The Incorporation of Host Proteins into the External HIV-1 Envelope
AbstractThe incorporation of biologically active host proteins into HIV-1 is a well-established phenomenon, particularly due to the budding mechanism of viral egress in which viruses acquire their external lipid membrane directly from the host cell. While this mechanism might seemingly imply that host protein incorporation is a passive uptake of all cellular antigens associated with the plasma membrane at the site of budding, this is not the case. Herein, we review the evidence indicating that host protein incorporation can be a selective and conserved process. We discuss how HIV-1 virions displaying host proteins on their surface can exhibit a myriad of altered phenotypes, with notable impacts on infectivity, homing, neutralization, and pathogenesis. This review describes the canonical and emerging methods to detect host protein incorporation, highlights the well-established host proteins that have been identified on HIV-1 virions, and reflects on the role of these incorporated proteins in viral pathogenesis and therapeutic targeting. Despite many advances in HIV treatment and prevention, there remains a global effort to develop increasingly effective anti-HIV therapies. Given the broad range of biologically active host proteins acquired on the surface of HIV-1, additional studies on the mechanisms and impacts of these incorporated host proteins may inform the development of novel treatments and vaccine designs. View Full-Text
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Burnie, J.; Guzzo, C. The Incorporation of Host Proteins into the External HIV-1 Envelope. Viruses 2019, 11, 85.
Burnie J, Guzzo C. The Incorporation of Host Proteins into the External HIV-1 Envelope. Viruses. 2019; 11(1):85.Chicago/Turabian Style
Burnie, Jonathan; Guzzo, Christina. 2019. "The Incorporation of Host Proteins into the External HIV-1 Envelope." Viruses 11, no. 1: 85.
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