Next Article in Journal
From SARS to MERS, Thrusting Coronaviruses into the Spotlight
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Pullet Vaccination on Development and Longevity of Immunity
Previous Article in Journal
Single Chain Fragment Variable (scFv) Antibodies Targeting the Spike Protein of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Provide Protection against Viral Infection in Piglets
Previous Article in Special Issue
The PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex Affects Replication and Airborne Transmission of the H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010057

Genetic Diversity and Phylodynamics of Avian Coronaviruses in Egyptian Wild Birds

1
Virology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
2
Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK
3
Virology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sadat University, Sadat 32897, Egypt
4
Central Lab for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia 11381, Cairo, Egypt
5
Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
6
Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Avian Respiratory Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4624 KB, uploaded 14 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Avian coronaviruses (ACoVs) are continuously evolving and causing serious economic consequences in the poultry industry and around the globe. Owing to their extensive genetic diversity and high mutation rates, controlling ACoVs has become a challenge. In this context, the potential contribution of wild birds in the disease dynamics, especially in domesticated birds, remains largely unknown. In the present study, five hundred fifty-seven (n = 557) cloacal/fecal swabs were collected from four different wild bird species from eight Egyptian governorates during 2016 and a total of fourteen positive isolates were used for phylodynamics and evolutionary analysis. Genetic relatedness based on spike (S1) gene demonstrated the clustering of majority of these isolates where nine isolates grouped within Egy/variant 2 (IS/885 genotype) and five isolates clustered within Egy/variant 1 (IS/1494/06 genotype). Interestingly, these isolates showed noticeable genetic diversity and were clustered distal to the previously characterized Egy/variant 1 and Egy/variant 2 in Egyptian commercial poultry. The S1 gene based comparison of nucleotide identity percentages revealed that all fourteen isolates reported in this study were genetically related to the variant GI-23 lineage with 92–100% identity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ACoVs are circulating in Egyptian wild birds and highlight their possible contributions in the disease dynamics. The study also proposes that regular monitoring of the ACoVs in wild birds is required to effectively assess the role of wild birds in disease spread, and the emergence of ACoVs strains in the country. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian coronavirus; Egypt; wild bird; phylodynamics; monitoring avian coronavirus; Egypt; wild bird; phylodynamics; monitoring
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

A. Rohaim, M.; F. El Naggar, R.; M. Helal, A.; M. Bayoumi, M.; A. El-Saied, M.; A. Ahmed, K.; Z. Shabbir, M.; Munir, M. Genetic Diversity and Phylodynamics of Avian Coronaviruses in Egyptian Wild Birds. Viruses 2019, 11, 57.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top