterium longum35624TM improves IBS symptoms in adults. This real-world, single-arm, open-label study conducted in Chile investigated the effects of B. longum 35624 (1 × 109 colony-forming units, 12 weeks) on gastrointestinal symptoms (adapted IBS severity scoring system [IBS-SSS]; adapted Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms [QPGS], and Bristol Stool Form Scale) in 64 children and adolescents (8–18 years) and explored the relationship with baseline vitamin D status. Improvements in all IBS-SSS domains and composite score were observed at week 6 and 12 (p < 0.0007 versus baseline), with 98.3% of participants experiencing numerical improvements in ≥3 domains. Clinically meaningful improvement was seen in 96.6% of participants. The distribution of IBS-SSS severity categories shifted from moderate/severe at baseline to mild/remission (p < 0.0001). Improvements were not maintained during the two-week washout. Low baseline serum vitamin D levels did not correlate to IBS severity or probiotic response. QPGS significantly decreased from baseline to week 6 (p = 0.0005) and 12 (p = 0.02). B. longum 35624 may improve IBS symptoms in children and adolescents, even those with vitamin D deficiency. A confirmatory randomized controlled trial and further exploration of probiotic response and vitamin D status are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics)
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16 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
Selenomethionine Inhibited HADV-Induced Apoptosis Mediated by ROS through the JAK-STAT3 Signaling Pathway
by Chuqing Li, Xia Liu, Jiali Li, Jia Lai, Jingyao Su, Bing Zhu, Buyun Gao, Yinghua Li and Mingqi Zhao
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121966 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Adenovirus (HAdV) can cause severe respiratory infections in children and immunocompromised patients. There is a lack of specific therapeutic drugs for HAdV infection, and the study of anti-adenoviral drugs has far-reaching clinical implications. Elemental selenium can play a specific role as an antioxidant [...] Read more.
Adenovirus (HAdV) can cause severe respiratory infections in children and immunocompromised patients. There is a lack of specific therapeutic drugs for HAdV infection, and the study of anti-adenoviral drugs has far-reaching clinical implications. Elemental selenium can play a specific role as an antioxidant in the human immune cycle by non-specifically binding to the amino acid methionine in body proteins. Methods: The antiviral mechanism of selenomethionine was explored by measuring cell membrane status, intracellular DNA status, cytokine secretion, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ROS production. Conclusions: Selenomethionine improved the regulation of ROS-mediated apoptosis by modulating the expression of Jak1/2, STAT3, and BCL-XL, which led to the inhibition of apoptosis. It is anticipated that selenomethionine will offer a new anti-adenoviral therapeutic alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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9 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Diet Quality and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort Study
by Minji Kang, Lynne R. Wilkens, Michael D. Wirth, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hébert, Christopher A. Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand and Song-Yi Park
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121965 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
This study analyzed the overall quality of the diet using predefined indices, including the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the overall quality of the diet using predefined indices, including the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), to explore their association with the risk of bladder cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Data were taken from 186,979 African American, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and non-Hispanic White participants aged 45–75 years, with 1152 incident cases of invasive bladder cancer during a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 6.6 years. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with comprehensive adjustment for smoking. Comparing the highest vs. lowest diet quality score quintile, HRs (95% CIs) in men was 1.08 (0.86–1.36) for HEI-2015, 1.05 (0.84–1.30) for AHEI-2010, 1.01 (0.80–1.27) for aMED, 1.13 (0.90–1.41) for DASH, and 0.96 (0.76–1.21) for DII®, whereas the corresponding HRs for women were 0.75 (0.53–1.07), 0.64 (0.45–0.92), 0.60 (0.40–0.88), 0.66 (0.46–0.95), and 0.63 (0.43–0.90) with all p values for trend <0.05. The inverse association found in women did not vary by smoking status or race and ethnicity. Our findings suggest that adopting high-quality diets may reduce the risk of invasive bladder cancer among women in a multiethnic population. Full article
16 pages, 1164 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Almond Consumption on Cardiovascular Health and Gut Microbiome: A Comprehensive Review
by Saiful Singar, Saurabh Kadyan, Cole Patoine, Gwoncheol Park, Bahram Arjmandi and Ravinder Nagpal
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121964 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 2999
Abstract
The consumption of almonds has been associated with several health benefits, particularly concerning cardiovascular and intestinal health. In this comprehensive review, we compile and deliberate studies investigating the effects of almond consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and gut health. Almonds are [...] Read more.
The consumption of almonds has been associated with several health benefits, particularly concerning cardiovascular and intestinal health. In this comprehensive review, we compile and deliberate studies investigating the effects of almond consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and gut health. Almonds are rich in monounsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols, which contribute to their health-promoting properties. Regular intake of almonds has been shown to improve lipid profiles by reducing LDL cholesterol and enhancing HDL functionality. Additionally, almonds aid in glycemic control, blood pressure reduction, and chronic inflammation amelioration, which are critical for cardiovascular health. The antioxidant properties of almonds, primarily due to their high vitamin E content, help in reducing oxidative stress markers. Furthermore, almonds positively influence body composition by reducing body fat percentage and central adiposity and enhancing satiety, thus aiding in weight management. Herein, we also contemplate the emerging concept of the gut–heart axis, where almond consumption appears to modulate the gut microbiome, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and increasing short-chain fatty acid production, particularly butyrate. These effects collectively contribute to the anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective benefits of almonds. By encompassing these diverse aspects, we eventually provide a systematic and updated perspective on the multifaceted benefits of almond consumption for cardiovascular health and gut microbiome, corroborating their broader consideration in dietary guidelines and public health recommendations for CVD risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome)
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13 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Prolonged Consumption of A2 β-Casein Milk Reduces Symptoms Compared to A1 and A2 β-Casein Milk in Lactose Maldigesters: A Two-Week Adaptation Study
by Monica Ramakrishnan, Sindusha Mysore Saiprasad and Dennis A. Savaiano
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121963 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Approximately 30% of milk protein is β-casein. We aimed to determine whether lactose maldigesters who chronically consumed two cups of A1/A2 milk (containing 75% A1 β-casein and 25% A2 β-casein) would adapt to have fewer intolerance symptoms, lower serum inflammatory markers, and/or altered [...] Read more.
Approximately 30% of milk protein is β-casein. We aimed to determine whether lactose maldigesters who chronically consumed two cups of A1/A2 milk (containing 75% A1 β-casein and 25% A2 β-casein) would adapt to have fewer intolerance symptoms, lower serum inflammatory markers, and/or altered glutathione levels similar to those consuming A2 milk (containing 100% A2 β-casein). A double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial was conducted. Sixteen confirmed lactose maldigesters consumed 250 mL of A1/A2 milk and A2 milk twice daily with meals for two weeks. At the end of the adaptation period on day 15, lactose maldigestion was measured after a challenge with the same milk used for adaptation (0.5 g of lactose per kg of body weight) with a hydrogen breath test. Fecal urgency was higher during the two-week consumption of A1/A2 milk compared to A2 milk (p = 0.04, n = 16). Bloating (p = 0.03, n = 16) and flatulence (p = 0.02, n = 16) were also higher on the 15th day with A1/A2 milk compared to A2 milk challenge. However, day-to-day symptoms, hydrogen, serum inflammatory markers, and antioxidant concentrations were not different after A1/A2 and A2 milk consumption adaptation periods. Adaptation over two weeks did not improve lactose digestion or tolerance of A1/A2 milk to match that of A2 milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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14 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
Sucrose Solution Ingestion Exacerbates Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Rats
by Aya Fujii, Ryuto Kimura, Azumi Mori and Yukihiro Yoshimura
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121962 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Allergic dermatitis is a skin disease with growing prevalence worldwide that has been associated with diets high in fats and sugars. Regular consumption of sucrose-containing beverages may increase the risk for several health problems, including allergic diseases and particularly asthma, but the association [...] Read more.
Allergic dermatitis is a skin disease with growing prevalence worldwide that has been associated with diets high in fats and sugars. Regular consumption of sucrose-containing beverages may increase the risk for several health problems, including allergic diseases and particularly asthma, but the association between sucrose consumption and allergic dermatitis is understudied. We investigated the effects of sucrose solution intake on allergic contact dermatitis in rats and found early exacerbation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced disease symptoms and altered composition of the gut microbiota after 14 d of intake. The levels of short-chain fatty acids—produced by fermentation by the intestinal microbiota—were not affected in the cecal contents and feces but decreased in the blood; this effect was especially notable for acetate. To restore blood acetate concentrations, triacetin was mixed with a 10% sucrose solution and fed to the rat model. This strategy prevented the early exacerbation of DNFB-induced symptoms. The decreased absorption of short-chain fatty acids from the intestinal lumen was not linked to the decreased expression of short-chain fatty acid transporters in the small intestine; instead, the mechanism involves a reduction in the sodium concentration in the intestinal lumen due to increased expression of sodium–glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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0 pages, 322 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Hill et al. A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of a Krill Oil, Astaxanthin, and Oral Hyaluronic Acid Complex on Joint Health in People with Mild Osteoarthritis. Nutrients 2023, 15, 3769
by W. Stephen Hill, Margaret H. Dohnalek, Yejin Ha, Seok-Jung Kim, Jae-Chul Jung and Seung-Baik Kang
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121961 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 371
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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13 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Food Insecurity and Sleep-Related Problems in Adolescents: Findings from the EHDLA Study
by Edina Maria de Camargo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Espinoza and José Francisco López-Gil
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121960 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Purpose: The current research aimed to investigate the connection between food insecurity and sleep issues among Spanish adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years from the Valle de Ricote (Region of Murcia, Spain). Methods: Data from the Eating Healthy and Daily Life Activities [...] Read more.
Purpose: The current research aimed to investigate the connection between food insecurity and sleep issues among Spanish adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years from the Valle de Ricote (Region of Murcia, Spain). Methods: Data from the Eating Healthy and Daily Life Activities Study, which included a sample of 836 adolescents (55.3% girls), were analyzed. Food insecurity was evaluated using the Child Food Security Survey Module in Spanish (CFSSM-S), while sleep-related problems were evaluated using the Bedtime problems, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Awakenings during the night, Regularity and duration of sleep, and Sleep-disordered breathing (BEARS) sleep screening tool. Generalized linear models were employed to explore the association between food insecurity and sleep-related issues. Results: Compared with their counterparts with food security, adolescents with food insecurity had greater probabilities of bedtime problems (24.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.9% to 33.0%, p = 0.003), excessive daytime sleepiness (36.4%, 95% CI 27.5% to 46.3%, p < 0.001), awakenings during the night (16.7%, 95% CI 10.8% to 25.1%, p = 0.004), and any sleep-related problems (68.1%, 95% CI 57.5% to 77.1%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that food insecurity is related to greater sleep-related problems among adolescents. Implementing strategies to mitigate food insecurity may contribute to improved sleep health among adolescents, highlighting the importance of integrated public health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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13 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Red Oranges and Olive Leaf Waste-Derived Bioactive Extracts Promote Adipocyte Functionality In Vitro
by Maria Gulisano, Valeria Consoli, Valeria Sorrenti and Luca Vanella
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121959 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Obesity is increasingly prevalent worldwide and is linked to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), due to excessive free fatty acids (FFAs). Although lifestyle changes are effective, they often prove to be insufficient as initial treatments [...] Read more.
Obesity is increasingly prevalent worldwide and is linked to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), due to excessive free fatty acids (FFAs). Although lifestyle changes are effective, they often prove to be insufficient as initial treatments for obesity. Additionally, while surgical and pharmacological interventions are available, they are not entirely safe or effective. Recently, interest has grown in utilizing food waste and plant-derived phenolic compounds for their health benefits, presenting a promising avenue for managing obesity and its related disorders. Indeed, many studies have examined the potential inhibitory effects of the natural extract on adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. This study focused on the evaluation of the effects of standardized extracts obtained from red oranges and olive leaf waste on 3T3-L1 murine pre-adipocyte and adipocyte functionality. Red orange extract (ROE) and olive leaf extract (OLE), alone and in combination, were tested to assess their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as their potential therapeutic benefits. Three in vitro models were established to investigate the effects of the extracts on (I) adipocyte differentiation; (II) mature and hypertrophic adipocytes challenged with palmitic acid (PA) and erastin (ER), respectively; and (III) erastin-induced cytotoxicity on pre-adipocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Bioactive Compounds in Blood Glucose Control)
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17 pages, 8624 KiB  
Article
The Combination of Lactoferrin and Creatine Ameliorates Muscle Decay in a Sarcopenia Murine Model
by Wenbin Wu, Xinlu Guo, Taiqi Qu, Yuejia Huang, Jin Tao, Jian He, Xiaoping Wang, Junjie Luo, Peng An, Yinhua Zhu, Yanan Sun and Yongting Luo
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121958 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Background: Sarcopenia is an age-related condition characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. The occurrence of sarcopenia has a huge impact on physical, psychological, and social health. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia is becoming an important public health [...] Read more.
Background: Sarcopenia is an age-related condition characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. The occurrence of sarcopenia has a huge impact on physical, psychological, and social health. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia is becoming an important public health issue. Method: 35 six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups, one of which served as a control group, while the rest of the groups were constructed as a model of sarcopenia by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose. The intervention with lactoferrin, creatine, and their mixtures, respectively, was carried out through gavage for 8 weeks. Muscle function was assessed based on their endurance, hanging time, and grip strength. The muscle tissues were weighed to assess the changes in mass, and the muscle RNA was extracted for myogenic factor expression and transcriptome sequencing to speculate on the potential mechanism of action by GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. Result: The muscle mass (lean mass, GAS index), and muscle function (endurance, hanging time, and grip strength) decreased, and the size and structure of myofiber was smaller in the model group compared to the control group. The intervention with lactoferrin and creatine, either alone or combination, improved muscle mass and function, restored muscle tissue, and increased the expression of myogenic regulators. The combined group demonstrated the most significant improvement in these indexes. The RNA-seq results revealed enrichment in the longevity-regulated pathway, MAPK pathway, focal adhesion, and ECM–receptor interaction pathway in the intervention group. The intervention group may influence muscle function by affecting the proliferation, differentiation, senescence of skeletal muscle cell, and contraction of muscle fiber. The combined group also enriched the mTOR-S6K/4E-BPs signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and energy metabolism-related pathways, including Apelin signaling, insulin resistance pathway, and adipocytokine signaling pathway, which affect energy metabolism in muscle. Conclusions: Lactoferrin and creatine, either alone or in combination, were found to inhibit the progression of sarcopenia by influencing the number and cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and muscle protein synthesis. The combined intervention appears to exert a more significant effect on energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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26 pages, 27412 KiB  
Article
Effects of Evodiamine on Behavior and Hippocampal Neurons through Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Modulation of the Renin Angiotensin Pathway in a Mouse Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
by Zhixing Wang, Chengcai Lai, Baoying Shen, Bowei Li, Junru Chen, Xin Shen, Zhengping Huang, Chunqi Yang and Yue Gao
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121957 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a persistent psychiatric condition that arises following exposure to traumatic events such as warfare, natural disasters, or other catastrophic incidents, typically characterized by heightened anxiety, depressive symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction. In this study, animals subjected to single prolonged [...] Read more.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a persistent psychiatric condition that arises following exposure to traumatic events such as warfare, natural disasters, or other catastrophic incidents, typically characterized by heightened anxiety, depressive symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction. In this study, animals subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS) were administered evodiamine (EVO) and compared to a positive control group receiving sertraline. The animals were then assessed for alterations in anxiety, depression, and cognitive function. Histological analysis was conducted to examine neuronal changes in the hippocampus. In order to predict the core targets and related mechanisms of evodiamine intervention in PTSD, network pharmacology was used. The metabolic markers pre- and post-drug administration were identified using nontargeted serum metabolomics techniques, and the intersecting Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were screened. Finally, the core targets were validated through molecular docking, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence staining to confirm the anti-PTSD effects and mechanisms of these targets. As well as improving cognitive impairment, evodiamine reversed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. It also inhibited the reduction in the number of hippocampal neuronal cells and Nissl bodies in SPS mice inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels in the hippocampus of SPS mice, and modulated the renin angiotensin pathway and its associated serum metabolites in brain tissue. Evodiamine shows promise as a potential candidate for alleviating the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Phytochemicals on Metabolic Disorders and Human Health)
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13 pages, 1228 KiB  
Article
The Associations between Healthy Eating Patterns and Risk of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease: A Case–Control Study
by Xia Huang, Da Gan, Yahui Fan, Qihui Fu, Cong He, Wenjian Liu, Feng Li, Le Ma, Mingxu Wang and Wei Zhang
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121956 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Background: Although several epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between healthy dietary patterns and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD)/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), little is known about the contribution of the food component to MASLD risk and the association between dietary [...] Read more.
Background: Although several epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between healthy dietary patterns and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD)/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), little is known about the contribution of the food component to MASLD risk and the association between dietary patterns and severity of MASLD. This study aimed to investigate the association between healthy eating patterns and MASLD risk and severity of MASLD. Methods: A case–control study including 228 patients diagnosed with MASLD and 228 controls was conducted. The modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and Alternative Mediterranean Diet (AMED) score were evaluated based on information collected via a validated food-frequency questionnaire. MASLD was confirmed if participants presented with ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver diseases along with at least one of five cardiometabolic risk factors and no other discernible cause. The logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of MASLD for dietary scores. Results: Compared with participants in the lowest tertile, those in the highest tertile of AHEI had a 60% reduced risk of MASLD (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.25–0.66). Similar associations were also observed for DASH and AMED, with ORs comparing extreme tertiles of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.22–0.66) and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28–0.73), respectively. Further Stratified analysis revealed that the inverse associations between AHEI and DASH with MASLD risks were stronger among women than men, and the inverse associations between AMED and MASLD risks were more pronounced among participants with normal weight (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49). For components within the dietary score, every one-point increase in vegetable score and whole grain score within the AHEI was associated with an 11% (95% CI: 5–16%) and a 6% (95% CI: 0–12%) lower MASLD risk, respectively. Similar inverse associations with those scores were observed for the DASH and AMED. Conclusion: Greater adherence to healthy eating patterns was associated with reduced risk of MASLD, with vegetables and whole grains predominately contributing to these associations. These findings suggested that healthy eating patterns should be recommended for the prevention of MASLD. Full article
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18 pages, 371 KiB  
Review
Ultra-Processed Foods and Mental Health: Where Do Eating Disorders Fit into the Puzzle?
by David A. Wiss and Erica M. LaFata
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121955 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) like pastries, packaged snacks, fast foods, and sweetened beverages have become dominant in the modern food supply and are strongly associated with numerous public health concerns. While the physical health consequences of UPF intake have been well documented (e.g., increased [...] Read more.
Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) like pastries, packaged snacks, fast foods, and sweetened beverages have become dominant in the modern food supply and are strongly associated with numerous public health concerns. While the physical health consequences of UPF intake have been well documented (e.g., increased risks of cardiometabolic conditions), less empirical discussion has emphasized the mental health consequences of chronic UPF consumption. Notably, the unique characteristics of UPFs (e.g., artificially high levels of reinforcing ingredients) influence biological processes (e.g., dopamine signaling) in a manner that may contribute to poorer psychological functioning for some individuals. Importantly, gold-standard behavioral lifestyle interventions and treatments specifically for disordered eating do not acknowledge the direct role that UPFs may play in sensitizing reward-related neural functioning, disrupting metabolic responses, and motivating subsequent UPF cravings and intake. The lack of consideration for the influences of UPFs on mental health is particularly problematic given the growing scientific support for the addictive properties of these foods and the utility of ultra-processed food addiction (UPFA) as a novel clinical phenotype endorsed by 14–20% of individuals across international samples. The overarching aim of the present review is to summarize the science of how UPFs may affect mental health, emphasizing contributing biological mechanisms. Specifically, the authors will (1) describe how corporate-sponsored research and financial agendas have contributed to contention and debate about the role of UPFs in health; (2) define UPFs and their nutritional characteristics; (3) review observed associations between UPF intake and mental health conditions, especially with depression; (4) outline the evidence for UPFA; and (5) describe nuanced treatment considerations for comorbid UPFA and eating disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Intervention in Mental Health)
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18 pages, 5107 KiB  
Article
The Oxidative Stress Markers’ Protective Influence of Sea Buckthorn and Grape Extracts in Atorvastatin-Treated Hyperlipidemic Rats
by Romeo T. Cristina, Erieg A. Mohamed, Camelia Tulcan, Eugenia Dumitrescu, Florin Muselin, Sergiu A. Orășan, Teodora Mateoc-Sirb and Daliborca Vlad
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121954 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species initiate when the oxidative stress arises. (1) Background: The effect of natural molecules on oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats, taking statins, was observed. (2) Methods: One hundred and twelve white Wistar rats, males and females, were divided [...] Read more.
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species initiate when the oxidative stress arises. (1) Background: The effect of natural molecules on oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats, taking statins, was observed. (2) Methods: One hundred and twelve white Wistar rats, males and females, were divided into seven: Group I received 20 mg of atorvastatin while groups II and III received a combination of 20 mg of atorvastatin and 100 mg of Sea buckthorn and grape extract. Groups IV and V received 100 mg of Sea buckthorn and grape extract, while groups VI and VII received only high-fat diet (HFD) and normal rodents’ fodder. After two and six months, rats were euthanized, and blood was gathered to measure the main paraclinical values and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, the liver and kidney were stored for the organs’ cytoarchitecture. For statistics, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), was performed. (3) Results: HFD produced hyperlipidemia, accompanied by augmented serum and hepatic oxidative stress markers, in addition to a reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione levels. Polyphenolic substances proven efficient against HFD caused oxidative stress. (4) Conclusions: Atorvastatin heightened the histological injuries caused by the fatty diet, but these were diminished by taking atorvastatin in combination with 100 mg/kg of plant extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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21 pages, 8993 KiB  
Article
Microbiome and Metabolite Analysis Insight into the Potential of Shrimp Head Hydrolysate to Alleviate Depression-like Behaviour in Growth-Period Mice Exposed to Chronic Stress
by Lianhua Hu, Weichang Ye, Qi Deng, Chen Wang, Jinjin Luo, Ling Huang, Zhijia Fang, Lijun Sun and Ravi Gooneratne
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121953 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Chronic stress (CS) endangers the physical and mental health of adolescents. Therefore, alleviating and preventing such negative health impacts are a top priority. This study explores the effect of feeding shrimp head hydrolysate (SHH) on gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and neurotransmitters [...] Read more.
Chronic stress (CS) endangers the physical and mental health of adolescents. Therefore, alleviating and preventing such negative health impacts are a top priority. This study explores the effect of feeding shrimp head hydrolysate (SHH) on gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and neurotransmitters in growing C57BL/6 mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Mice in the model group and three SHH groups were exposed to CS for 44 days, distilled water and SHH doses of 0.18, 0.45, 0.90 g/kg·BW were given respectively by gavage daily for 30 days from the 15th day. The results showed that SHH can significantly reverse depression-like behaviour, amino acids degradation, α diversity and β diversity, proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidota, abundance of genera such as Muribaculaceae, Bacteroides, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, Parabacteroides and Alistipes, concentration of five short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 5-HT and glutamate induced by CS. Muribaculaceae and butyric acid may be a controlled target. This study highlights the potential and broad application of SHH as an active ingredient in food to combat chronic stress damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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19 pages, 1441 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Panax ginseng Sprout Extract in Subjective Memory Impairment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
by Hyang-Im Baek, Ki-Chan Ha, Yu-Kyung Park, Tae-Young Kim and Soo-Jung Park
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121952 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Sprout ginseng extract (ThinkGIN™) manufactured through a smart farm system has been shown to improve memory in preclinical studies. This study conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ThinkGIN™ for improving memory in subjective memory [...] Read more.
Sprout ginseng extract (ThinkGIN™) manufactured through a smart farm system has been shown to improve memory in preclinical studies. This study conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ThinkGIN™ for improving memory in subjective memory impairment (SMI). Subjects aged 55 to 75 years with SMI participated in this study. A total of 80 subjects who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were assigned to the ThinkGIN™ group (n = 40, 450 mg ThinkGIN™/day) or a placebo group (n = 40). Efficacy and safety evaluations were conducted before intervention and at 12 weeks after intervention. As a result of 12 weeks of ThinkGIN™ intake, significant differences in SVLT, RCFT, MoCA-K, PSQI-K, and AChE were observed between the two groups. Safety evaluation (AEs, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiogram) revealed that ThinkGIN™ was safe with no clinically significant changes. Therefore, ThinkGIN™ has the potential to be used as a functional food to improve memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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17 pages, 632 KiB  
Review
Hand Grip Force–Time Curve Indicators Evaluated by Dynamometer: A Systematic Review
by Tânia Silva-Santos, Rita S. Guerra, Rui Valdiviesso and Teresa F. Amaral
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121951 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is an indicator of muscular strength, used in the diagnosis of sarcopenia, undernutrition, and physical frailty as well as recovery. Typically, the maximum HGS value is used; however, recent evidence suggests the exploration of new indicators provided based on [...] Read more.
Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is an indicator of muscular strength, used in the diagnosis of sarcopenia, undernutrition, and physical frailty as well as recovery. Typically, the maximum HGS value is used; however, recent evidence suggests the exploration of new indicators provided based on the force–time curve to achieve a more comprehensive assessment of muscle function. Therefore, the objective was to identify indicators of the HGS profile beyond maximum HGS, based on force–time curves, and to systematize knowledge about their applications to various types of samples, health issues, and physical performance. Methods: A systematic review was performed including studies whose participants’ HGS was assessed with a digital or adapted dynamometer. The outcome measures were HGS profile indicators calculated from the force–time curve. Results: a total of 15 studies were included, and the following indicators were identified: grip fatigue, fatigability index, fatigue rate, fatigue resistance, time to 80% maximal voluntary contraction, plateau coefficient of variability, time to maximum value, T-90%, release rate, power factor, grip work, average integrated area, endurance, cycle duration, time between cycles, maximum and minimum force–velocity, rate of grip force, final force, inflection point, integrated area, submaximal control, and response time. Conclusions: Various indicators based on the force–time curve can be assessed through digital or adapted dynamometers. Future research should analyze these indicators to understand their implications for muscle function assessment, to standardize evaluation procedures, to identify clinically relevant measures, and to clarify their implications in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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19 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Alignment of Consumers’ Expected Brain Benefits from Food and Supplements with Measurable Cognitive Performance Tests
by Hayley A. Young, Alecia L. Cousins, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, David Benton, Richard C. Gershon, Alyssa Ghirardelli, Marie E. Latulippe, Andrew Scholey and Laura Wagstaff
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121950 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Consumers often cite cognitive improvements as reasons for making dietary changes or using dietary supplements, a motivation that if leveraged could greatly enhance public health. However, rarely is it considered whether standardized cognitive tests that are used in nutrition research are aligned to [...] Read more.
Consumers often cite cognitive improvements as reasons for making dietary changes or using dietary supplements, a motivation that if leveraged could greatly enhance public health. However, rarely is it considered whether standardized cognitive tests that are used in nutrition research are aligned to outcomes of interest to the consumer. This knowledge gap presents a challenge to the scientific substantiation of nutrition-based cognitive health benefits. Here we combined focus group transcript review using reflexive thematic analysis and a multidisciplinary expert panel exercise to evaluate the applicability of cognitive performance tools/tasks for substantiating the specific cognitive benefits articulated by consumers with the objectives to (1) understand how consumers comprehend the potential benefits of nutrition for brain health, and (2) determine the alignment between consumers desired brain benefits and validated tests and tools. We derived a ‘Consumer Taxonomy of Cognitive and Affective Health in Nutrition Research’ which describes the cognitive and affective structure from the consumers perspective. Experts agreed that validated tests exist for some consumer benefits including focused attention, sustained attention, episodic memory, energy levels, and anxiety. Prospective memory, flow, and presence represented novel benefits that require the development and validation of new tests and tools. Closing the gap between science and consumers and fostering co-creative approaches to nutrition research are critical to the development of products and dietary recommendations that support realizable cognitive benefits that benefit public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Consumer Behaviour and Healthy Food Consumption)
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28 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Practicing Interoceptive Sensitivity as a Couple: A Mixed-Methods Acceptance Analysis of a Dyadic vs. Single Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
by Nadja-R. Baer, Noemi Vanessa Grissmer, Liane Schenk, Hanna R. Wortmann, Petra Warschburger and Ulrike A. Gisch
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121949 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Training interoceptive sensitivity (IS) might be a first step in effectively promoting intuitive eating (IE). A dyadic interoception-based pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted to increase IE among couples aged 50+. The training consisted of three exercises, a Body Scan (BS), a hunger [...] Read more.
Training interoceptive sensitivity (IS) might be a first step in effectively promoting intuitive eating (IE). A dyadic interoception-based pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted to increase IE among couples aged 50+. The training consisted of three exercises, a Body Scan (BS), a hunger exercise (HU), and a satiety (SA) exercise. This study explored how spouses accepted the (dyadic vs. single) training. In a mixed-methods convergence design, the findings of a survey (n = 68 couples) and focus groups (n = 4) were synthesized. Moderate general acceptance (e.g., regarding feasibility and low burden) and a hierarchical gradient in favor of the BS (e.g., pleasantness and improved sleep quality) emerged. Barriers concerned a perceived lack of the exercises’ usefulness and a limited understanding of the training purpose. A wish for regular feedback and exchange with the study stuff and other participants was expressed. Spousal training involvement was experienced as being rather beneficial. Previously harmonized dietary practices and daily routines appeared as constructive pre-conditions for the joint training. This study highlights the potential and implications of training couples in IS. Future interventions should involve a regular exchange and closer guidance by study staff to promote a better understanding of the processes and goals of IS and IE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Interventions for Healthy Ageing)
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16 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Relationship between the Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome and Each of the Components That Form It in Caucasian Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Trial
by Leticia Gómez-Sánchez, Marta Gómez-Sánchez, Olaya Tamayo-Morales, Cristina Lugones-Sánchez, Susana González-Sánchez, Ruth Martí-Lluch, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Luis García-Ortiz and Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121948 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
The main objective of this work is to investigate the relationship between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Caucasian subjects between 35 and 74 years. The secondary objective is to analyze sex differences. Methods: A cross-sectional trial. [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work is to investigate the relationship between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Caucasian subjects between 35 and 74 years. The secondary objective is to analyze sex differences. Methods: A cross-sectional trial. This study utilized data from the EVA, MARK, and EVIDENT studies, and a total of 3417 subjects with a mean age ± SD of 60.14 ± 9.14 years (57% men) were included. We followed the five criteria established in the National Cholesterol Education Program III to define MetS. The MD was assessed with the 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener (MEDAS) used in the PREDIMED study. Good adherence was considered when the MD value was higher than the median value. Results: The mean ± SD value of the MEDAS questionnaire was 5.83 ± 2.04 (men 5.66 ± 2.06 and women 6.04 ± 1.99; p < 0.001). Adherence to the MD was observed by 38.6% (34.3% men and 40.3% women; p < 0.001). MetS was observed in 41.6% (39.0% men and 45.2% women; p < 0.001). In the multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for possible confounders, the mean MD value showed a negative association with the number of MetS components per subject (β = −0.336), and with the different components of MetS: systolic blood pressure (β = −0.011), diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.029), glycemia (β = −0.009), triglycerides (β = −0.004), and waist circumference (β = −0.026), except with the HDL-cholesterol value which showed a positive association (β = 0.021); p < 0.001 in all cases. In the logistic regression analysis performed, we found that an increase in MD adherence was associated with a decrease in the probability of MetS (OR = 0.56) and its components: blood pressure levels ≥ 130/85 mmHg (OR = 0.63), fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL (OR = 0.62), triglyceride levels ≥ 150 mg/dL (OR = 0.65), waist circumference levels ≥ 88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men (OR = 0.74), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women (OR = 1.70); p < 0.001 in all cases. The results by sex were similar, both in multiple regression and logistic regression. Conclusions: The results found in our work indicate that the greater the adherence to the MD, the lower the probability of presenting MetS. This result is repeated in the study by sex. More studies are needed to clarify that these results can be extended to the rest of the Mediterranean countries, and to other countries outside the Mediterranean basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome)
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9 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
The Role of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Clinical and Electroneuromyographic Responses
by Antônio Vicente D. Andrade, Dallianny G. S. Martins, Gabriel S. Rocha, Gustavo S. Damasceno, Francisca T. S. Gomes, Yasmin P. F. Albuquerque, Paloma K. M. Melo, Marco A. M. Freire, Dayane P. Araújo, Lucidio C. Oliveira, Fausto P. Guzen, Paulo L. A. G. Morais and José R. L. P. Cavalcanti
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121947 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common cause of peripheral compressive neuropathy and consists of compression of the median nerve in the wrist. Although there are several etiologies, idiopathic is the most prevalent origin, and among the forms of treatment for CTS, [...] Read more.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common cause of peripheral compressive neuropathy and consists of compression of the median nerve in the wrist. Although there are several etiologies, idiopathic is the most prevalent origin, and among the forms of treatment for CTS, conservative is the most indicated. However, despite the high prevalence in and impact of this syndrome on the healthcare system, there are still controversies regarding the best therapeutic approach for patients. Therefore, noting that some studies point to vitamin D deficiency as an independent risk factor, which increases the symptoms of the syndrome, this study evaluated the role of vitamin D supplementation and its influence on pain control, physical examination and response electroneuromyography to conservative treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. For this, the sample consisted of 14 patients diagnosed with CTS and hypovitaminosis D, who were allocated into two groups. The control group received corticosteroid treatment, while the experimental group received corticosteroid treatment associated with vitamin D. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that patients who received vitamin D, when compared to those who did not receive it, showed improvement in the degree of pain intensity, a reduction in symptom severity and an improvement in some electroneuromyographic parameters. Full article
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13 pages, 1432 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Central Administration of the Novel Peptide, LEAP-2, in Different Food Intake Models in Conscious Rats
by Chia-En Lin and Chih-Yen Chen
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121946 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) has mutual antagonism with ghrelin, which evokes food intake under a freely fed state. Nevertheless, the impact of LEAP-2 on ghrelin under time-restricted feeding (TRF), which has benefits in the context of metabolic disease, is still unknown. This study [...] Read more.
Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) has mutual antagonism with ghrelin, which evokes food intake under a freely fed state. Nevertheless, the impact of LEAP-2 on ghrelin under time-restricted feeding (TRF), which has benefits in the context of metabolic disease, is still unknown. This study aims to explore the impact of central administration of LEAP-2 on the ingestion behavior of rats, which was evaluated using their cumulative food intake in the TRF state. Before intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of O-n-octanoylated ghrelin (0.1 nmol/rat), as a food-stimulatory model, the rats received various doses of LEAP-2 (0.3, 1, 3 nmol/rat, ICV). Cumulative food intake was recorded at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after ICV injection under 12 h freely fed and TRF states in a light phase. In 12 h freely fed and TRF states, central administration of ghrelin alone induced feeding behavior. Pre-treatment with LEAP-2 (1 and 3 nmol/rat, ICV) suppressed ghrelin-induced food intake in a dose-dependent manner in a 12 h freely fed state instead of a TRF state, which may have disturbed the balance of ghrelin and LEAP-2. This study provides neuroendocrine-based evidence that may explain why TRF sometimes fails in fighting obesity/metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease in clinics. Full article
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12 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
The Association of Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations with a 10-Year Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in a Community-Based Chinese Population
by Zhe Liang, Kaiyin Li, Hongyu Chen, Jia Jia, Jianping Li, Yong Huo, Fangfang Fan and Yan Zhang
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121945 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
This study is aimed to examine the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations with a 10-year risk of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and to explore the modification effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic polymorphism. This study included 5200 participants [...] Read more.
This study is aimed to examine the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations with a 10-year risk of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and to explore the modification effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic polymorphism. This study included 5200 participants from a community-based Chinese population. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the associations of Hcy and MTHFR C677T genotype with all-cause and CV mortality. The possible modification effect of the MTHFR C677T genotype on the Hcy–mortality relationship was assessed. The individuals with Hcy concentrations ≥ 10 μmol/L had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to those with Hcy < 10 μmol/L (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–2.68, p = 0.015). The risk of CV mortality increased by 2% per 1 μmol/L Hcy increment (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03, p = 0.036). Despite the MTHFR genotype alone not being correlated with the mortality, the relationship between Hcy and all-cause mortality was significant in the CC genotype compared with CT/TT genotype (p for interaction = 0.036). Elevated plasma Hcy concentrations were associated with an increased 10-year risk of all-cause and CV mortality among the Chinese population. MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism could modify the association between Hcy and all-cause mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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