Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Prof. Dr. Abílio Manuel Pinho de Jesus
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Dr. José A.F.O. Correia
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We welcome submissions from Applied Sciences and Applied Mechanics that cover, but are not limited to the following topics:

1. Physical and mechanical properties of traditional and innovative metals (mainly aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys) with particular attention to multiscale problems related to damage and degradation due to service loadings;

2. Physical and mechanical properties of additively manufacture metals (mainly titanium Ti6Al4V and aluminium AlSi10Mg, but also Inconel 718 and stainless steel 316L);

3. Physical and mechanical properties of innovative solid-state multi-metals weldments (mainly aluminium-steel joints but also copper-aluminium and titanium-copper joints);

4. Physical and mechanical properties of metals in presence of defects (cast iron, steel, Ti6Al4V, aluminium alloys, magnesium alloys);

5. SEM/TEM characterization of crack initiation and propagation in metallic materials (aluminium and titanium alloys);

6. Mechanical and physical properties of magnesium alloys for biomedical applications (mainly for Mg AZ31);

7. Hot-dip galvanization and its influence on the mechanical behaviour of metal manufacts;

8. Atomic layer deposition and other advanced techniques for coatings of metals;

9. Physical and mechanical properties of metallic weldments (mainly made of steel and aluminium);

10. Physical and mechanical properties of pure lead (and its alloys) used for nuclear applications;

11. Physical and mechanical behaviour of metals under complex loadings and environmental conditions (CrMoV steels, aluminium alloys, magnesium alloys, titanium alloys).

Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Prof. Dr. Abílio M.P. De Jesus
Dr. José A.F.O. Correia
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • metallic materials
  • additive manufacturing
  • metallic weldments
  • aluminium alloys
  • magnesium alloys
  • titanium alloys
  • pure lead
  • cast iron
  • steel

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.838 3.7 2011 17.4 Days 2300 CHF
Applied Mechanics
applmech
- - 2020 15.7 Days 1000 CHF
Materials
materials
3.748 4.7 2008 15.3 Days 2300 CHF
Magnetochemistry
magnetochemistry
3.336 3.0 2015 14.9 Days 1800 CHF

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Published Papers (146 papers)

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Article
Effect of Zr and Ti Addition and Aging Treatment on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Al-2%Cu-Based Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134511 - 27 Jun 2022
Abstract
The present work investigated the effect of aging treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of an Al-2%Cu base alloy containing various additions of Zr and other alloying elements. Aging was carried out at temperatures of 180–300 °C for different aging times at [...] Read more.
The present work investigated the effect of aging treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of an Al-2%Cu base alloy containing various additions of Zr and other alloying elements. Aging was carried out at temperatures of 180–300 °C for different aging times at each temperature. The tensile properties indicated that Zr additions improved the strength of the base alloy, especially at high Zr levels at 180 °C. At the 220 °C aging temperature, however, while Zr addition did not have a beneficial effect on the alloy strength, the ductility was found to improve. Zr-Ti combined additions had a significant effect on the microstructure of the base alloy, as the morphology of the α-Al grains transformed into a non-dendritic morphology, and the grain size decreased sharply. These effects were at their maximum at 180 °C and 0.5 wt% Zr addition. Moreover, the Zr-containing alloys aged at higher temperatures, such as 220 °C and 240 °C, maintained a noticeably higher level of strength over the base alloy aged at the same temperatures. Quality index charts based on the tensile test data also reflected an improvement in alloy quality and strength with Zr-Ti combined additions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Corrosion Behavior of Al Modified with Zn in Chloride Solution
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124229 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aluminum-based alloys have been considered candidate materials for cathodic protection anodes. However, the Al-based alloys can form a layer of alumina, which is a drawback in a sacrificial anode. The anodes must exhibit uniform corrosion to achieve better performance. Aluminum can be alloyed [...] Read more.
Aluminum-based alloys have been considered candidate materials for cathodic protection anodes. However, the Al-based alloys can form a layer of alumina, which is a drawback in a sacrificial anode. The anodes must exhibit uniform corrosion to achieve better performance. Aluminum can be alloyed with Zn to improve their performance. In this sense, in the present research, the electrochemical corrosion performance of Al-xZn alloys (x = 1.5, 3.5, and 5 at.% Zn) exposed to 3.5 wt.% NaCl for 24 h was evaluated. Polarization curves, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to identify the electrochemical behavior. The microstructure of the samples before the corrosion assessment was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, microstructures of the corroded surfaces were characterized using X-ray mappings via SEM. Polarization curves indicated that Zn additions changed the pseudo-passivation behavior from what pure Al exhibited in a uniform dissolution regime. Furthermore, the addition of Zn shifted the corrosion potential to the active side and increased the corrosion rate. This behavior was consistent with the proportional decrease in polarization resistance (Rp) and charge transfer resistance (Rct) in the EIS. The analysis of EIS was done using a mathematical model related to an adsorption electrochemical mechanism. The adsorption of chloride at the Al-Zn alloy surface formed aluminum chloride intermediates, which controlled the rate of the process. The rate constants of the reactions of a proposed chemical mechanism were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Extraction of Rhenium and Osmium from Lead Technogenic Raw Materials of Copper Production
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124071 - 08 Jun 2022
Abstract
Lead sludge from copper production is a source of rare metals, such as rhenium and osmium, whose content reaches 0.06–0.08% and 0.0025–0.0050%, respectively. The base of the sludge consists of lead sulfate. A method of reductive smelting of lead sludge from copper smelting [...] Read more.
Lead sludge from copper production is a source of rare metals, such as rhenium and osmium, whose content reaches 0.06–0.08% and 0.0025–0.0050%, respectively. The base of the sludge consists of lead sulfate. A method of reductive smelting of lead sludge from copper smelting production at 1000–1100 °C has been developed. Coke was used as a reducing agent and sodium sulfate as a slag-forming material. Optimal conditions for selective extraction of rare metals in smelting products were found: osmium in the form of metallic form into raw lead and rhenium in the form of perrhenate compound Na5ReO6 into sodium-sulfate slag. The developed technology makes it possible to extract rhenium with a high degree of extraction in the form of water-soluble compounds for the subsequent production of commercial salts of rhenium by the known hydrometallurgical methods. The content of rhenium in the slag phase is 0.18–0.25%, with its initial content in the slime of 0.06–0.08%. The degree of rhenium concentration at the first stage of processing is 3–3.2 times in the form of water-soluble perrhenate. Osmium and lead do not form solid solutions; osmium in crude lead is mainly concentrated in the lower zones of lead. A method of obtaining a concentrate containing 53–67% osmium from raw lead with an initial content of 0.0025–0.0050% in the slurry and a concentration number of 13,000–21,000 times has been proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Phase Composition Effects on Dynamic Behavior and Strain Rate Sensitivity in Metastable β-Ti Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124068 - 08 Jun 2022
Abstract
In this study, high strain rate tension tests are conducted to determine and compare the dynamic mechanical behaviors and deformation mechanisms of different phase composition α-β metastable β-Ti alloys using a split Hopkinson tension bar. Two typical bimodal equiaxed αp + β [...] Read more.
In this study, high strain rate tension tests are conducted to determine and compare the dynamic mechanical behaviors and deformation mechanisms of different phase composition α-β metastable β-Ti alloys using a split Hopkinson tension bar. Two typical bimodal equiaxed αp + β and lamellar αs + β Ti-45551 alloy microstructures are formed through different hot working and thermal processing for investigating the effect of phase composition or microstructure on mechanical properties and strain rate sensitivity. It is demonstrated that dislocation nucleation and motion in the α/β phase and dislocation tangle or pile up at the α/β interface are typical deformation modes in both of the typical dual-phase Ti alloys at quasi-static loading conditions. Under dynamic loading, both the strength and ductility show a clearly positive strain rate dependence, which is directly related to dislocation activation in the α + β Ti-45551 alloy. Based on microstructure characterizations, it is shown that deformation twinning starts to become a major deformation mechanism in equiaxed αp + β microstructures under dynamic loading conditions. However, deformation twins are not favored in the lamellar αs + β Ti-45551 alloy due to its nano phase size. Finally, the mechanical behaviors and strain rate sensitivity are strongly dependent on the phase composition of metastable β-Ti alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Magnetic Properties and Washability of Roasted Suspended Siderite Ores
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103582 - 17 May 2022
Abstract
Steel is one of the most important industrial materials, which mainly comes from the smelting of iron ore. In view of the huge steel consumption every year, the exploitation of vast reserves of siderite ores is significant for improving the self-sufficiency rate of [...] Read more.
Steel is one of the most important industrial materials, which mainly comes from the smelting of iron ore. In view of the huge steel consumption every year, the exploitation of vast reserves of siderite ores is significant for improving the self-sufficiency rate of iron ore resources and ensuring the strategic security of the iron and steel industries. This paper investigated the influence of temperature, time, and other parameters on the magnetic properties of roasted siderite ores using the method of suspended roasting and analyzed the washability of roasted ores under weak-magnetic-field conditions using the magnetic separation tube experiment. The findings of the study explained the iron phase transformation process, i.e., FeCO3 was transformed into Fe3O4 by suspension magnetization roasting. Furthermore, the saturation magnetization of the roasted ore increased in due time at a constant temperature range of 550–750 °C and a roasting time of less than 5 s. It also increased with increasing temperature and constant time. The roasted ore achieved the best magnetic characteristics after roasting at 750 °C for 5 s. After low-intensity magnetic separation, the iron grade of the concentrate changed to 55.12%, with a recovery rate of 90.34%. The study results provide a reference for the development and application of siderite suspension magnetization roasting technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Effect of Thermal Simulation Process on Microstructure of Seismic Steel Bars
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103438 - 10 May 2022
Abstract
Thermal deformation has a significant influence on the microstructure of high-strength antiseismic steel. The effect of hot deformation on the microstructure of experimental steel was studied by the Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. The microstructure of the steel was characterized by the metallographic microscope, microhardness, [...] Read more.
Thermal deformation has a significant influence on the microstructure of high-strength antiseismic steel. The effect of hot deformation on the microstructure of experimental steel was studied by the Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. The microstructure of the steel was characterized by the metallographic microscope, microhardness, tensile test, field emission scanning electron microscope, electron backscatter diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The results show that the core microstructure of the test steel is composed of polygonal ferrite and lamellar pearlite. The test steel is mainly ductile fracture. Tensile strength and hardness increase with the decrease of temperature. At 650 °C isothermal temperature, the ferrite distribution was uniform, the average grain size was 7.78 μm, the grain size grade reached 11, the pearlite lamellar spacing was 0.208 μm, and the tensile fracture was distributed with uniform equiaxed dimples. Polygonal ferrite grain boundaries have high density dislocations that can effectively block the initiation and propagation of cracks. However, there are some low dislocation boundaries and subgrain boundaries in ferrite grains. Precipitation strengthening is mainly provided by fine precipitates of V-rich carbonitride in experimental steel. The precipitates are round or narrow strips, about 70–100 nm in size, distributed along ferrite grain boundaries and matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
The Effect of Ru on the Evolution of the γ′ Phase in Ni-Al-Ru Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093344 - 06 May 2022
Abstract
With the development and wide application of nickel-based single-crystal superalloys, the effect of Ru on the microstructure stability and high-temperature properties of superalloys is becoming increasingly important. In this study, the effect of Ru on the evolution of the γ′ phase in Ni-Al-Ru [...] Read more.
With the development and wide application of nickel-based single-crystal superalloys, the effect of Ru on the microstructure stability and high-temperature properties of superalloys is becoming increasingly important. In this study, the effect of Ru on the evolution of the γ′ phase in Ni-Al-Ru ternary alloys during aging treatment was analyzed, using a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The relationship between chemical partition behavior and γ/γ′ lattice misfit was investigated in detail. During the aging process, Ru addition suppressed the growth rate and rafting process of γ′ precipitates, while the effect of Ru on hindering γ′ phase growth was reduced when the Ru content was over 3 at%. Ru preferentially partitioned to the γ phase, and its partitioning ratio to the γ phase increased with a variation in Ru content from 1 at% to 3 at% and decreased for the NiAl6Ru alloy. Additionally, the lattice misfit of all alloys was positive and reduced with the increase in Ru content, which hindered the Ru atoms to diffuse into the γ phase and promoted the shape of γ′ precipitates to change from cubic to spherical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Failure Detection within Composite Materials in System Engineering Applications
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4283; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094283 - 23 Apr 2022
Abstract
This paper introduces essential key attributes of composite materials with a focus on carbon fibre (CF), followed by a description of common failure modes and proceeds to an investigation of stiffness of continuous CF laminates of 4-ply and 7-ply epoxy resin in pre-preg [...] Read more.
This paper introduces essential key attributes of composite materials with a focus on carbon fibre (CF), followed by a description of common failure modes and proceeds to an investigation of stiffness of continuous CF laminates of 4-ply and 7-ply epoxy resin in pre-preg and wet layup. The three-point flexural test was performed with a Zwick Z010 machine, and the findings are presented. Continuing to real world failure scenarios and moving onto novel concept methods of live failure detection including scope for wood composites. Showing that early design considerations and further research can lead to advantages for system engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
The Corrosion Susceptibility of 304L Stainless Steel Exposed to Crevice Environments
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093055 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study focuses on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel in crevice corrosion environments. The specimen with a salt deposit of 0.1 g/m2 was assembled with a crevice former made of Poly-tetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) to make a test device. The [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel in crevice corrosion environments. The specimen with a salt deposit of 0.1 g/m2 was assembled with a crevice former made of Poly-tetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) to make a test device. The assembled test devices were kept at the ambient temperature of 45 °C in combination with a relative humidity of 45%, 55%, and 70%. After testing for 5000 h, the corroded area of the specimen exposed to 70% humidity was three times larger than that subjected to 45% humidity. For the specimen sustaining a tensile force, the crack growth rate was approximately 1.4 mm/year at the stress level of 300 MPa in a crevice corrosion environment with 0.1 g/m2 of sea salt deposited on the surface. The small portion of intergranular cracking occurred at the surface due to the existed strain on the surface. As cracks propagate in a grain, the grain undergoes a greater localized deformation, and some secondary cracks would develop inside the grain; transgranular cracking was vigorous due to the path corrosion that nucleated at the slip steps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Dimensional Stability of Mirror Substrates Made of Silicon Particle Reinforced Aluminum
Materials 2022, 15(9), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15092998 - 20 Apr 2022
Abstract
In the present study, the thermal cycling stability of mirrors made of silicon particle reinforced aluminum compounds, containing an amount of 42 ± 2 wt.% silicon particles, is investigated with respect to thermal loading. The compound is processed by single-point diamond turning to [...] Read more.
In the present study, the thermal cycling stability of mirrors made of silicon particle reinforced aluminum compounds, containing an amount of 42 ± 2 wt.% silicon particles, is investigated with respect to thermal loading. The compound is processed by single-point diamond turning to optical mirrors that were subsequently thermally cycled in a temperature range between 40 °C to −60 °C and between 20 °C and −196 °C, respectively. The residual shape change of the optical surface was analyzed using Fizeau interferometry at room temperature. The change of shape deviation of the mirrors is compared with dilatometric studies of cylinders using the same temperature regime. Due to different coefficients of thermal expansion of the two constituents of the compound, thermal mismatch stresses in the ductile aluminum matrix and the brittle silicon particles are induced by the investigated thermal loads. The plasticity that occurs causes the formation of dislocations and stacking faults as substantiated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It could be shown that the silicon particles lead to the cold working process of the reinforced aluminum matrix upon thermal cycling. By using interferometry, a higher dimensional stability of mirrors made of silicon particle reinforced aluminum due to thermal loads is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Review
Review on Preparation Technology and Properties of Refractory High Entropy Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082931 - 17 Apr 2022
Abstract
Refractory high entropy alloys have broad application prospects due to their excellent comprehensive properties in high temperature environments, and they have been widely implemented in many complex working conditions. According to the latest research reports, the preparation technology of bulk and coating refractory [...] Read more.
Refractory high entropy alloys have broad application prospects due to their excellent comprehensive properties in high temperature environments, and they have been widely implemented in many complex working conditions. According to the latest research reports, the preparation technology of bulk and coating refractory high entropy alloys are summarized, and the advantages and disadvantages of each preparation technology are analyzed. In addition, the properties of refractory high entropy alloys, such as mechanical properties, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, and radiation resistance are reviewed. The existing scientific problems of refractory high entropy alloys, at present, are put forward, which provide reference for the development and application of refractory high entropy alloys in the future, especially for plasma-facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Synthesis, Structural, and Mechanical Behavior of β-Ca3(PO4)2–ZrO2 Composites Induced by Elevated Thermal Treatments
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082924 - 17 Apr 2022
Abstract
Biocompatible β-Ca3(PO4)2 and mechanically stable t-ZrO2 composites are currently being combined to overcome the demerits of the individual components. A series of five composites were synthesized using an aqueous precipitation technique. Their structural and mechanical [...] Read more.
Biocompatible β-Ca3(PO4)2 and mechanically stable t-ZrO2 composites are currently being combined to overcome the demerits of the individual components. A series of five composites were synthesized using an aqueous precipitation technique. Their structural and mechanical stability was examined through X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The characterization results confirmed the formation of β-Ca3(PO4)2t-ZrO2 composites at 1100 °C. Heat treatment above 900 °C resulted in the degradation of the composites because of cationic interdiffusion between Ca2+ ions and O−2 vacancy in Zr4+ ions. Sequential thermal treatments correspond to four different fractional phases: calcium-deficient apatite, β-Ca3(PO4)2, t-ZrO2, and m-ZrO2. The morphological features confirm in situ synthesis, which reveals abnormal grain growth with voids caused by the upsurge in ZrO2 content. The mechanical stability data indicate significant variation in Young’s modulus and hardness throughout the composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Evaluation of Coke Resistivity for the Manganese Alloy Market
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082897 - 15 Apr 2022
Abstract
The submerged arc furnace (SAF) has become the equipment of choice to produce manganese ferro-alloy. Furnace operators aim to reduce the cost of production by better understanding the role played by the various raw materials involved in the process. Coke is one of [...] Read more.
The submerged arc furnace (SAF) has become the equipment of choice to produce manganese ferro-alloy. Furnace operators aim to reduce the cost of production by better understanding the role played by the various raw materials involved in the process. Coke is one of the key raw materials fed into the SAF; it plays three key roles in electric furnaces: as a reducing agent, as a source of carbon found in the alloy, and as a resistive element facilitating heat generation in the furnace. The heat generated plays two key functions in the furnace: ensuring both the metal and the slag have a sufficient low viscosity, and providing the heat required to support endothermic reactions. This study investigated the ambient-temperature and high-temperature resistivity characteristics of coke made from single-source coals. The measurement of coke resistivity was performed using the Kelvin (four-point) technique. The results showed a statistically significant difference in mean resistivity between cokes made from different coals. It was observed that coke resistivity generally decreased with increasing temperatures. Raman spectroscopy showed that the structural order of coke changes with increasing temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Mechanical Performance and Precipitation Behavior in Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloys: Effect of Prolonged Thermal Exposure
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082830 - 12 Apr 2022
Abstract
Al-Si-Cu-Mg cast (354) alloys are used in the automotive sector owing to their remarkable properties which are achievable after applying appropriate thermal treatments. Zirconium, Nickel, and Manganese were added to this category of Al-alloys to preserve good mechanical properties while being exposed to [...] Read more.
Al-Si-Cu-Mg cast (354) alloys are used in the automotive sector owing to their remarkable properties which are achievable after applying appropriate thermal treatments. Zirconium, Nickel, and Manganese were added to this category of Al-alloys to preserve good mechanical properties while being exposed to elevated temperatures for long times. The ultimate and yield strength values obtained at room temperature for the stabilized (thermally-exposed) T5-treated condition were comparable to those of the stabilized T6-treated condition, whereas the same properties for T5-treated alloys were higher than those of T6-treated ones for elevated-temperature tensile testing. Interestingly, the results showed that the addition of 0.75 wt.% Mn was competitive with the addition of 2 and 4 wt.% Ni with respect to the elevated-temperature and ambient temperature strength values, respectively. In addition, the Mn-containing alloy M3S exhibited improved ductility values at ambient temperature and at 250 °C, compared to the Ni-containing alloys. Examination of the fracture surface of tested samples revealed the advantageous role of sludge particles in enhancing the performance of Mn-containing alloys through their resistance to the propagation of cracks that developed in many intermetallic phases. This finding is considered to be economically significant in view of the lower price of manganese compared to that of nickel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Hot Deformation Behavior of the 25CrMo4 Steel Using a Modified Arrhenius Model
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082820 - 12 Apr 2022
Abstract
25CrMo4 steel is widely used in the manufacturing of high-speed train axles due to its excellent mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to develop an accurate modified constitutive model to describe the hot deformation behavior of the steel. Isothermal compression experiments [...] Read more.
25CrMo4 steel is widely used in the manufacturing of high-speed train axles due to its excellent mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to develop an accurate modified constitutive model to describe the hot deformation behavior of the steel. Isothermal compression experiments were performed at different strain rates (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 s−1) and different temperatures (950, 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C) using a Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. The microstructure after hot deformation was observed by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and the effects of temperature and strain rate were analyzed. The results showed that the coupling effect of temperature and strain rate on the dislocation density led to the change in the shape of the true stress–strain curve and that dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) caused the macroscopic softening phenomenon, with DRX being the main mechanism. Based on the true stress–strain curves, the strain-compensated Arrhenius constitutive model was calibrated. To improve prediction ability, a modified Arrhenius constitutive model was proposed, in which the temperature and strain rate coupling correction functions were incorporated. The original, modified Arrhenius models were evaluated according to the absolute relative error (ARE), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the correlation coefficient (R2). Compared with the original model, the modified Arrhenius model has a higher prediction accuracy, with the ARE value mostly below 4%, the AARE value of 1.91%, and the R2 value of 0.9958. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Portevin-Le Châtelier Effect in a Powder Metallurgy Co-Ni-Based Superalloy
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082796 - 11 Apr 2022
Abstract
The Portevin-Le Châtelier (PLC) effect in a powder metallurgy (PM) Co-Ni-based superalloy was systematically investigated via the tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 200 to 600 °C and strain rates at 1.0 × 10−4 to 1.0 × 10−2. Both normal [...] Read more.
The Portevin-Le Châtelier (PLC) effect in a powder metallurgy (PM) Co-Ni-based superalloy was systematically investigated via the tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 200 to 600 °C and strain rates at 1.0 × 10−4 to 1.0 × 10−2. Both normal and inverse PLC effects were observed in the PLC regime, and the former appeared in the A and B types at a low temperature, whilst the latter appeared in the C type at an elevated temperature. Both positive and negative strain rate sensitivities (SRS) were shown in PLC regime, and SRS should be derived from same types of serrations. Based on the calculated activation energy, the substitutional atom Mo is considered to take primary responsibility for the PLC effect in present alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
A New Insight on Phased Array Ultrasound Inspection in MIG/MAG Welding
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082793 - 11 Apr 2022
Abstract
Weldment inspection is a critical process in the metal industry. It is first conducted visually, then manually and finally using instrumental techniques such as ultrasound. We made one hundred metal inert/active gas (MIG/MAG) weldments on plates of naval steel S275JR+N with no defects, [...] Read more.
Weldment inspection is a critical process in the metal industry. It is first conducted visually, then manually and finally using instrumental techniques such as ultrasound. We made one hundred metal inert/active gas (MIG/MAG) weldments on plates of naval steel S275JR+N with no defects, and inducing pores, slag intrusion and cracks. With the objective of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the welding defects, phased array ultrasound inspections were carried out. Error-free weldment probes were used to provide the noise level. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) The top view obtained from the phased array provided no conclusive information about the welding defects. The values of the echo amplitudes were about 70 mV for pores and cracks, and greater than 150 mV for slag intrusion, all of which showed great variability. (ii) The sectional data did not lie at the same depths and they needed to be interpolated. (iii) The interpolated sectional views, or C-scans, allowed the computation of top views at any depth, as well as the three-dimensional reconstruction of the defects. (iv) The use of the simplest tool, consisting of the frequency histogram and its statistical moments, was sufficient to classify the defects. The mean echo amplitudes were 33 mV for pores, 72.16 mV for slag intrusion and 43.19 mV for cracks, with standard deviations of 8.84 mV, 24.64 mV and 12.39 mV, respectively. These findings represent the first step in the automatic classification of welding defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Machine-Learning Approach to Determine Surface Quality on a Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steel
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12083721 - 07 Apr 2022
Abstract
Surface quality measures such as roughness, and especially its uncertain character, affect most magnetic non-destructive testing methods and limits their performance in terms of an achievable signal-to-noise ratio and reliability. This paper is primarily focused on an experimental study targeting nuclear reactor materials [...] Read more.
Surface quality measures such as roughness, and especially its uncertain character, affect most magnetic non-destructive testing methods and limits their performance in terms of an achievable signal-to-noise ratio and reliability. This paper is primarily focused on an experimental study targeting nuclear reactor materials manufactured from the milling process with various machining parameters to produce varying surface quality conditions to mimic the varying material surface qualities of in-field conditions. From energising a local area electromagnetically, a receiver coil is used to obtain the emitted Barkhausen noise, from which the condition of the material surface can be inspected. Investigations were carried out with the support of machine-learning algorithms, such as Neural Networks (NN) and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), to identify the differences in surface quality. Another challenge often faced is undertaking an analysis with limited experimental data. Other non-destructive methods such as Magnetic Adaptive Testing (MAT) were used to provide data imputation for missing data using other intelligent algorithms. For data reinforcement, data augmentation was used. With more data the problem of ‘the curse of data dimensionality’ is addressed. It demonstrated how both data imputation and augmentation can improve measurement datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Spent Mushroom Substrate and Electric Arc Furnace Dust Recycling by Carbothermic Reduction Method
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072639 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
With recent increases in environmental awareness, the circular economy concept, which involves turning waste into usable products, has gradually become widely accepted. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an agricultural waste that lacks recycling channels in Taiwan. This study explored the feasibility of simultaneously [...] Read more.
With recent increases in environmental awareness, the circular economy concept, which involves turning waste into usable products, has gradually become widely accepted. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an agricultural waste that lacks recycling channels in Taiwan. This study explored the feasibility of simultaneously recycling two completely different types of waste: spent mushroom substrate (SMS), an agricultural waste, and electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD), an industrial waste. Specifically, SMS was used to replace metallurgical coke as a reducing agent for EAFD, which underwent carbothermic reduction to recycle valuable metallic Zn. The results showed that if SMS and EAFD were mixed at a C/O ratio of 0.8, the degree of Zn removal achieved 95% at 1100 °C, which is 150 °C lower than the reduction temperature of the EAFD-coke mixture (due to volatile matter (VM) in SMS). For the reduction of ZnO in EAFD, with the assistance of VM in SMS, the C/O ratio can be decreased from 0.8 to 0.16 at 1300 °C, achieving a high degree of Zn removal over 95%. In addition, the torrefaction of SMS increased the fixed carbon content and improved the Zn productivity at the same C/O ratio, reaching almost the same productivity as the coke sample (SMS torrefaction = 500 °C, C/O = 0.8, reduction = 1200 °C, Zn removal~99%). Finally, CO2 emission reductions from the use of SMS were also estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Application of Graphite Electrode Plasma Heating Technology in Continuous Casting
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072590 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the industrial, experimental effect of a plasma heating system in the form of graphite electrode in the tundish of double-strand slab caster was evaluated for the first time. The system uses three graphite electrodes, two of which are cathodes and [...] Read more.
In this study, the industrial, experimental effect of a plasma heating system in the form of graphite electrode in the tundish of double-strand slab caster was evaluated for the first time. The system uses three graphite electrodes, two of which are cathodes and one of which is an anode, to form a conductive loop through molten steel in the tundish. The system is built on an old two-strand slab caster and is installed on the premise that the original ladle tundish equipment remains unchanged. The normal working power of the system is up to 1500 kW, and the heating rate of molten steel in the tundish can reach 1.0 °C/min under conditions of 5 t/min total steel throughput and a tundish capacity of 50 t. After the system was put into operation, the purity of molten steel undergoing heating was investigated. The sample analysis of low carbon steel and ultra-low carbon steel before and after heating showed that the contents of N and O in the steel did not increase, while the size of the oxide inclusions near the heating point increased but showed little change in terms of the overall quantity. This process benefited from the addition of inert gas during the heating process to control the atmosphere in the heating area, which prevents reoxidation. The sample analysis also showed that there is no obvious carbon absorption phenomenon after heating, and the fluctuation in C content is within 0.0001%, which is consistent with the general production results. By using this system, the temperature of molten steel in the steelmaking process can be reduced by 10~15 °C, allowing continuous low superheat casting to be supported, which is helpful for reducing production costs and improving the solidified structure inside the slab. The results of the study show that the plasma heating technology can be applied to the continuous casting of low carbon–nitrogen steel slabs, which shows the benefits of reducing emissions and improving production efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Effect of Tempering Temperature on Microstructure and Sulfide Stress Cracking of 125 Ksi Grade Casing Steel
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072589 - 01 Apr 2022
Abstract
The influence of tempering temperature on the microstructure of 0.5Cr0.4W steels was investigated by scanning electron microscope, and the roles of grain boundary character, dislocation, and Taylor factor in sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance were interpreted using the election backscattered diffraction technique. The [...] Read more.
The influence of tempering temperature on the microstructure of 0.5Cr0.4W steels was investigated by scanning electron microscope, and the roles of grain boundary character, dislocation, and Taylor factor in sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance were interpreted using the election backscattered diffraction technique. The 0.5Cr0.4W steels tempered at 690 °C, 700 °C, and 715 °C all showed tempered martensites. The specimen tempered at 715 °C exhibited a higher critical stress intensity factor (KISSC) of 34.58 MPa·m0.5, but the yield strength of 800 MPa did not meet the criterion of 125 ksi (862 MPa) grade. When the specimen was tempered at 690 °C, the yield strength reached 960 MPa and the KISSC was only 21.36 MPa·m0.5, displaying poorer SSC resistance. The 0.5Cr0.4W steel tempered at 700 °C showed a good combination of yield strength (887 MPa) and SSC resistance (KISSC: 31.16 MPa·m0.5). When increasing the tempering temperature, the local average misorientation and Taylor factor of the 0.5Cr0.4W steels were decreased. The reduced dislocation density, and greater number of grains amenable to slippage, produced less hydrogen transport and a lower crack sensitivity. The SSC resistance was, thus, increased, owing to the minor damage to hydrogen aggregation. Therefore, 700 °C is a suitable tempering temperature for 0.5Cr0.4W casing steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Investigation of the Initial Corrosion Destruction of a Metal Matrix around Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on Surfaces of Pipeline Steels
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072530 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Typical non-metallic inclusions in two industrial low-carbon steels for oil pipelines were investigated as three-dimensional objects on film filters after electrolytic extraction and filtration of metal samples. A method of soft chemical extraction using a 10%AA electrolyte was used to study the initial [...] Read more.
Typical non-metallic inclusions in two industrial low-carbon steels for oil pipelines were investigated as three-dimensional objects on film filters after electrolytic extraction and filtration of metal samples. A method of soft chemical extraction using a 10%AA electrolyte was used to study the initial corrosion process in the steel matrix surrounding various non-metallic inclusions. To determine and compare “corrosive” inclusions and their influence on the initial stages of corrosion of the adjacent layer of the steel matrix, quantitative parameters (such as the diameter of the corrosion crater (Dcr) and pit (Dpit), and the relative dissolution coefficient of the metal matrix (KD) around various inclusions) were determined after chemical extraction. It was found that CaO-Al2O3-MgO oxides and TiN inclusions did not cause an initial corrosion of the steel matrix surrounding these inclusions. However, tensile stresses in the steel matrix occurred around CaS inclusions (or complex inclusions containing a CaS phase), which contributed to the initiation of corrosion around these inclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Tensile Properties and Microstructure Evolutions of Low-Density Duplex Fe–12Mn–7Al–0.2C–0.6Si Steel
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072498 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
An austenite-ferrite duplex low-density steel (Fe–12Mn–7Al–0.2C–0.6Si, wt%) was designed and fabricated by cold rolling and annealing at different temperatures. The tensile properties, microstructure evolution, deformation mechanism and stacking fault energy (SFE) of the steel were systemically investigated at ambient temperature. Results show two [...] Read more.
An austenite-ferrite duplex low-density steel (Fe–12Mn–7Al–0.2C–0.6Si, wt%) was designed and fabricated by cold rolling and annealing at different temperatures. The tensile properties, microstructure evolution, deformation mechanism and stacking fault energy (SFE) of the steel were systemically investigated at ambient temperature. Results show two phases of fine equiaxed austenite and coarse band-like δ-ferrite in the microstructure of the steel. With increasing annealing temperature, the yield and tensile strengths decrease while the total elongation increases. At initial strains, the deformation is mainly concentrated in the fine austenite and grain boundaries of the coarse δ-ferrite, and the interior of the coarse δ-ferrite gradually deforms with further increase in the strain to 0.3. No twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) or transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) occurred during the tensile deformation. Considering element segregation and two-phase proportion, the chemical composition of austenite was measured more precisely. The SFE of the austenite is 39.7 mJ/m2, and the critical stress required to produce deformation twins is significantly higher than the maximum flow stress of the steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Mechanical, Microstructure, and Corrosion Characterization of Dissimilar Austenitic 316L and Duplex 2205 Stainless-Steel ATIG Welded Joints
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072470 - 27 Mar 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
The present work analyzed the microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of a dissimilar activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG) welded 2205 duplex stainless-steel (2205 DSS) plate and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (316L ASS) and compared them to conventional dissimilar welded tungsten inert gas [...] Read more.
The present work analyzed the microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of a dissimilar activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG) welded 2205 duplex stainless-steel (2205 DSS) plate and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (316L ASS) and compared them to conventional dissimilar welded tungsten inert gas (TIG). The mixing design method is a tool used to establish the optimal combined flux to achieve a full-penetrated weld bead in one single pass. A microstructure study was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ATIG and TIG fusion zones revealed a matrix ferrite structure with intragranular austenite, Widmanstätten needles, allotriomorphic austenite at the grain boundaries, and plate-like precipitates free of deleterious phases such as sigma and chi phases or second austinite owing to the moderate heat input provided of 0.8 kJ/mm. Ferrite volume proportion measurements were carried out utilizing the areas image processing software. The average ferrite volume proportion attained 54% in the ATIG weld zone; however, it decreased to 47% for the TIG weld zone. The results showed that the optimal flux composed by 91% Mn2O3 and 9% Cr2O3 allowed a full penetrated weld to be obtained in one single pass. However, a double side weld is required for conventional TIG processes. The values of the tensile (599 Mpa), hardness (235 HV), and impact test (267 J/cm2) measurements of ATIG welds were close to those of conventional TIG welds. The elaborated flux did not degrade the mechanical properties of the joint; on the contrary, it reinforced the strength property. The width of the ATIG heat-affected zone was narrower than that of TIG welding by 2.6 times, ensuring fewer joint distortions. The potentiodynamic polarization test results showed a better electrochemical behavior for ASS 316L than with the weldment and the parent metal of DSS 2205. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Study of Microstructure and Fatigue in Aluminum/Steel Butt Joints Made by CMT Fusion-Brazing Technology
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072367 - 23 Mar 2022
Abstract
Cold metal transfer (CMT) fusion brazing technology was used to weld 6061 aluminum alloy and Q235 galvanized steel with ER4043 welding wire. The microstructure, hardness, tensile performance, and fatigue performance of the welded joint were observed and analyzed. The results show that the [...] Read more.
Cold metal transfer (CMT) fusion brazing technology was used to weld 6061 aluminum alloy and Q235 galvanized steel with ER4043 welding wire. The microstructure, hardness, tensile performance, and fatigue performance of the welded joint were observed and analyzed. The results show that the tensile strength of the welded joint is 110.83 MPa and the fatigue strength limit is 170 MPa. In the fatigue process, the coupon first undergoes cyclic hardening and then cyclic softening and a ratchet effect occurs. The coupon was broken at the interface layer or weld zone where the fatigue strength limit is the lowest. The fatigue crack initiation is mainly caused by: (1) inclusions and second-phase particles; and (2) porosity and incomplete fusion. When cracks encounter holes during expansion, the expansion direction will change. The fatigued coupon displays a toughness fracture in the instantaneous fracture zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Softened Microstructure and Properties of 12 μm Thick Rolled Copper Foil
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062249 - 18 Mar 2022
Abstract
Up to now, 12 μm thick rolled copper foil is the thinnest rolled copper foil that can be stably produced. The softened microstructure and properties of 12 μm thick rolled copper foil were systematically studied in this paper. The softened process consists of [...] Read more.
Up to now, 12 μm thick rolled copper foil is the thinnest rolled copper foil that can be stably produced. The softened microstructure and properties of 12 μm thick rolled copper foil were systematically studied in this paper. The softened process consists of thermal treatment at 180 °C for different times. The results show that the softened annealing texture is mainly cubic texture, and the cubic texture fraction increases with the increase in annealing time. The cubic texture fraction reaches the highest (34.4%) after annealing for 60 min. After annealing for 1–5 min, the tensile strength and the bending times decrease significantly. After annealing for 10–60 min, the tensile strength tends to be stable, and the bending times increase slightly. With the increase in annealing time, the electrical conductivity increases gradually, reaching 92% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) after annealing for 60 min. Electrical conductivity can be used as a fast and effective method to analyze the microstructure of metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Composition of Corroded Reinforcing Steel Surface in Solutions Simulating the Electrolytic Environments in the Micropores of Concrete in the Propagation Period
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062216 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the present work, the composition of a corroded reinforcing steel surface is studied at different pH values (related to different degrees of development in the corroding zones of the corrosion process) in solutions simulating chloride-contaminated environments. The media considered consist of saturated [...] Read more.
In the present work, the composition of a corroded reinforcing steel surface is studied at different pH values (related to different degrees of development in the corroding zones of the corrosion process) in solutions simulating chloride-contaminated environments. The media considered consist of saturated calcium hydroxide solutions, progressively neutralized with FeCl2 or by adding 0.5 M NaCl to the solution. The results found in present work confirm higher levels of acidity in the solutions with higher concentrations of Fe2+.In the present work, emphasis is given to the composition of the oxides in solutions that simulate the conditions that exist inside of a localized corrosion pit as a consequence of the reaction of chloride on reinforcing steel. The oxides were studied using Raman and XPS techniques; the results obtained with both techniques are mutually coherent. Thus, in the passive state, the oxides found are those reported previously by other authors, while in the corroding state, the present results are more comprehensive because the conditions tested studied a variety of pore solution composition with several pH values; we tried to reproduce these values inside the pits in conditions of heavy corrosion (very acidic). The oxides found are those typically produced during iron dissolution and seem not the best route to study the corrosion process of steel in concrete; the electrochemical tests better characterize the corrosion stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Investigation of Breakaway Time Delay Phenomenon in Isothermal Test with Zircaloy-4 under Oxygen Atmosphere at 1000 °C
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062871 - 10 Mar 2022
Abstract
Zircaloy-4 isothermal oxidation tests were conducted at 1000 °C under an oxygen atmosphere with flow rates varying from 20 to 200 mL/min. In this research, a breakaway time delay phenomenon was discovered. The temperature of the atmosphere near the cladding was measured in [...] Read more.
Zircaloy-4 isothermal oxidation tests were conducted at 1000 °C under an oxygen atmosphere with flow rates varying from 20 to 200 mL/min. In this research, a breakaway time delay phenomenon was discovered. The temperature of the atmosphere near the cladding was measured in order to estimate the oxidation rate and identify the condition of the phenomenon. A sharp escalation in the cladding temperature was observed in the early stage of oxidation as the flow rate increased. In addition, macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed to identify the effects of initial temperature escalation. The results showed that the thickness of the dense columnar oxide increased in the oxide scale when the initial peak temperature exceeded 1050 °C. Based on these observations, it can be assumed that temperature escalation in the early stage can influence the thickness of dense oxides, and this in turn affects the oxidation behaviors, especially the breakaway time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Evolution of Microstructure in Welding Heat-Affected Zone of G115 Steel with the Different Content of Boron
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062053 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Welding thermal simulation was performed to investigate the effects of boron content (0, 60, and 130 ppm), welding peak temperature (Tp), and cooling time from 800 to 500 °C (t8/5) on the microstructure, carbide, subgrain, and microhardness [...] Read more.
Welding thermal simulation was performed to investigate the effects of boron content (0, 60, and 130 ppm), welding peak temperature (Tp), and cooling time from 800 to 500 °C (t8/5) on the microstructure, carbide, subgrain, and microhardness of heat-affected zone (HAZ) in G115 steel. According to the experimental results, the microstructure of coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ), fine-grained HAZ (FGHAZ), inter-critical HAZ (ICHAZ), and sub-critically HAZ (SCHAZ) was martensite, martensite containing a small amount of undissolved carbide, martensite, and over-tempered martensite, tempered martensite, respectively. The presence of B element improved the thermal stability of M23C6 carbide, thereby resulting in a greater amount of undissolved carbides with a larger diameter in the materials with higher B content under the same Tp. Element B is effective in improving Ac1 and Ac3 for the material. Besides, compared with the material without and containing 60 ppm B, the Ac1 and Ac3 of the material containing 130 ppm B increased by 95 and 108 °C, 69 and 77 °C, respectively. Meanwhile, the FGHAZ area of the material containing 130 ppm B was significantly lower than the material without or containing 60 ppm B, indicating that element B can significantly reduce the formation range of FGHAZ. The alloy content in austenite of ICHAZ of materials without or containing 60 ppm B increased, compared with CGHAZ, its Ms and Mf declined by 50 and 7 °C, 46 and 7 °C, respectively. In contrast, the alloy content in austenite of the material with 130 ppm B content decreases, its Ms and Mf was 37 °C and 32 °C higher than CGHAZ, respectively. The microhardness of HAZ was ranked in descending order as CGHAZ, FGHAZ, ICHAZ, and SCHAZ. Differently, the microhardness of CGHAZ and FGHAZ showed an increasing trend with the rise of B content but exhibited a decreasing trend with the rise of t8/5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Realization of Phase and Microstructure Control in Fe/Fe2SiO4-FeAl2O4 Metal–Ceramic by Alternative Microwave Susceptors
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051905 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study provides a novel method to prepare metal–ceramic composites from magnetically selected iron ore using microwave heating. By introducing three different microwave susceptors (activated carbon, SiC, and a mixture of activated carbon and SiC) during the microwave process, effective control of the [...] Read more.
This study provides a novel method to prepare metal–ceramic composites from magnetically selected iron ore using microwave heating. By introducing three different microwave susceptors (activated carbon, SiC, and a mixture of activated carbon and SiC) during the microwave process, effective control of the ratio of metallic and ceramic phases was achieved easily. The effects of the three susceptors on the microstructure of the metal–ceramics and the related reaction mechanisms were also investigated in detail. The results show that the metal phase (Fe) and ceramic phase (Fe2SiO4, FeAl2O4) can be maintained, but the metal phase to ceramic phase changed significantly. In particular, the microstructures appeared as well-distributed nanosheet structures with diameters of ~400 nm and thicknesses of ~20 nm when SiC was used as the microwave susceptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Experimental and Numerical Study on Friction and Wear Performance of Hot Extrusion Die Materials
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051798 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
For the aluminium alloys produced by the hot extrusion process, the profile is shaped according to the bearing at the exit of the extrusion die. The tribological process has significant effects on the die service life, profile dimensional tolerances, and profile surface finish. [...] Read more.
For the aluminium alloys produced by the hot extrusion process, the profile is shaped according to the bearing at the exit of the extrusion die. The tribological process has significant effects on the die service life, profile dimensional tolerances, and profile surface finish. Recently, new technologies have been introduced to the hot extrusion die, such as cemented carbide insert die and surface coating. However, under hot extrusion working conditions, quantitative studies on their friction and wear performances are lacking. In this work, the friction and wear performances of three typical extrusion die materials, traditional hot tool steel (H13), cemented carbide (YG8), and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) coating, were studied. Macro and nano hardness tests, Pin-on-disk friction and wear tests, optical profiler and SEM observations, and experiments and simulations of hot extrusion were conducted. The results show that the coefficients of friction of CVD coatings and H13 hot work tool steel specimens were smaller under the hot extrusion condition than at room temperature. The wear mechanisms of H13, YG8, and CVD coatings at 500 °C are adhesion, abrasive, and fatigue, respectively. Moreover, the tribology results were validated by the extrusion experiments and the finite element analysis of hot extrusion. The conclusion of this manuscript is useful not only for the numerical simulation of the hot extrusion process but also for the surface finishing of the extrusion profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting Plastic Anisotropy of Sheet Metals Based on Indentation Test
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051714 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper mainly proposes two kinds of artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting the plastic anisotropy properties of sheet metal using spherical indentation test, which minimizes measurement time, costs, and simplifies the process of obtaining the anisotropy properties than the conventional tensile [...] Read more.
This paper mainly proposes two kinds of artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting the plastic anisotropy properties of sheet metal using spherical indentation test, which minimizes measurement time, costs, and simplifies the process of obtaining the anisotropy properties than the conventional tensile test. The proposed ANN models for predicting anisotropic properties can replace the traditional complex dimensionless analysis. Moreover, this paper is not limited to the prediction of yield strength anisotropy but also further accurately predicts the Lankford coefficient in different orientations. We newly construct an FE spherical indentation model, which is suitable for sheet metal in consideration of actual compliance. To obtain a large dataset for training the ANN, the constructed FE model is utilized to simulate pure and alloyed engineering metals with one thousand elastoplastic parameter conditions. We suggest the specific variables of the residual indentation mark as input parameters, also with the indentation load–depth curve. The profile of the residual indentation, including the height and length in different orientations, are used to analyze the anisotropic properties of the material. Experimental validations have been conducted with three different sheet alloys, TRIP1180 steel, zinc alloy, and aluminum alloy 6063-T6, comparing the proposed ANN model and the uniaxial tensile test. In addition, machine vision was used to efficiently analyze the residual indentation marks and automatically measure the indentation profiles in different orientations. The proposed ANN model exhibits remarkable performance in the prediction of the flow curves and Lankford coefficient of different orientations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Alloy Partitioning Effect on Strength and Toughness of κ-Carbide Strengthened Steels
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051670 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Alloy partitioning during heat treatment in a lightweight precipitation hardened steel was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The mechanical properties are discussed as a function of the effect of solution treatment temperature and aging time, giving rise to variations [...] Read more.
Alloy partitioning during heat treatment in a lightweight precipitation hardened steel was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The mechanical properties are discussed as a function of the effect of solution treatment temperature and aging time, giving rise to variations in chemical modulation. A wrought lightweight steel alloy with a nominal composition of Fe-30Mn-9Al-1Si-1C-0.5Mo (wt. %) was solution-treated between 1173–1273 K and aged at 773 K. Lower solution treatment temperatures retained a finer grain size and accelerated age hardening response that also produced an improved work hardening behavior with a tensile strength of −1460 MPa at 0.4 true strain. Atom probe tomography indicated these conditions also had reduced modulation in the Si and Al content due to the reduced aging time preventing silicon from diffusing out of the κ-carbide into the austenite. This work provides the framework for heat-treating lightweight, age hardenable steels with high strength and improved energy absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Physical and Numerical Simulations for Predicting Distribution of Microstructural Features during Thermomechanical Processing of Steels
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051660 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The design of modern construction materials with heterogeneous microstructures requires a numerical model that can predict the distribution of microstructural features instead of average values. The accuracy and reliability of such models depend on the proper identification of the coefficients for a particular [...] Read more.
The design of modern construction materials with heterogeneous microstructures requires a numerical model that can predict the distribution of microstructural features instead of average values. The accuracy and reliability of such models depend on the proper identification of the coefficients for a particular material. This work was motivated by the need for advanced experimental data to identify stochastic material models. Extensive experiments were performed to supply data to identify a model of austenite microstructure evolution in steels during hot deformation and during the interpass times between deformations. Two sets of tests were performed. The first set involved hot compressions with a nominal strain of 1. The second set involved hot compressions with lower nominal strains, followed by holding at the deformation temperature for different times. Histograms of austenite grain size after each test were measured and used in the identification procedure. The stochastic model, which was developed elsewhere, was identified. Inverse analysis with the objective function based on the distance between the measured and calculated histograms was applied. Validation of the model was performed for the experiments, which were not used in the identification. The distance between the measured and calculated histograms was determined for each test using the Bhattacharyya metric and very low values were obtained. As a case study, the model with the optimal coefficients was applied to the simulation of the selected industrial hot-forming process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Effect of the Biodegradable Component Addition to the Molding Sand on the Microstructure and Properties of Ductile Iron Castings
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041552 - 18 Feb 2022
Abstract
In this work, the results of the examinations of the effect of the mold material and mold technology on the microstructure and properties of the casts parts of ductile cast iron have been presented. Four different self-hardening molding sands based on fresh silica [...] Read more.
In this work, the results of the examinations of the effect of the mold material and mold technology on the microstructure and properties of the casts parts of ductile cast iron have been presented. Four different self-hardening molding sands based on fresh silica sand from Grudzen Las, with organic binders (no-bake process), were used to prepare molds for tested castings. A novelty is the use of molding sand with a two-component binder: furfuryl resin-polycaprolactone PCL biomaterial. The molds were poured with ductile iron according to standard PN-EN 1563:2018-10. The microstructure of the experimental castings was examined on metallographic cross-sections with PN-EN ISO 945-1:2019-09 standard. Observations were made in the area at the casting/mold boundary and in a zone approximately 10 mm from the surface of the casting with a light microscope. The tensile test at room temperature was conducted according to standard PN-EN ISO 6892-1:2016-09. Circular cross-section test pieces, machined from samples taken from castings, were used. In the present experiment, it was stated that interactions between the mold material of different compositions and liquid cast iron at the stage of casting solidification led to some evolution of casting’s microstructure in the superficial layer, such as a pearlite rim observed for acidic mold sand, a ferritic rim for alkaline sand, and graphite spheroids degeneration, especially spectacular for the acidic mold with polycaprolactone (PCL) addition. These microstructural effects may point to the interference of the direct chemical interactions between liquid alloy and the components released from the mold sand, such as sulfur and oxygen. Particularly noteworthy is the observation that the use of molding sand with furfuryl resin with the addition of biodegradable PCL material does not lead to an unfavorable modification of the mechanical properties in the casting. The samples taken from Casting No. 2, made on the acidic molding sand with the participation of biodegradable material, had an average strength of 672 MPa, the highest average strength UTS-among all tested molding sands. However, the elongation after fracture was 48% lower compared to the reference samples from Casting No. 1 from the sand without the addition of PCL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Influence of Alloying Element Mg on Na and Sr Modifying Al-7Si Hypoeutectic Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041537 - 18 Feb 2022
Abstract
The influence of alloying element Mg on Na and Sr modifying Al-7Si hypoeutectic alloys was investigated. The residual content of Na and the morphology of modified eutectic silicon were characterized. It was found that the alloying element Mg had an enhanced effect on [...] Read more.
The influence of alloying element Mg on Na and Sr modifying Al-7Si hypoeutectic alloys was investigated. The residual content of Na and the morphology of modified eutectic silicon were characterized. It was found that the alloying element Mg had an enhanced effect on the uptake of sodium in the Al-7Si hypoeutectic alloy modified by the Na-contained modifier. Moreover, the morphology of eutectic silicon of the modified Al-7Si alloys was significantly different from that of Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloys in the present research. When the addition of the modifier is enough, both modifiers could entirely modify the eutectic silicon phase of Al-7Si alloys, while incompletely modified eutectic silicon was observed in both Na-modified and Sr-modified Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy. It was observed that there was an adhering relationship between the partially modified eutectic silicon with Mg-rich phases. According to the results, it can be proposed that the addition of Mg will affect the solidification behavior of alloys, thereby, leading to the incomplete modification of eutectic silicon phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Two Types of Wear Mechanisms Governing Transition between Mild and Severe Wear in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Dry Sliding at Temperatures of 20–250 °C
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041416 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dry wear characteristics and wear mechanisms governing mild-severe wear transition of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were studied during sliding against medium carbon chromium steel (50Cr) in an experimental temperature range of 20–250 °C. At each experimental temperature, wear rate was plotted against applied load, and [...] Read more.
Dry wear characteristics and wear mechanisms governing mild-severe wear transition of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were studied during sliding against medium carbon chromium steel (50Cr) in an experimental temperature range of 20–250 °C. At each experimental temperature, wear rate was plotted against applied load, and its variation was broken into two stages according to the difference of slope. Morphologies and contents of worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, from which the two stages were identified to correspond to mild and severe wear, respectively. Two types of wear mechanisms that dominated mild-severe wear transition were found, i.e., breakdown of mechanically mixed layer at temperatures of 20 and 50 °C, and severe plastic deformation at temperatures of 100–250 °C. Microstructures and hardness were examined in the subsurfaces, from which severe plastic deformation-dominated mild-severe wear transition was identified to be caused by the softening arising from friction heating-induced dynamic recrystallization. A linear relation between mild-severe wear transition load and experimental temperature was discovered. The intercept of experimental temperature axis 450 °C was obtained by linearly fitting, and it was considered as a critical dynamic recrystallzation temperature for mild-severe wear transition within the temperature range of 100–250 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Microalloyed Steel Plates
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041385 - 13 Feb 2022
Abstract
Ti-bearing microalloyed steel plates with a thickness of 40 mm were subjected to ultra-fast cooling (UFC) and traditional accelerate cooling after hot-rolling, aiming to investigate the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties homogeneity, and thus obtain thick plates with [...] Read more.
Ti-bearing microalloyed steel plates with a thickness of 40 mm were subjected to ultra-fast cooling (UFC) and traditional accelerate cooling after hot-rolling, aiming to investigate the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties homogeneity, and thus obtain thick plates with superior and homogeneous mechanical properties. Yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation were 642 MPa, 740 MPa, 19.2% and 592 MPa, 720 MPa and 16.7%, respectively, in the surface and mid-thickness of the steel with ultra-fast cooling, while in the steel with traditional accelerate cooling, 535 MPa, 645 MPa, 23.4% and 485 MPa, 608 MPa, 16.2% were obtained in the surface and mid-thickness of the plate. The yield strength has been greatly improved after UFC, for the refinement of grain and precipitates produced by UFC. In addition, the equivalent grain size and precipitates size in the thick plate with UFC are homogeneous in the thickness direction, leading to uniform mechanical properties. The crystallographic characteristics of different precipitates have been studied. The precipitates formed in the austenite deformation stage obey Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix, while the fine precipitates formed in the ferrite obey [112]MC//[110]α and (1¯1¯1)MC//(1¯12)α orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Application of a Non-Isothermal Numerical-Analytical Model to Determine the Kinetics of Austenite Formation in a Silicon Alloyed Steel
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041376 - 13 Feb 2022
Abstract
A non-isothermal transformation model was proposed to determine the austenite formation kinetics in a steel alloyed with 2.6% wt. Si by dilatometric analysis, considering that the nucleation mechanism does not change with the heating rate. From the dilatometric analysis, it was observed that [...] Read more.
A non-isothermal transformation model was proposed to determine the austenite formation kinetics in a steel alloyed with 2.6% wt. Si by dilatometric analysis, considering that the nucleation mechanism does not change with the heating rate. From the dilatometric analysis, it was observed that the austenite formation occurs in two stages; critical temperatures, degree and austenite formation rate were determined. The activation energies associated with each of the stages were obtained employing the Kissinger method (226.67 and 198.37 kJ·mol−1 for the first and second stage) which was used in concert with the austenite formation rate in the non-isothermal model as a first approximation, with acceptable results in the second stage, but not in the first due to the activation energies magnitude. Then, the activation energies were adjusted by minimizing the minimal squares error between estimated and experimental austenite formation degree, obtaining values of 158.50 kJ·mol−1 for the first and 165.50 kJ·mol−1 for the second stage. These values are consistent with those reported for the diffusion of carbon in austenite-FCC in silicon steels. With these activation energies it was possible to predict the austenite formation degree with a better level of convergence when implementing the non-isothermal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Intermetallics Formation during Solidification of Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041335 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of iron, manganese, copper and magnesium on the microstructural characteristics of Al-11%Si-2%Cu-Mg-based alloy referred to as 396 under different working conditions. The results show that strontium (Sr) has high affinity to react with magnesium [...] Read more.
The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of iron, manganese, copper and magnesium on the microstructural characteristics of Al-11%Si-2%Cu-Mg-based alloy referred to as 396 under different working conditions. The results show that strontium (Sr) has high affinity to react with magnesium (Mg), resulting in reduced effectiveness as eutectic silicon modifier or age hardening agent. In addition, Sr alters the sequence of the precipitation of the α-AlFeMnSi phase from post-eutectic to pro-eutectic which would harden the soft α-Aluminum matrix. The mechanism is still under investigation. The interactions between iron (Fe) and Mg and Sr-Mg result in the formation of serval dissolvable intermetallics during the solutionizing treatment such as β-AlFeSi, π-AlFeMgSi and Q-AlMgSiCu phases. The study also emphasizes the role of modification and grain refining as well as intermetallics in porosity formation and hardness of samples aged in the temperature range 155–240 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Reducing the γ′-Particle Size in CMSX-4 for Membrane Development
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041320 - 10 Feb 2022
Abstract
Colloidal emulsions for lipophilic drugs can be fabricated using premix membrane emulsification. The state of the art is the application of membranes made from, for example, polycarbonate or polyester, which, however, are prone to fouling and cause waste, due to the low number [...] Read more.
Colloidal emulsions for lipophilic drugs can be fabricated using premix membrane emulsification. The state of the art is the application of membranes made from, for example, polycarbonate or polyester, which, however, are prone to fouling and cause waste, due to the low number of cycles. With the use of metallic membranes made from the nickel based single crystalline superalloy CMSX-4, these key disadvantages are eliminated. However, instead, the pore size and the resulting droplet size distribution need to be adjusted and improved. This can be realized by tailoring the size of the γ′-particles, which is controllable by the time and temperature used during precipitation heat treatment and the quenching method after homogenization heat treatment. Therefore, we utilized different heat treatment protocols, varying the cooling rate (water quenching and air cooling) after homogenization heat treatment and the holding time and temperature during precipitation heat treatment. Then, we investigated the γ/γ′-microstructure, including the γ′-morphology and γ′-particle size. We show that water quenching has a significant impact on the γ/γ′-microstructure and often leads to irregular-shaped and poorly aligned γ′-particles after precipitation heat treatment. In comparison, air cooling, followed by a subsequent precipitation heat treatment, results in well-aligned and cubic shaped γ′-particles and is, therefore, favorable for membrane fabrication. A reduction in precipitation temperature leads to morphology changes to the γ′-particles. A reduction of the holding time during precipitation heat treatment diminishes the γ′-particle growth, resulting in smaller γ′-particles. Additionally, a suitable heat treatment protocol for membrane fabrication was identified with a γ′-edge length of 224 ± 52 nm and well-aligned, cubic shaped γ′-particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Inhibition of Carbide Growth by Sr in High-Alloyed White Cast Iron
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041317 - 10 Feb 2022
Abstract
Chromium cast irons have gained a well-settled position among wear-resistant materials where a low manufacturing cost is one of the key factors. The wear properties of these alloys are commonly improved by the addition of carbide-forming inoculating elements such as Ti, V, B, [...] Read more.
Chromium cast irons have gained a well-settled position among wear-resistant materials where a low manufacturing cost is one of the key factors. The wear properties of these alloys are commonly improved by the addition of carbide-forming inoculating elements such as Ti, V, B, etc., allowing the formation of underlays for the precipitation of both M7C3 carbides and austenite. On the other hand, Sr may work as a surface-active element that adsorbs on the surface of the growing crystal, inhibiting its growth. This mechanism may support the M7C3 nucleation process. The experiment was conducted on near-eutectic chromium cast irons with 20% of Cr and 2.5–3% of C. Different amounts of strontium were used as the microstructure modifier. The improvement of carbides’ stereological parameters and collocation resulted in the improvement in functional properties—wear resistance and impact strength without a significant increase in hardness as well as a decrease in carbide phase. Two types of wear studies with a modified pin-on-disc method and tests in reciprocating motion of samples in the metal-mineral system were performed. The results showed that addition modification with Sr can increase the impact strength of the alloy. EDS analysis of the samples provided results similar to hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys modified with strontium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Re-Examination of the Microstructural Evolution in Undercooled Co-18.5at.%B Eutectic Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041315 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The undercooling (∆T) dependencies of the solidification pathways, microstructural evolution, and recalescence behaviors of undercooled Co-18.5at.%B eutectic alloys were systematically explored. Up to four possible solidification pathways were identified: (1) A lamellar eutectic structure consisting of the FCC–Co and Co3 [...] Read more.
The undercooling (∆T) dependencies of the solidification pathways, microstructural evolution, and recalescence behaviors of undercooled Co-18.5at.%B eutectic alloys were systematically explored. Up to four possible solidification pathways were identified: (1) A lamellar eutectic structure consisting of the FCC–Co and Co3B phase forms, with extremely low ΔT; (2) The FCC–Co phase primarily forms, followed by the eutectic growth of the FCC–Co and Co2B phases when ΔT < 100 K; (3) As the ΔT increases further, the FCC–Co phase primarily forms, followed by the metastable Co23B6 phase with the trace of an FCC–Co and Co23B6 eutectic; (4) When the ΔT increases to 277 K, the FCC–Co phase primarily forms, followed by an FCC–Co and Co3B eutectic, which is similar in composition to the microstructure formed with low ΔT. The mechanisms of the microstructural evolution and the phase selection are interpreted on the basis of the composition segregation, the skewed coupled zone, the strain-induced transformation, and the solute trapping. Moreover, the prenucleation of the primary FCC–Co phase was also detected from an analysis of the different recalescence behaviors. The present work not only enriches our knowledge about the phase selection behavior in the undercooled Co–B system, but also provides us with guidance for controlling the microstructures and properties practically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
High Temperature Tensile Fracture Behavior of Copper-Containing Austenitic Antibacterial Stainless Steel
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041297 - 10 Feb 2022
Abstract
The mechanical properties and deformation microstructure of cast 304 Cu-containing austenitic stainless steel at 10−3/s strain rate in the range of 700~1200 °C were studied by Gleeble thermal simulator, metallographic microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the thermoplasticity [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties and deformation microstructure of cast 304 Cu-containing austenitic stainless steel at 10−3/s strain rate in the range of 700~1200 °C were studied by Gleeble thermal simulator, metallographic microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the thermoplasticity of 304 Cu-containing austenitic stainless steel was higher than 60% when the temperature was higher than 1000 °C, and the tensile strength as a whole decreased with the increase in temperature. During the tensile process, the morphology and content of ferrite in the test steel were the main factors affecting the high-temperature thermoplastic of the billet. The inclusions near the fracture and the existence of ferrite at the grain boundary greatly affected the formation of microcracks and holes and the fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
The Effect of Solidification Rate on the Corrosion Resistance of Die-Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031259 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
To increase the utilization of die-cast Mg alloys with various shapes in a variety of environments, the corrosion behaviors of commercial die-cast Mg alloys with different thicknesses were investigated in neutral and alkali solutions at ambient temperature. A decrease in the thickness of [...] Read more.
To increase the utilization of die-cast Mg alloys with various shapes in a variety of environments, the corrosion behaviors of commercial die-cast Mg alloys with different thicknesses were investigated in neutral and alkali solutions at ambient temperature. A decrease in the thickness of a specimen leads to an increase in cooling and solidification rates, which, in turn, decreases the size of the eutectic β phases and the interphase distance, thus improving the hardness of the specimen. Specimens with relatively large β phases were more corroded under neutral conditions due to severe galvanic corrosion at the interface between α-Mg and the β phases, whereas they were protected by passivation films formed on the substrate in the alkaline solution. However, in the case of the alloy with thin thickness and high solidification rate, the fine β phases improved corrosion resistance by forming a net structure that acted as a barrier to corrosion propagation of the α matrix. These results suggest that the size and distribution of the eutectic phases should be appropriately controlled, depending on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low- and Medium-Carbon Si-Rich Low-Alloy Steels Processed by Austemping after Intercritical Annealing
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031178 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the present paper, the designed thermomechanical process was applied to prepare ferrite/bainite multiphase microstructures in Si-rich low-alloy steel with a carbon content of 0.33 wt.% (0.33C) and 0.21 wt.% (0.21C). The microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and [...] Read more.
In the present paper, the designed thermomechanical process was applied to prepare ferrite/bainite multiphase microstructures in Si-rich low-alloy steel with a carbon content of 0.33 wt.% (0.33C) and 0.21 wt.% (0.21C). The microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and electron backscatter diffraction, and the mechanical properties (tensile and impact properties) were tested. The results showed that, on the premise of obtaining 15 vol.% ferrite in both steels, the ferrite grains in the 0.33C steel were polygonal with an average grain size of 2.2 μm, recrystallized more completely. However, the ferrite grains in the 0.21C steel were mainly long strip-shaped with a width of 2–4 μm, and the recrystallization degree was poor. In addition, upon increasing the austempering temperature, bainite ferrite laths were formed in the 0.33C steel, and the thickness was in the range of 81–123 nm. The morphology of bainite ferrite in the 0.21C steel gradually changed from lath to granular. Upon increasing the austempering temperature, the tensile strength and yield strength of both steels increased and the elongation decreased slightly. The impact energy of the two steels showed different trends upon increasing the austempering temperature, in which the impact energy of the 0.33C steel increased, while that of the 0.21C steel decreased. This is due to the difference size of the martensite-austenite constituents in the two steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of High-Purity Mesoporous Alumina with Excellent Adsorption Capacity for Congo Red
Materials 2022, 15(3), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030970 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
We explore a more concise process for the preparation of high-purity alumina and to address the problem of some conventional micro- and nano-adsorbents having difficulty in exposing their adsorption sites to target pollutants in solution due to the heavy aggregation of the adsorbent, [...] Read more.
We explore a more concise process for the preparation of high-purity alumina and to address the problem of some conventional micro- and nano-adsorbents having difficulty in exposing their adsorption sites to target pollutants in solution due to the heavy aggregation of the adsorbent, which confers poor adsorption properties. The methods of using gamma-phase high-purity mesoporous alumina (HPMA), with its excellent adsorption properties and high adsorption rates of Congo Red, and of using lower-cost industrial aluminum hydroxide by direct aging and ammonium salt substitution were successfully employed. The results showed that the purity of HPMA was as high as 99.9661% and the total removal rate of impurities was 98.87%, a consequence of achieving a large specific surface area of 312.43 m2 g−1, a pore volume of 0.55 cm3 g−1, and an average pore diameter of 3.8 nm. The adsorption process was carried out at 25 °C, the concentration of Congo Red (CR) dye was fixed at 250 mg L−1 and the amount of adsorbent used was 100 mg. The HPMA sample exhibited an extremely fast adsorption rate in the first 10 min, with adsorption amounts up to 476.34 mg g−1 and adsorption efficiencies of 96.27%. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in about 60 min, at which time the adsorbed amount was 492.19 mg g−1 and the dye removal rate was as high as 98.44%. One-hundred milligrams of adsorbent were weighed and dispersed in 200-mL CR solutions with mass concentrations ranging from 50–1750 mg L−1 to study the adsorption isotherms. This revealed that the saturation adsorption capacity of the produced HPMA was 1984.64 mg g−1. Furthermore, the process of adsorbing Congo Red in the synthesized product was consistent with a pseudo-second order model and the Langmiur model. It is expected that this method of producing HPMA will provide a productive, easy and efficient means of treating toxic dyes in industrial wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Effect of Intermetallics and Drill Materials on the Machinability of Al-Si Cast Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(3), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030916 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The present study was conducted on the machinability of 396 alloy (containing approximately 11% Si) and B319.2 alloy mainly to emphasize the effects of Fe-intermetallics, i.e., α-Fe, β-Fe, and sludge. The results demonstrate that the presence of sludge in the form [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted on the machinability of 396 alloy (containing approximately 11% Si) and B319.2 alloy mainly to emphasize the effects of Fe-intermetallics, i.e., α-Fe, β-Fe, and sludge. The results demonstrate that the presence of sludge in the form of hard spots has a significant effect on cutting forces and tool life, in that it decreases drill life by 50% compared to the base alloy. The formation of the α-Fe phase in the M1 base alloy has a beneficial effect on tool life in that this alloy produces the highest number of holes drilled compared to alloys containing sludge or β-Fe; this result may be explained by the fact that the formation of the α-Fe intermetallic, with its rounded Chinese script morphology and its presence within α-Al dendrites, is expected to improve matrix homogeneity via hardening of the soft α-Al dendrites. Increasing the Fe-content from 0.5% to 1% in the 396-T6 alloy containing 0.5% Mn produces a distinct improvement in alloy machinability in terms of cutting force and tool life. The addition of Fe and/or Mn appears to have no discernible effect on the build-up edge area (BUE) and chip shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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