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Viruses, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) KDEL receptors, a family of seven-transmembrane proteins, retrieve chaperones such as GRP78 [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Double-Stranded RNA High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals a New Cytorhabdovirus in a Bean Golden Mosaic Virus-Resistant Common Bean Transgenic Line
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010090
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 842 | PDF Full-text (1212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Using double-strand RNA (dsRNA) high-throughput sequencing, we identified five RNA viruses in a bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV)-resistant common bean transgenic line with symptoms of viral infection. Four of the identified viruses had already been described as infecting common bean (cowpea mild mottle [...] Read more.
Using double-strand RNA (dsRNA) high-throughput sequencing, we identified five RNA viruses in a bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV)-resistant common bean transgenic line with symptoms of viral infection. Four of the identified viruses had already been described as infecting common bean (cowpea mild mottle virus, bean rugose mosaic virus, Phaseolus vulgaris alphaendornavirus 1, and Phaseolus vulgaris alphaendornavirus 2) and one is a putative new plant rhabdovirus (genus Cytorhabdovirus), tentatively named bean-associated cytorhabdovirus (BaCV). The BaCV genome presented all five open reading frames (ORFs) found in most rhabdoviruses: nucleoprotein (N) (ORF1) (451 amino acids, aa), phosphoprotein (P) (ORF2) (445 aa), matrix (M) (ORF4) (287 aa), glycoprotein (G) (ORF5) (520 aa), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) (ORF6) (114 aa), as well as a putative movement protein (P3) (ORF3) (189 aa) and the hypothetical small protein P4. The predicted BaCV proteins were compared to homologous proteins from the closest cytorhabdoviruses, and a low level of sequence identity (15–39%) was observed. The phylogenetic analysis shows that BaCV clustered with yerba mate chlorosis-associated virus (YmCaV) and rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV). Overall, our results provide strong evidence that BaCV is indeed a new virus species in the genus Cytorhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae), the first rhabdovirus to be identified infecting common bean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessCommunication Co-Infection with Three Mycoviruses Stimulates Growth of a Monilinia fructicola Isolate on Nutrient Medium, but Does Not Induce Hypervirulence in a Natural Host
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010089
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa are the most destructive fungal species infecting stone fruit (Prunus species). High-throughput cDNA sequencing of M. laxa and M. fructicola isolates collected from stone fruit orchards revealed that 14% of isolates were infected with one or more [...] Read more.
Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa are the most destructive fungal species infecting stone fruit (Prunus species). High-throughput cDNA sequencing of M. laxa and M. fructicola isolates collected from stone fruit orchards revealed that 14% of isolates were infected with one or more of three mycoviruses: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2, genus Hypovirus), Fusarium poae virus 1 (FPV1, genus Betapartitivirus), and Botrytis virus F (BVF, genus Mycoflexivirus). Isolate M196 of M. fructicola was co-infected with all three viruses, and this isolate was studied further. Several methods were applied to cure M196 of one or more mycoviruses. Of these treatments, hyphal tip culture either alone or in combination with antibiotic treatment generated isogenic lines free of one or more mycoviruses. When isogenic fungal lines were cultured on nutrient agar medium in vitro, the triple mycovirus-infected parent isolate M196 grew 10% faster than any of the virus-cured isogenic lines. BVF had a slight inhibitory effect on growth, and FPV1 did not influence growth. Surprisingly, after inoculation to fruits of sweet cherry, there were no significance differences in disease progression between isogenic lines, suggesting that these mycoviruses did not influence the virulence of M. fructicola on a natural host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
Open AccessArticle Design and Preclinical Development of a Phage Product for the Treatment of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010088
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Bacteriophages, viruses that only kill specific bacteria, are receiving substantial attention as nontraditional antibacterial agents that may help alleviate the growing antibiotic resistance problem in medicine. We describe the design and preclinical development of AB-SA01, a fixed-composition bacteriophage product intended to treat Staphylococcus [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages, viruses that only kill specific bacteria, are receiving substantial attention as nontraditional antibacterial agents that may help alleviate the growing antibiotic resistance problem in medicine. We describe the design and preclinical development of AB-SA01, a fixed-composition bacteriophage product intended to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. AB-SA01 contains three naturally occurring, obligately lytic myoviruses related to Staphylococcus phage K. AB-SA01 component phages have been sequenced and contain no identifiable bacterial virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. In vitro, AB-SA01 killed 94.5% of 401 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate ones for a total of 95% of the 205 known multidrug-resistant isolates. The spontaneous frequency of resistance to AB-SA01 was ≤3 × 10−9, and resistance emerging to one component phage could be complemented by the activity of another component phage. In both neutropenic and immunocompetent mouse models of acute pneumonia, AB-SA01 reduced lung S. aureus populations equivalently to vancomycin. Overall, the inherent characteristics of AB-SA01 component phages meet regulatory and generally accepted criteria for human use, and the preclinical data presented here have supported production under good manufacturing practices and phase 1 clinical studies with AB-SA01. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
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Open AccessArticle Aerosol and Contact Transmission Following Intranasal Infection of Mice with Japanese Encephalitis Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010087
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a causative agent of severe viral encephalitis in humans, has a biological cycle fluctuating between transmission in mosquitoes and avian species and amplification in pigs. Contact transmission of JEV was recently shown in pigs in the absence of [...] Read more.
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a causative agent of severe viral encephalitis in humans, has a biological cycle fluctuating between transmission in mosquitoes and avian species and amplification in pigs. Contact transmission of JEV was recently shown in pigs in the absence of arthropod vectors. Here, we show JEV transmission between infected and contact mice and further demonstrate that JEV transmission occurs between animals via aerosols, as both viral RNA and infectious JEV were detected in direct contact- and aerosol-exposed contact animals. The results of this study change our understanding of JEV transmission in densely populated regions and may help to explain JEV outbreaks without the presence of arthropod vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation of a T7-Like Lytic Pasteurella Bacteriophage vB_PmuP_PHB01 and Its Potential Use in Therapy against Pasteurella multocida Infections
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010086
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
A lytic bacteriophage PHB01 specific for Pasteurella multocida type D was isolated from the sewage water collected from a pig farm. This phage had the typical morphology of the family Podoviridae, order Caudovirales, presenting an isometric polyhedral head and a short [...] Read more.
A lytic bacteriophage PHB01 specific for Pasteurella multocida type D was isolated from the sewage water collected from a pig farm. This phage had the typical morphology of the family Podoviridae, order Caudovirales, presenting an isometric polyhedral head and a short noncontractile tail. PHB01 was able to infect most of the non-toxigenic P. multocida type D strains tested, but not toxigenic type D strains and those belonging to other capsular types. Phage PHB01, the first lytic phage specific for P. multocida type D sequenced thus far, presents a 37,287-bp double-stranded DNA genome with a 223-bp terminal redundancy. The PHB01 genome showed the highest homology with that of PHB02, a lytic phage specific for P. multocida type A. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PHB01 and PHB02 were composed of a genus that was close to the T7-virus genus. In vivo tests using mouse models showed that the administration of PHB01 was safe to the mice and had a good effect on treating the mice infected with different P. multocida type D strains including virulent strain HN05. These findings suggest that PHB01 has a potential use in therapy against infections caused by P. multocida type D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Open AccessReview The Incorporation of Host Proteins into the External HIV-1 Envelope
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010085
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
The incorporation of biologically active host proteins into HIV-1 is a well-established phenomenon, particularly due to the budding mechanism of viral egress in which viruses acquire their external lipid membrane directly from the host cell. While this mechanism might seemingly imply that host [...] Read more.
The incorporation of biologically active host proteins into HIV-1 is a well-established phenomenon, particularly due to the budding mechanism of viral egress in which viruses acquire their external lipid membrane directly from the host cell. While this mechanism might seemingly imply that host protein incorporation is a passive uptake of all cellular antigens associated with the plasma membrane at the site of budding, this is not the case. Herein, we review the evidence indicating that host protein incorporation can be a selective and conserved process. We discuss how HIV-1 virions displaying host proteins on their surface can exhibit a myriad of altered phenotypes, with notable impacts on infectivity, homing, neutralization, and pathogenesis. This review describes the canonical and emerging methods to detect host protein incorporation, highlights the well-established host proteins that have been identified on HIV-1 virions, and reflects on the role of these incorporated proteins in viral pathogenesis and therapeutic targeting. Despite many advances in HIV treatment and prevention, there remains a global effort to develop increasingly effective anti-HIV therapies. Given the broad range of biologically active host proteins acquired on the surface of HIV-1, additional studies on the mechanisms and impacts of these incorporated host proteins may inform the development of novel treatments and vaccine designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Open AccessReview Meta-Analysis of Human IgG anti-HEV Seroprevalence in Industrialized Countries and a Review of Literature
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010084
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
Although Hepatitis E is increasingly described as a major cause of liver disease in industrialized countries, the epidemiology is far from being fully elucidated. We provide here a comprehensive review of documented clusters of cases, and of serological studies conducted in populations with [...] Read more.
Although Hepatitis E is increasingly described as a major cause of liver disease in industrialized countries, the epidemiology is far from being fully elucidated. We provide here a comprehensive review of documented clusters of cases, and of serological studies conducted in populations with distinct types of exposure. Seroprevalence rates range from <5% to >50% depending on the countries and the groups of population. Such discrepancies can be attributed to the type of serological assay used, but this solves only a part of the problem. We performed a meta-analysis of studies performed with the broadly used Wantai HEV-IgG ELISA and found striking differences that remain difficult to understand with the current knowledge of transmission pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis E Virus)
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Open AccessArticle A Victorivirus and Two Novel Mitoviruses Co-Infected the Plant Pathogen Nigrospora oryzae
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010083
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Three dsRNAs, in sizes of approximately 2.5–5 kbp, were detected in the plant pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae strain CS-7.5-4. Genomic analysis showed that the 5.0 kb dsRNA was a victorivirus named as Nigrospora oryzae victorivirus 2 (NoRV2). The genome of NoRV2 was 5166 [...] Read more.
Three dsRNAs, in sizes of approximately 2.5–5 kbp, were detected in the plant pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae strain CS-7.5-4. Genomic analysis showed that the 5.0 kb dsRNA was a victorivirus named as Nigrospora oryzae victorivirus 2 (NoRV2). The genome of NoRV2 was 5166 bp in length containing two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 was deduced to encode a coat protein (CP) showing homology to the CPs of viruses belonging to the Totiviridae family. The stop codon of ORF1 and the start codon of ORF2 were overlapped by the tetranucleotide sequence AUGA. ORF2 was predicted to encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which was highly similar to the RdRps of victoriviruses. Virus-like particle examination demonstrated that the genome of NoRV2 was solely encapsidated by viral particles with a diameter of approximately 35 nm. The other two dsRNAs that were less than 3.0 kb were predicted to be the genomes of two mitoviruses, named as Nigrospora oryzae mitovirus 1 (NoMV1) and Nigrospora oryzae mitovirus 2 (NoMV2). Both NoMV1 and NoMV2 were A-U rich and with lengths of 2865 and 2507 bp, respectively. Mitochondrial codon usage inferred that each of the two mitoviruses contains a major large ORF encoding a mitoviral RdRp. Horizontal transfer experiments showed that the NoMV1 and NoMV2 could be cotransmitted horizontally via hyphal contact to other virus-free N. oryzae strains and causes phenotypic change to the recipient, such as an increase in growth rate. This is the first report of mitoviruses in N. oryzae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Open AccessArticle Establishment of an Alphavirus-Specific Neutralization Assay to Distinguish Infections with Different Members of the Semliki Forest Complex
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010082
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Background: Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and can be found worldwide. Alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest complex such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Mayaro virus (MAYV) or Ross River virus (RRV) cause acute febrile illness and long-lasting arthralgia in humans, which cannot be [...] Read more.
Background: Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and can be found worldwide. Alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest complex such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Mayaro virus (MAYV) or Ross River virus (RRV) cause acute febrile illness and long-lasting arthralgia in humans, which cannot be clinically discriminated from a dengue virus or Zika virus infection. Alphaviruses utilize a diverse array of mosquito vectors for transmission and spread. For instance, adaptation of CHIKV to transmission by Aedes albopictus has increased its spread and resulted in large outbreaks in the Indian Ocean islands. For many alphaviruses commercial diagnostic tests are not available or show cross-reactivity among alphaviruses. Climate change and globalization will increase the spread of alphaviruses and monitoring of infections is necessary and requires virus-specific methods. Method: We established an alphavirus neutralization assay in a 384-well format by using pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. Results: MAYV-specific reactivity could be discriminated from CHIKV reactivity. Human plasma from blood donors infected with RRV could be clearly identified and did not cross-react with other alphaviruses. Conclusion: This safe and easy to use multiplex assay allows the discrimination of alphavirus-specific reactivity within a single assay and has potential for epidemiological surveillance. It might also be useful for the development of a pan-alphavirus vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Detection and Characterization of Cucumis melo Cryptic Virus, Cucumis melo Amalgavirus 1, and Melon Necrotic Spot Virus in Cucumis melo
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010081
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Three RNA viruses—Cucumis melo cryptic virus (CmCV), Cucumis melo amalgavirus 1 (CmAV1), and melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV)—were identified from a melon (Cucumis melo) transcriptome dataset. CmCV has two dsRNA genome segments; dsRNA-1 is 1592 bp in size, containing a [...] Read more.
Three RNA viruses—Cucumis melo cryptic virus (CmCV), Cucumis melo amalgavirus 1 (CmAV1), and melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV)—were identified from a melon (Cucumis melo) transcriptome dataset. CmCV has two dsRNA genome segments; dsRNA-1 is 1592 bp in size, containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA-2 is 1715 bp in size, and encodes a coat protein (CP). The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the CmCV RdRp and CP indicated CmCV clusters with approved or putative deltapartitiviruses in well-supported monophyletic clade. The RdRp of CmCV shared an amino acid sequence identity of 60.7% with the closest RdRp of beet cryptic virus 3, and is <57% identical to other partitiviruses. CmAV1 is a nonsegmented dsRNA virus with a genome of 3424 bp, including two partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a putative CP and RdRp. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of CmAV1 RdRp revealed that it belongs to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae. The RdRp of CmAV1 shares 57.7% of its amino acid sequence identity with the most closely related RdRp of Phalaenopsis equestris amalgavirus 1, and is <47% identical to the other reported amalgaviruses. These analyses suggest that CmCV and CmAV1 are novel species in the genera Amalgavirus and Deltapartitivirus, respectively. These findings enrich our understanding of new plant dsRNA virus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Ecology and Biodiversity)
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Open AccessReview The Importance of Being Non-Defective: A Mini Review Dedicated to the Memory of Jan Svoboda
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010080
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Jan Svoboda triggered investigations on non-defective avian sarcoma viruses. These viruses were a critical factor in the genetic understanding of retroviruses. They provided the single and unique access to the field and facilitated the discovery of the first oncogene src and of the [...] Read more.
Jan Svoboda triggered investigations on non-defective avian sarcoma viruses. These viruses were a critical factor in the genetic understanding of retroviruses. They provided the single and unique access to the field and facilitated the discovery of the first oncogene src and of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. They continue to be of importance as singularly effective expression vectors that have provided insights into the molecular functions of numerous oncogenes. Combined with the contributions to the validation of the provirus hypothesis, Jan Svoboda’s investigations of non-defective avian sarcoma viruses have shaped a large and important part of retrovirology. Full article
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Open AccessMeeting Report CSV2018: The 2nd Symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010079
Received: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
The 2nd Symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2018) was held in June 2018 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, as a featured event marking the 200th anniversary of Dalhousie University. CSV2018 attracted 175 attendees from across Canada and around the world, more [...] Read more.
The 2nd Symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2018) was held in June 2018 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, as a featured event marking the 200th anniversary of Dalhousie University. CSV2018 attracted 175 attendees from across Canada and around the world, more than double the number that attended the first CSV symposium two years earlier. CSV2018 provided a forum to discuss a wide range of topics in virology including human, veterinary, plant, and microbial pathogens. Invited keynote speakers included David Kelvin (Dalhousie University and Shantou University Medical College) who provided a historical perspective on influenza on the 100th anniversary of the 1918 pandemic; Sylvain Moineau (Université Laval) who described CRISPR-Cas systems and anti-CRISPR proteins in warfare between bacteriophages and their host microbes; and Kate O’Brien (then from Johns Hopkins University, now relocated to the World Health Organization where she is Director of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals), who discussed the underlying viral etiology for pneumonia in the developing world, and the evidence for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a primary cause. Reflecting a strong commitment of Canadian virologists to science communication, CSV2018 featured the launch of Halifax’s first annual Soapbox Science event to enable public engagement with female scientists, and the live-taping of the 499th episode of the This Week in Virology (TWIV) podcast, hosted by Vincent Racaniello (Columbia University) and science writer Alan Dove. TWIV featured interviews of CSV co-founders Nathalie Grandvaux (Université de Montréal) and Craig McCormick (Dalhousie University), who discussed the origins and objectives of the new society; Ryan Noyce (University of Alberta), who discussed technical and ethical considerations of synthetic virology; and Kate O’Brien, who discussed vaccines and global health. Finally, because CSV seeks to provide a better future for the next generation of Canadian virologists, the symposium featured a large number of oral and poster presentations from trainees and closed with the awarding of presentation prizes to trainees, followed by a tour of the Halifax Citadel National Historic Site and an evening of entertainment at the historic Alexander Keith’s Brewery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Open AccessArticle Naturally Occurring Mutations within HBV Surface Promoter II Sequences Affect Transcription Activity, HBsAg and HBV DNA Levels in HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010078
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface promoter II (SPII) have not been well studied in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We aimed to investigate SPII mutations in such patients and their biological and clinical impacts. Direct sequencing [...] Read more.
Mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface promoter II (SPII) have not been well studied in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We aimed to investigate SPII mutations in such patients and their biological and clinical impacts. Direct sequencing was used to detect SPII mutations in 106 HBeAg-positive treatment-naïve CHB patients with genotype C (82.1% (87/106) was C2) HBV infection. Results showed that mutation frequency in transcription factor (TF) unbinding region was significantly higher than that in TF binding region of SPII (C1: 3.4% vs. 1.3%; C2: 2.6% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.0001). Luciferase assay revealed distinct promoter activities among SPII mutants; especially SPII of G120A mutant had a 15-fold higher activity than that of wild-type (p < 0.001). In vitro experiments in HepG2 cells showed that G82A, A115C and G120A mutants increased the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels, while C18T had an opposite effect. G82A, A115C and G120A mutants boosted the intracellular HBV total RNA level. G120A mutation resulted in an increased HBV DNA level in vitro, consistent with the serological results in patients. Thus, novel SPII mutations would affect promoter activity, HBsAg, HBV DNA and HBV total RNA levels, suggesting their potential biological and clinical significances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessCommunication Comparison of Anti-Viral Activity of Frog Skin Anti-Microbial Peptides Temporin-Sha and [K3]SHa to LL-37 and Temporin-Tb against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010077
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Temporins are anti-microbial peptides synthesized in the skin of frogs of the Ranidae family. The few studies to date that have examined their anti-viral properties have shown that they have potential as anti-viral therapies. In this work, we evaluated the anti-herpes simplex virus [...] Read more.
Temporins are anti-microbial peptides synthesized in the skin of frogs of the Ranidae family. The few studies to date that have examined their anti-viral properties have shown that they have potential as anti-viral therapies. In this work, we evaluated the anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of the temporin-SHa (SHa) and its synthetic analog [K3]SHa. Human cathelicidin LL-37 and temporin-Tb (Tb), previously demonstrated to have anti-HSV-1 properties, were used as positive controls. We observed that SHa and [K3]SHa significantly inhibit HSV-1 replication in human primary keratinocytes when used at micromolar concentrations. This anti-viral activity was equivalent to that of Tb, but lower than that of LL-37. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SHa did not act through the modulation of the cell innate immune response, but rather, displayed virucidal properties by reducing infectious titer of HSV-1 in suspension. In contrast, pre-incubation of the virus with LL-37 suggests that this peptide does not act directly on the viral particle at non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The anti-HSV-1 activity of LL-37 appears to be due to the potentiation of cellular anti-viral defenses through the induction of interferon stimulated gene expression in infected primary keratinocytes. This study demonstrated that SHa and [K3]SHa, in addition to their previously reported antibacterial and antiparasitic activities, are direct-acting anti-HSV-1 peptides. Importantly, this study extends the little studied anti-viral attributes of frog temporins and offers perspectives for the development of new anti-HSV-1 therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Natural Products in HSV Research)
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Open AccessReview Half a Century of Research on Membrane-Containing Bacteriophages: Bringing New Concepts to Modern Virology
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010076
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Half a century of research on membrane-containing phages has had a major impact on virology, providing new insights into virus diversity, evolution and ecological importance. The recent revolutionary technical advances in imaging, sequencing and lipid analysis have significantly boosted the depth and volume [...] Read more.
Half a century of research on membrane-containing phages has had a major impact on virology, providing new insights into virus diversity, evolution and ecological importance. The recent revolutionary technical advances in imaging, sequencing and lipid analysis have significantly boosted the depth and volume of knowledge on these viruses. This has resulted in new concepts of virus assembly, understanding of virion stability and dynamics, and the description of novel processes for viral genome packaging and membrane-driven genome delivery to the host. The detailed analyses of such processes have given novel insights into DNA transport across the protein-rich lipid bilayer and the transformation of spherical membrane structures into tubular nanotubes, resulting in the description of unexpectedly dynamic functions of the membrane structures. Membrane-containing phages have provided a framework for understanding virus evolution. The original observation on membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 and human pathogenic adenovirus has been fundamental in delineating the concept of “viral lineages”, postulating that the fold of the major capsid protein can be used as an evolutionary fingerprint to trace long-distance evolutionary relationships that are unrecognizable from the primary sequences. This has brought the early evolutionary paths of certain eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal viruses together, and potentially enables the reorganization of the nearly immeasurable virus population (~1 × 1031) on Earth into a reasonably low number of groups representing different architectural principles. In addition, the research on membrane-containing phages can support the development of novel tools and strategies for human therapy and crop protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Co-Delivery Effect of CD24 on the Immunogenicity and Lethal Challenge Protection of a DNA Vector Expressing Nucleocapsid Protein of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010075
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a globally-spread tick-borne zoonotic infection, with an eminent risk of fatal human disease. The imminent public health threat posed by the disseminated virus activity and lack of an approved therapeutic make CCHFV [...] Read more.
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a globally-spread tick-borne zoonotic infection, with an eminent risk of fatal human disease. The imminent public health threat posed by the disseminated virus activity and lack of an approved therapeutic make CCHFV an urgent target for vaccine development. We described the construction of a DNA vector expressing a nucleocapsid protein (N) of CCHFV (pV-N13), and investigated its potential to stimulate the cytokine and total/specific antibody responses in BALB/c and a challenge experiment in IFNAR−/− mice. Because of a lack of sufficient antibody stimulation towards the N protein, we have selected cluster of differentiation 24 (CD24) protein as a potential adjuvant, which has a proliferative effect on B and T cells. Overall, our N expressing construct, when administered solely or in combination with the pCD24 vector, elicited significant cellular and humoral responses in BALB/c, despite variations in the particular cytokines and total antibodies. However, the stimulated antibodies produced as a result of the N protein expression have shown no neutralizing ability in the virus neutralization assay. Furthermore, the challenge experiments revealed the protection potential of the N expressing construct in an IFNAR −/− mice model. The cytokine analysis in the IFNAR−/− mice showed an elevation in the IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels. In conclusion, we have shown that targeting the S segment of CCHFV can be considered for a practical way to develop a vaccine against this virus, because of its ability to induce an immune response, which leads to protection in the challenge assays in the interferon (IFN)-gamma defective mice models. Moreover, CD24 has a prominent immunologic effect when it co-delivers with a suitable foreign gene expressing vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Advances in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Research)
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Open AccessReview Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Vaccine Candidates: Cautious Optimism
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010074
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Efforts towards developing a vaccine for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have yielded promising results. Utilizing a variety of platforms, several vaccine approaches have shown efficacy in animal models and begun to enter clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the current [...] Read more.
Efforts towards developing a vaccine for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have yielded promising results. Utilizing a variety of platforms, several vaccine approaches have shown efficacy in animal models and begun to enter clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the current progress towards a MERS-CoV vaccine and highlight potential roadblocks identified from previous attempts to generate coronavirus vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MERS-CoV)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of the Lipidomic Profile of Human Coronavirus-Infected Cells: Implications for Lipid Metabolism Remodeling upon Coronavirus Replication
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010073
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Lipids play numerous indispensable cellular functions and are involved in multiple steps in the replication cycle of viruses. Infections by human-pathogenic coronaviruses result in diverse clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia with extrapulmonary manifestations. Understanding how cellular lipids may [...] Read more.
Lipids play numerous indispensable cellular functions and are involved in multiple steps in the replication cycle of viruses. Infections by human-pathogenic coronaviruses result in diverse clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia with extrapulmonary manifestations. Understanding how cellular lipids may modulate the pathogenicity of human-pathogenic coronaviruses remains poor. To this end, we utilized the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) as a model coronavirus to comprehensively characterize the host cell lipid response upon coronavirus infection with an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS)-based lipidomics approach. Our results revealed that glycerophospholipids and fatty acids (FAs) were significantly elevated in the HCoV-229E-infected cells and the linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism axis was markedly perturbed upon HCoV-229E infection. Interestingly, exogenous supplement of LA or AA in HCoV-229E-infected cells significantly suppressed HCoV-229E virus replication. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of LA and AA on virus replication was also conserved for the highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Taken together, our study demonstrated that host lipid metabolic remodeling was significantly associated with human-pathogenic coronavirus propagation. Our data further suggested that lipid metabolism regulation would be a common and druggable target for coronavirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MERS-CoV)
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Open AccessReview Monitoring HIV-1 Assembly in Living Cells: Insights from Dynamic and Single Molecule Microscopy
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010072
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The HIV-1 assembly process is a multi-complex mechanism that takes place at the host cell plasma membrane. It requires a spatio-temporal coordination of events to end up with a full mature and infectious virus. The molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly have been extensively [...] Read more.
The HIV-1 assembly process is a multi-complex mechanism that takes place at the host cell plasma membrane. It requires a spatio-temporal coordination of events to end up with a full mature and infectious virus. The molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly have been extensively studied during the past decades, in order to dissect the respective roles of the structural and non-structural viral proteins of the viral RNA genome and of some host cell factors. Nevertheless, the time course of HIV-1 assembly was observed in living cells only a decade ago. The very recent revolution of optical microscopy, combining high speed and high spatial resolution, in addition to improved fluorescent tags for proteins, now permits study of HIV-1 assembly at the single molecule level within living cells. In this review, after a short description of these new approaches, we will discuss how HIV-1 assembly at the cell plasma membrane has been revisited using advanced super resolution microscopy techniques and how it can bridge the study of viral assembly from the single molecule to the entire host cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breakthroughs in Viral Replication)
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Open AccessArticle Phylodynamic Analysis of Ebola Virus Disease Transmission in Sierra Leone
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010071
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
We generated genome sequences from 218 cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone (SLE) during 2014–2015 to complement available datasets, particularly by including cases from a period of low sequence coverage during peak transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) in the highly-affected [...] Read more.
We generated genome sequences from 218 cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone (SLE) during 2014–2015 to complement available datasets, particularly by including cases from a period of low sequence coverage during peak transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) in the highly-affected Western Area division of SLE. The combined dataset was utilized to produce phylogenetic and phylodynamic inferences, to study sink–source dynamics and virus dispersal from highly-populated transmission hotspots. We identified four districts in SLE where EBOV was introduced and transmission occurred without onward exportation to other districts. We also identified six districts that substantially contributed to the dispersal of the virus and prolonged the EVD outbreak: five of these served as major hubs, with lots of movement in and out, and one acted primarily as a source, exporting the virus to other areas of the country. Positive correlations between case numbers, inter-district transition events, and district population sizes reaffirm that population size was a driver of EBOV transmission dynamics in SLE. The data presented here confirm the role of urban hubs in virus dispersal and of a delayed laboratory response in the expansion and perpetuation of the EVD outbreak in SLE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Advances in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Rapid Method for Sequencing Double-Stranded RNAs Purified from Yeasts and the Identification of a Potent K1 Killer Toxin Isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010070
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Mycoviruses infect a large number of diverse fungal species, but considering their prevalence, relatively few high-quality genome sequences have been determined. Many mycoviruses have linear double-stranded RNA genomes, which makes it technically challenging to ascertain their nucleotide sequence using conventional sequencing methods. Different [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses infect a large number of diverse fungal species, but considering their prevalence, relatively few high-quality genome sequences have been determined. Many mycoviruses have linear double-stranded RNA genomes, which makes it technically challenging to ascertain their nucleotide sequence using conventional sequencing methods. Different specialist methodologies have been developed for the extraction of double-stranded RNAs from fungi and the subsequent synthesis of cDNAs for cloning and sequencing. However, these methods are often labor-intensive, time-consuming, and can require several days to produce cDNAs from double-stranded RNAs. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for the rapid extraction and sequencing of dsRNAs derived from yeasts, using short-read next generation sequencing. This method optimizes the extraction of high-quality double-stranded RNAs from yeasts and 3′ polyadenylation for the initiation of cDNA synthesis for next-generation sequencing. We have used this method to determine the sequence of two mycoviruses and a double-stranded RNA satellite present within a single strain of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quality and depth of coverage was sufficient to detect fixed and polymorphic mutations within viral populations extracted from a clonal yeast population. This method was also able to identify two fixed mutations within the alpha-domain of a variant K1 killer toxin encoded on a satellite double-stranded RNA. Relative to the canonical K1 toxin, these newly reported mutations increased the cytotoxicity of the K1 toxin against a specific species of yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Open AccessReview Structural Basis for Epitopes in the gp120 Cluster A Region that Invokes Potent Effector Cell Activity
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010069
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
While a number of therapeutic options to control the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) now exist, a broadly effective preventive vaccine is still not available. Through detailed structural analysis of antibodies able to induce potent effector cell activity, a number of Env [...] Read more.
While a number of therapeutic options to control the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) now exist, a broadly effective preventive vaccine is still not available. Through detailed structural analysis of antibodies able to induce potent effector cell activity, a number of Env epitopes have been identified which have the potential to be considered vaccine candidates. These antibodies mainly target the gp120 Cluster A region which is only exposed upon viral binding to the target cell with epitopes becoming available for antibody binding during viral entry and fusion and, therefore, after the effective window for neutralizing antibody activity. This review will discuss recent advances in the structural characterization of these important targets with a special focus on epitopes that are involved in Fc-mediated effector function without direct viral neutralizing activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Uncovering Flavivirus Host Dependency Factors through a Genome-Wide Gain-of-Function Screen
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010068
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Flaviviruses, such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, are mosquito-borne pathogens that present a major risk to global public health. To identify host factors that promote flavivirus replication, we performed a genome-wide gain-of-function cDNA screen for [...] Read more.
Flaviviruses, such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, are mosquito-borne pathogens that present a major risk to global public health. To identify host factors that promote flavivirus replication, we performed a genome-wide gain-of-function cDNA screen for human genes that enhance the replication of flavivirus reporter particles in human cells. The screen recovered seventeen potential host proteins that promote viral replication, including the previously known dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase non-catalytic subunit (DDOST). Using silencing approaches, we validated the role of four candidates in YFV and WNV replication: ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), DDOST and importin 9 (IPO9). Applying a panel of virological, biochemical and microscopic methods, we validated further the role of RPL19 and DDOST as host factors required for optimal replication of YFV, WNV and ZIKV. The genome-wide gain-of-function screen is thus a valid approach to advance our understanding of flavivirus replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Characterization of Host Response to Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infection in Permissive and Refractory Hosts: A Model for Determining Mechanisms of VHF Pathogenesis
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010067
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a fulminant and typically lethal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in macaques (Cercopithecinae: Macaca spp.) but causes subclinical infections in patas monkeys (Cercopithecinae: Erythrocebus patas). This difference in disease course offers a unique opportunity to compare host [...] Read more.
Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a fulminant and typically lethal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in macaques (Cercopithecinae: Macaca spp.) but causes subclinical infections in patas monkeys (Cercopithecinae: Erythrocebus patas). This difference in disease course offers a unique opportunity to compare host responses to infection by a VHF-causing virus in biologically similar susceptible and refractory animals. Patas and rhesus monkeys were inoculated side-by-side with SHFV. Unlike the severe disease observed in rhesus monkeys, patas monkeys developed a limited clinical disease characterized by changes in complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and development of lymphadenopathy. Viral RNA was measurable in circulating blood 2 days after exposure, and its duration varied by species. Infectious virus was detected in terminal tissues of both patas and rhesus monkeys. Varying degrees of overlap in changes in serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed between patas and rhesus monkeys, suggesting the presence of common and species-specific cytokine responses to infection. Similarly, quantitative immunohistochemistry of livers from terminal monkeys and whole blood flow cytometry revealed varying degrees of overlap in changes in macrophages, natural killer cells, and T-cells. The unexpected degree of overlap in host response suggests that relatively small subsets of a host’s response to infection may be responsible for driving hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis. Furthermore, comparative SHFV infection in patas and rhesus monkeys offers an experimental model to characterize host–response mechanisms associated with viral hemorrhagic fever and evaluate pan-viral hemorrhagic fever countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Expanding Repertoire of Plant Positive-Strand RNA Virus Proteases
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010066
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Many plant viruses express their proteins through a polyprotein strategy, requiring the acquisition of protease domains to regulate the release of functional mature proteins and/or intermediate polyproteins. Positive-strand RNA viruses constitute the vast majority of plant viruses and they are diverse in their [...] Read more.
Many plant viruses express their proteins through a polyprotein strategy, requiring the acquisition of protease domains to regulate the release of functional mature proteins and/or intermediate polyproteins. Positive-strand RNA viruses constitute the vast majority of plant viruses and they are diverse in their genomic organization and protein expression strategies. Until recently, proteases encoded by positive-strand RNA viruses were described as belonging to two categories: (1) chymotrypsin-like cysteine and serine proteases and (2) papain-like cysteine protease. However, the functional characterization of plant virus cysteine and serine proteases has highlighted their diversity in terms of biological activities, cleavage site specificities, regulatory mechanisms, and three-dimensional structures. The recent discovery of a plant picorna-like virus glutamic protease with possible structural similarities with fungal and bacterial glutamic proteases also revealed new unexpected sources of protease domains. We discuss the variety of plant positive-strand RNA virus protease domains. We also highlight possible evolution scenarios of these viral proteases, including evidence for the exchange of protease domains amongst unrelated viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Open AccessReview Neuroinflammation, Microglia, and Cell-Association during Prion Disease
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010065
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Prion disorders are transmissible diseases caused by a proteinaceous infectious agent that can infect the lymphatic and nervous systems. The clinical features of prion diseases can vary, but common hallmarks in the central nervous system (CNS) are deposition of abnormally folded protease-resistant prion [...] Read more.
Prion disorders are transmissible diseases caused by a proteinaceous infectious agent that can infect the lymphatic and nervous systems. The clinical features of prion diseases can vary, but common hallmarks in the central nervous system (CNS) are deposition of abnormally folded protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres or PrPSc), astrogliosis, microgliosis, and neurodegeneration. Numerous proinflammatory effectors expressed by astrocytes and microglia are increased in the brain during prion infection, with many of them potentially damaging to neurons when chronically upregulated. Microglia are important first responders to foreign agents and damaged cells in the CNS, but these immune-like cells also serve many essential functions in the healthy CNS. Our current understanding is that microglia are beneficial during prion infection and critical to host defense against prion disease. Studies indicate that reduction of the microglial population accelerates disease and increases PrPSc burden in the CNS. Thus, microglia are unlikely to be a foci of prion propagation in the brain. In contrast, neurons and astrocytes are known to be involved in prion replication and spread. Moreover, certain astrocytes, such as A1 reactive astrocytes, have proven neurotoxic in other neurodegenerative diseases, and thus might also influence the progression of prion-associated neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering the Molecular Targets of Prion and Prion-Like Strains)
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Open AccessCommunication An Optimized High-Throughput Neutralization Assay for Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Involving Detection of Secreted Porf2
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010064
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Current methods for evaluating the neutralizing activity of HEV-specific antibodies include immunofluorescence focus assays (IFAs) and real-time PCR, which are insensitive and operationally complicated. Here, we developed a high-throughput neutralization assay [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Current methods for evaluating the neutralizing activity of HEV-specific antibodies include immunofluorescence focus assays (IFAs) and real-time PCR, which are insensitive and operationally complicated. Here, we developed a high-throughput neutralization assay by measuring secreted pORF2 levels using an HEV antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit based on the highly replicating HEV genotype (gt) 3 strain Kernow. We evaluated the neutralizing activity of HEV-specific antibodies and the sera of vaccinated individuals (n = 15) by traditional IFA and the novel assay simultaneously. A linear regression analysis shows that there is a high degree of correlation between the two assays. Furthermore, the anti-HEV IgG levels exhibited moderate correlation with the neutralizing titers of the sera of vaccinated individuals, indicating that immunization with gt 1 can protect against gt 3 Kernow infection. We then determined specificity of the novel assay and the potential threshold of neutralizing capacity using anti-HEV IgG positive sera (n = 27) and anti-HEV IgG negative sera (n = 23). The neutralizing capacity of anti-HEV IgG positive sera was significantly stronger than that of anti-HEV IgG negative. In addition, ROC curve analysis shows that the potential threshold of neutralizing capacity of sera was 8.07, and the sensitivity and specificity of the novel assay was 88.6% and 100%, respectively. Our results suggest that the neutralization assay using the antigen ELISA kit could be a useful tool for HEV clinical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Papillomaviral Proteome to Identify Potential Candidates for a Chimeric Vaccine against Cervix Papilloma Using Immunomics and Computational Structural Vaccinology
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010063
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
The human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 is considered to be the second most predominant genotype in cervical cancer incidents in China. HPV type-restriction, non-targeted delivery, and the highcost of existing vaccines necessitate continuing research on the HPV vaccine. We aimed to explore the papillomaviral [...] Read more.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 is considered to be the second most predominant genotype in cervical cancer incidents in China. HPV type-restriction, non-targeted delivery, and the highcost of existing vaccines necessitate continuing research on the HPV vaccine. We aimed to explore the papillomaviral proteome in order to identify potential candidates for a chimeric vaccine against cervix papilloma using computational immunology and structural vaccinology approaches. Two overlapped epitope segments (23–36) and (29–42) from the N-terminal region of the HPV58 minor capsid protein L2 are selected as capable of inducing both cellular and humoral immunity. In total, 318 amino acid lengths of the vaccine construct SGD58 contain adjuvants (Flagellin and RS09), two Th epitopes, and linkers. SGD58 is a stable protein that is soluble, antigenic, and non-allergenic. Homology modeling and the structural refinement of the best models of SGD58 and TLR5 found 96.8% and 93.9% favored regions in Rampage, respectively. The docking results demonstrated a HADDOCK score of −62.5 ± 7.6, the binding energy (−30 kcal/mol) and 44 interacting amino acid residues between SGD58-TLR5 complex. The docked complex are stable in 100 ns of simulation. The coding sequences of SGD58 also show elevated gene expression in Escherichia coli with 1.0 codon adaptation index and 59.92% glycine-cysteine content. We conclude that SGD58 may prompt the creation a vaccine against cervix papilloma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Bioinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Role of Anti-Viral Sensing Pathway for the Production of Type I Interferon β in Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus A2 Strain Infection
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010062
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infectious disease in infants and young children. Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MACs) are known to play important roles in RSV recognition, and in the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infectious disease in infants and young children. Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MACs) are known to play important roles in RSV recognition, and in the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokine in RSV infection. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) are known to be important for the RSV sensing pathway in DCs and MACs. However, despite the critical roles of type I IFNs in the anti-RSV immune response, the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are required for RSV sensing in DCs and MACs remain unclear. Here, we investigate the pathway activated by RSV A2 strain infection using an IFN-β/YFP reporter mouse model to visualize IFN-β-producing cells and in vitro RSV infection in bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) and macrophages (BM-DMs). We present our finding that MyD88, but not TLR7, are important for RSV recognition and type I IFN and pro-inflammatory production in DCs and MACs. MAVS-deficient BM-DCs and BM-DMs show impaired induction of IFN-β production upon RSV stimulation, and this effect is RSV replication-dependent. Our study provides information on cell type-specific PRR requirements in innate immune responses against RSV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle The Phylogeny and Pathogenesis of Sacbrood Virus (SBV) Infection in European Honey Bees, Apis mellifera
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010061
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
RNA viruses that contain single-stranded RNA genomes of positive sense make up the largest group of pathogens infecting honey bees. Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most widely distributed honey bee viruses and infects the larvae of honey bees, resulting in failure [...] Read more.
RNA viruses that contain single-stranded RNA genomes of positive sense make up the largest group of pathogens infecting honey bees. Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most widely distributed honey bee viruses and infects the larvae of honey bees, resulting in failure to pupate and death. Among all of the viruses infecting honey bees, SBV has the greatest number of complete genomes isolated from both European honey bees Apis mellifera and Asian honey bees A. cerana worldwide. To enhance our understanding of the evolution and pathogenicity of SBV, in this study, we present the first report of whole genome sequences of two U.S. strains of SBV. The complete genome sequences of the two U.S. SBV strains were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers: MG545286.1 and MG545287.1. Both SBV strains show the typical genomic features of the Iflaviridae family. The phylogenetic analysis of the single polyprotein coding region of the U.S. strains, and other GenBank SBV submissions revealed that SBV strains split into two distinct lineages, possibly reflecting host affiliation. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 5′UTR revealed a monophyletic clade with the deep parts of the tree occupied by SBV strains from both A. cerane and A. mellifera, and the tips of branches of the tree occupied by SBV strains from A. mellifera. The study of the cold stress on the pathogenesis of the SBV infection showed that cold stress could have profound effects on sacbrood disease severity manifested by increased mortality of infected larvae. This result suggests that the high prevalence of sacbrood disease in early spring may be due to the fluctuating temperatures during the season. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of SBV infection in honey bees, and have important epidemiological relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
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