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Article

Spent Mushroom Substrate and Electric Arc Furnace Dust Recycling by Carbothermic Reduction Method

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
Department of Forestry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3
China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Filippo Berto, Abílio M.P. De Jesus and José A.F.O. Correia
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072639
Received: 7 March 2022 / Revised: 28 March 2022 / Accepted: 1 April 2022 / Published: 3 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
With recent increases in environmental awareness, the circular economy concept, which involves turning waste into usable products, has gradually become widely accepted. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an agricultural waste that lacks recycling channels in Taiwan. This study explored the feasibility of simultaneously recycling two completely different types of waste: spent mushroom substrate (SMS), an agricultural waste, and electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD), an industrial waste. Specifically, SMS was used to replace metallurgical coke as a reducing agent for EAFD, which underwent carbothermic reduction to recycle valuable metallic Zn. The results showed that if SMS and EAFD were mixed at a C/O ratio of 0.8, the degree of Zn removal achieved 95% at 1100 °C, which is 150 °C lower than the reduction temperature of the EAFD-coke mixture (due to volatile matter (VM) in SMS). For the reduction of ZnO in EAFD, with the assistance of VM in SMS, the C/O ratio can be decreased from 0.8 to 0.16 at 1300 °C, achieving a high degree of Zn removal over 95%. In addition, the torrefaction of SMS increased the fixed carbon content and improved the Zn productivity at the same C/O ratio, reaching almost the same productivity as the coke sample (SMS torrefaction = 500 °C, C/O = 0.8, reduction = 1200 °C, Zn removal~99%). Finally, CO2 emission reductions from the use of SMS were also estimated. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural waste; spent mushroom substrate; electric-arc furnace dust; carbothermic reduction; carbon neutralization; circular economy agricultural waste; spent mushroom substrate; electric-arc furnace dust; carbothermic reduction; carbon neutralization; circular economy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, H.-H.; Chen, I.-G.; Yu, H.-Y.; Tsai, M.-Y.; Wu, K.-T.; Liu, S.-H. Spent Mushroom Substrate and Electric Arc Furnace Dust Recycling by Carbothermic Reduction Method. Materials 2022, 15, 2639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072639

AMA Style

Chang H-H, Chen I-G, Yu H-Y, Tsai M-Y, Wu K-T, Liu S-H. Spent Mushroom Substrate and Electric Arc Furnace Dust Recycling by Carbothermic Reduction Method. Materials. 2022; 15(7):2639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072639

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Hao-Hsun, In-Gann Chen, Hao-Yun Yu, Meng-Yu Tsai, Keng-Tung Wu, and Shih-Hsien Liu. 2022. "Spent Mushroom Substrate and Electric Arc Furnace Dust Recycling by Carbothermic Reduction Method" Materials 15, no. 7: 2639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072639

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