Energies Events Announce Your Event Here
27–30 May 2019 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (EUBCE 2019)
The European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (EUBCE) takes place at different venues in Europe since 1980. As one of the world's leading R&D conference, combined with a technology exhibition, it serves as the international meeting point for Biomass experts from research, development and from industry, with presentations dedicated to Biomass, addressing the latest technologies, the policy framework and the medium and long-term strategies and potentials. EUBCE is the interface between science, industry and policy makers.
The EUBCE is supported by European and international organizations such as the European Commission, UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Natural Sciences Sector, WCRE - the World Council for Renewable Energy, EUBIA - the European Biomass Industry Association and other organizations.
The 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, that will be held in Lisbon, Portugal, in May 2019, is one of the world’s leading R&D conferences combined with an international exhibition. The EUBCE represents the leading platform for the collection, exchange and dissemination of scientific know-how in the field of biomass.
The Conference Programme will address topics from biomass itself to bioliquids and biofuels for heat and electricity, transport and biobased products, covering all aspects of each value chain, from supply and logistics to conversion technologies, from industrial application of research results to impacts on the environment, from market and trade aspects to policy strategies, not least to the role of biomass as a source in integrated energy systems.
9–12 April 2019 2nd International Colloquium on Smart Grid Metrology (SmaGriMet 2019)
The 2nd International Colloquium on Smart Grid Metrology (SmaGriMet 2019) will be held in Split, Croatia, April 9-12, 2019. The colloquium focuses on metrology infrastructure for effective development and deployment of smart grids as well as the accompanying applications and relevant topics.
Following previous experience, it is our pleasure to invite international experts in precise metrology infrastructure for effective development and deployment of smart grids, as well as in broad range of its accompanying applications in ubiquitous wireless and optical sensors, smart cities and vehicles, signal processing, machine learning, energy management and beyond.
The colloquium will provide an environment for exchanging university and industrial knowledge and ideas in the form of oral and poster sessions, invited speaker presentations, special sessions, industrial workshops and exhibitions.
14–17 April 2019 The 9th European Combustion Meeting (ECM 2019)
24–26 April 2019 International Conference on Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy forms one of the pillars for delivering global sustainable environment and the commitment to climate change targets. The renewable energy industry has matured, with huge investments being ploughed into it globally. Global new investment in renewable energy (excluding large hydro-electric projects) was around US$241.6 billion in 2016, with over 138.5GW of added renewable power capacity worldwide. This capacity is equivalent to 55% of all the generating capacity and was approximately double that in fossil fuel generation in 2016. International Conference on Renewable Energy series addresses research and development in renewable energy technologies including energy efficiency. It is an annual meeting planned to be held in a different countries, initially within Europe, with Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America being highlighted as target regions for the conference.
The next in the series of the International Conference on Renewable Energy is the ICREN2019 focusing on international participation including experienced and young researchers with interest in renewable energy studies. The conference will be held at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France providing an unsurpassed venue to nurture debate in this globally important area.
ICREN2019 will include articles and presentation on the latest research on renewable energy technologies, grid interactions, energy efficiency, data analytics, economics and finance, environmental and social impact as well as policy and climate change implications.
8–10 May 2019 Biosystems Engineering 2019
In Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
24–27 June 2019 6th International Conference Energy & Meteorology
26–28 June 2019 1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf) and the 2nd European Symposium on Nanofluids (ESNf)
The 1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf), coupled with the 2nd European Symposium on Nanofluids (ESNf), will be held on 26–28 June 2019 in Castellon, Spain. This scientific event is organized under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action—NANOUPTAKE (CA15119, http://www.nanouptake.eu). This conference provides platforms for global collaboration and the exchange of knowledge between researchers and engineers working on nanofluids and related areas, as well as applications in energy, and it will give an overview of the current research findings, developments, and achievements in this field.
Details of these conferences are provided on the conference website
10–12 July 2019 The International Conference on Energy and Cities (ICEC)
The International Conference on Energy and Cities (ICEC) is the second in series of academic forums promoted by the International Low Carbon City, Neighbourhood, Building Academic Alliance (IAA-LCCNB). The Conference addresses energy and cities with special emphasis on renewable energy and energy efficiency to propel cities towards low carbon pathways. The Conference covers energy within the city and beyond its boundaries, encompassing technical and policy solutions needed to achieve energy efficiency, reduced consumption and provide thermal comfort to citizens.
Recognising the broad range of challenges in energy for cities, ICEC provides a platform where those at the forefront of scientific / technology development in relevant sectors could meet, interact, present their latest knowledge and debate new ideas and issues pertinent to energy and urban development. It thus provides attendees with a perfect forum for knowledge transfer, debate and networking at the cutting edge of renewable energy technology, public policy development, energy management, energy efficiency and improvement of social wellbeing.
19–22 August 2019 2019 3rd International Conference on Materials and Intelligent Manufacturing (ICMIM 2019)
Inha University, Incheon, South Korea
19–22 August 2019 2019 2nd International Conference on Nano Science&Technology (ICNST 2019)
Inha University, Incheon, South Korea
3–6 September 2019 54th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2019)
The International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC) is a well-established conference. Is started in 1966, and ever since it was hosted in different venues in Europe. It is very popular with young researchers, PhD students and engineers from the electrical power industry. The aim of the conference is to allow participants to exchange experiences and discuss the most up-to-date topics in power engineering.
The global challenges for the energy sector, the advent of new technologies and the need for electrical networks overhauling, combined with the expansion of electric power systems and environmental constraints are ever-present themes for mature reflection and advanced research. UPEC is an ideal platform to address some of these issues, and to provide networking and meeting ground for young engineers, respected academic professionals and innovators in these areas.
The 54th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC2019) will be held at University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania, 3rd–6th of September, 2019.
3–6 September 2019 XII International Conference on Computational Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer (ICCHMT 2019)
Rome represents an excellent opportunity to bring together members of the international heat and Mass transfer community in a unique location that offers historical and artistic attractions, a wide array of accommodation and transportation options, and meeting facilities of the highest level. Outstanding institutions and scientific associations have already endorsed ICCHMT 2019.
We definitely believe that the conference will have the greatest resonance in the technical and scientific communities all over the World. We look forward to having you on board.
4–7 September 2019 16th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology
Island of Rhodes, Greece
CEST biennial series has become one of the worldwide leading environmental events gathering experts, scientists, entrepreneurs as well as representatives of public administration and social initiatives presenting state-of-the-art research and addressing emerging environmental issues. A selection of topics for which the Scientific and Programme Committee is particularly seeking contributions can be found https://cest2019.gnest.org/thematic-areas-and-topics.
The previous event, CEST2017, was the most successful event since the series was initially launched in 1989, with 460 participants from 75 countries originating from 6 continents (Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Australia). The programme included 415 oral and 253 poster presentations from 25 unique research areas. Participants also benefited from the interaction with 15 distinguished scientists that were invited and delivered keynote and plenary talks. CEST2019, coincides with the celebration of the 30 years anniversary (1989-2019) of CEST series and we are aiming to make it a memorable event.
All the papers that are selected for either oral or poster presentation undergo a review process. As a result of the improving quality of the papers in previous conferences, their proceedings have been included in databases, such as Science Citation Index (ISI) and SRCosmos. Since 2015, the papers that are presented in CEST, are submitted to cooperating journals for review and publication in special issues.
The conference is organized by the University of the Aegean (Greece) together with the South Aegean Region and is supported by the University of Salerno (Italy) and the Imperial College London (UK). The main organizer is the multi-disciplinary Global NEST (Network of Environmental Science and Technology); an international scientific movement that has been successfully developing for the last 29 years with members from more than 60 countries. Global NEST is an international scientific movement focusing on innovative environmental issues.
During CEST2019 you will have the opportunity to:
- present and discuss your research with scientists from around the world
- expand your network
- attend presentations covering all the latest trends and innovations in the field of environmental science and technology
- meet with our prestigious invited speakers (to be announced)
- enjoy the island of Rhodes, one of the most famous Greek touristic attractions!
More info as well as registration and submission of paper are available at http://cest.gnest.org. The abstract submission deadline is the 12th December 2018.
Contact – Conference Secretariat CEST2019
Tel. 0030-210-6492451- 452, FAX: 0030-210-6492499
5–7 September 2019 X IAQVEC 2019: 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in Buildings
IAQVEC is a premier international conference series, held once every three years, and host in different countries every time. The conference covers a wide range of key research areas with the goal of simultaneously improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and energy efficiency enhancing well-being and sustainability.
For the X edition of IAQVEC in 2019, we are glad to invite you to South of Italy, where you will be immersed in fantastic landscape, outstanding food, during the several events that will surround the X edition of IAQVEC.
29 September–3 October 2019 The 9th IEEE International Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies
The 9th IEEE International Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies “IEEE ISGT Europe 2019”, organized by will be University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest under the auspice of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Power&Energy Society (IEEE PES) will be held on 29 September – 3 October, 2019. The theme of ISGT Europe 2019 is “New Businesses for Energy Transition”.
The aim of the Conference is to provide an international forum for experts to promote, share, and discuss innovations and developments in the field of smart grid technologies and applications.
ISGT Europe 2019 will feature keynotes, plenary sessions, panels, industry exhibits, paper and poster presentations, and also tutorials by worldwide experts on smart grid and related technologies.
Further information are available at: http://sites.ieee.org/isgt-europe-2019/
30 September–4 October 2019 17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium
Forte Village Resort, Santa Margherita di Pula (Cagliari) Italy
After celebrating our 30-year anniversary in 2017, the next edition of the Sardinia Symposium to be held in 2019 is looking better than ever with a success that makes the Sardinia Symposia the most important solid waste management conference in the world.
The seventeenth edition will take place at Forte Village Resort, Santa Margherita di Pula (Cagliari) Italy, from September 30th to October 4th, 2019, with an expected attendance of 800+ delegates.
In line with tradition, the conference will include parallel oral sessions, specialised workshops, discussion forums and roundtables, a continuously accessible poster area and a wide exhibition space for companies working in the field of Waste Management.
Call for Abstracts
Abstracts must be submitted no later than February 15th, 2019 following the detailed instructions on:
Abstracts must clearly describe the content of presentations and their basis (detailed case study, discussion of experience from practice, preliminary research data, completed research not presented previously, review of literature, administrative initiatives and regulations, etc) and may be submitted for oral or poster presentation. Proposal for workshops are also welcome.
- Waste policy and legislation
- Waste management strategies
- Public concern and education
- Waste Management assessment and decision tools
- Waste characterization
- Waste collection
- Waste minimi-sation and recycling
- Biological treatment
- Thermal treatment
- Mechanical biological treatment prior to landfilling
- Sanitary landfilling
- Integrated wastewater and solid waste management
- Waste management and climate change
- Waste management in developing and low income countries
- Special sessions
- New topics: Waste Architecture
- Environmental Forensics
- Waste & Health
16–18 October 2019 3rd International Conference on the Sustainable Energy and Environmental (SEED2019)
The conference covers a broad range of energy and environmental protection related topics. It throws light on recent research in the field of non-renewable and renewable energy sources and technologies, sustainable energy development, green energy and economy, environmental protection in energy managements systems, power to gas and power to liquid technologies, alternative fuels and many more.
Further information about the Conference is available at www.seedconference.org
21–22 November 2019 The 15th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2019)
The 15th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2019) will be held Thursday to Friday, 21–22 November 2019 at the School of Engineering and Architecture of the Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy, with the technical co-sponsorship of IFAC. The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is a scientific event periodically organized by research groups active in the areas of advanced control systems and fault diagnosis. The first edition of the workshop took place in Duisburg, Germany, in November 2003. Since then, it has been organized annually and hosted at various Universities in France, Germany, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary, Denmark, the Czech Republic, and Romania. The aim is to gather academics and professionals from diverse fields of control systems and automation and offer them a forum to discuss current research developments and open problems, illustrate practical applications, and articulate industry needs and priorities. In accordance with the ACD tradition, all major areas of advanced control and diagnosis will be covered in this edition, which, as a novelty with respect to the previous ones, will also include topics related to cyber-physical production systems, industrial Internet of Things, systems and control for sustainability, and structural methods for complex systems. As to the venue, the city of Bologna, with its rich history, the oldest university in the Western world, its beautiful Medieval downtown, excellent food, lively streets, and gorgeous surroundings, is the perfect setting not only for a profitable scientific event but also for a very pleasant stay.
For further details, please, visit the workshop website.
14–15 March 2019 The International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’19)
St Cross College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Energy resource consumption has doubled since the beginning of the century due in part to development in industrial and telecommunication sectors. In response to this rising demand on energy resources, new efficient infrastructures for production, storage, transport and use of energy are necessary. The International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’19) aims to investigate innovation applications and up to date research in the areas of energy production, alternative and renewable energy supply, energy savings analysis, optimization of energy processes and the environmental impacts of energy production.
It will be our pleasure to welcome you at the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’19), which will be held from 14–15 March, 2019, in St Cross College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. The IAPE conference will provide a forum for both researchers and industries to present and share their latest findings in all aspects of applied energy. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the intersections and the interplay of the various approaches and solutions that can be applied across this domain.
12–15 November 2018 The 11th Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MEDPOWER 2018)
DUBROVNIK (CAVTAT), CROATIA
The 2018 Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion will be the 11th international conference of the established MEDPOWER platform that brings together the academia and industry experts in the power & energy sector.
MEDPOWER2018 will provide a platform for professional power engineers, technicians, researchers, scholars, computer scientists and other industry specialists to discuss state-of-the-art developments in the academia and industry as well as providing opportunities for networking and collaboration through series of presentations, talks, discussions and special sessions.
4–7 November 2018 The 6th Asian Conference on Innovative Energy and Environmental Chemical Engineering (ASCON-IEEChE)
Fleur de Chine, Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan
29–31 October 2018 2018 International Conference on Renewable Energy and Environment Engineering (REEE 2018)
21–25 October 2018 ACSIN-14 & ICSPM26
We will attend the joint conference, 14th International Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures (ACSIN-14)/26th International colloquium on Scanning Probe Microscopy (ICSPM26), which will be held at Sendai International Center in Japan from October 21 to 25, 2018.
The first International Symposium on Atomically Controlled Surfaces and Interfaces was held in Tokyo, from November 19th to 22nd, 1991 by Thin Film and Surface Physics Division in The Japan Society of Applied Physics in commemoration of its 20th anniversary. Bearing in mind the developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology, the word "Nanostructures" has been added to the name of the conference since the fifth International Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures (ACSIN-5) was held in Aix-en Provence in 1999. The host country of ACSIN has been determined based on a policy of continental rotation among Asia, Europe and America every two years. Following the successful series of ACSIN conferences in Tokyo (ACSIN-9, 2007), Granada (ACSIN-10, 2009), Saint Petersburg (ACSIN-11, 2011), Tsukuba (ACSIN-12, 2013), and Rome (ACSIN-13, 2016), ACSIN-14 will be held in Sendai, Japan this time.
ICSPM, International Colloquium on Scanning Probe Microscopy has been held under the sponsorship of The Japan Society of Applied Physics, and was originally a series of the domestic conferences on SPM organized in 1985 first to stimulate the SPM related science and technology which were growing in Japan. In 1993, the conference was reorganized as an international colloquium and has been held annually.
In 2000, ICSPM8 and Asian SPM 3 were held in conjunction to make a progressive development of this field. The Asian SPM is the conference organized to encourage interactions and exchange of participants from Asian and Pacific rim countries. In 2002, in order to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the colloquium, the ICSPM10 was successfully held in Hawaii. In 2005, ICSPM13 was held in conjunction with STM05 in Sapporo with more than 750 participants from 39 countries. In 2012, the 20th colloquium, ICSPM20 was held in Okinawa. In 2016, ICSPM24 was held in Hawaii, which was the 30th commemorable colloquium counting from the early domestic conferences.
Representatives of the following open access journals will attend:
If you are also attending this conference, please feel free to stop by our booth. Our delegates look forward to meeting you in person to answer any questions you may have. For more information about the conference, please visit:
15–18 October 2018 VENICE 2018 – 7th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste
The aim of the Venice 2018 Symposium is to focus on the advances made in the application of technologies for energy recovery from biomass and waste and to encourage discussion in these fields. The previous edition of the Symposium, held in 2016, was attended by over 500 scientists and operators from approximately 57 different countries.
The seventh edition of the Symposium will feature:
• Three days of scientific presentations
• One day of guided technical tours at biochemical and thermochemical plants
• Six parallel oral sessions, poster sessions and an exhibition by companies working in the field
• Expected attendance of over 600 delegates from tens of different countries worldwide
The conference will be held in the eminent meeting centre of the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista, internationally renowned as one of the most relevant congress venue in Venice. Advantageous conditions will be offered to companies wishing to display their practical experience and innovative technologies. Meeting opportunities will also be created to foster cooperation between those involved in industrial production and material recycling.
The Symposium is organized by the International Waste Working Group (IWWG) and Ordine degli Ingegneri della Provincia di Venezia, with the scientific support of the Universities of Padova, Hokkaido, Queensland, Rostock, Trento, Tsinghua and Hamburg University of Technology.
For more information about the conference, please visit:
23–26 September 2018 International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis
Curtin University, Western Australia
19–21 September 2018 2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering (CPESE 2018)
Nagoya University, Japan
Brief Intro: 2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering (CPESE 2018). The conference will be held in Nagoya University, Japan during September 19-21, 2018. CPESE is the premier Power and Energy Systems Engineering conference, providing a forum for researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, experiences and concerns in the field of Power and Energy Systems Engineering. CPESE2018 is technically sponsored by Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability (IMaSS), Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
Plan now to be part of this exceptional conference, as an attendee, event sponsor, or exhibitor. CPESE 2018 is where you will meet and network with energy leaders, business innovators, researchers, academics and policy makers from across the globe.
18–21 September 2018 The 5th International Conference Contemporary Problems of Thermal Engineering (CPOTE 2018)
10–13 September 2018 2018 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE 2018)
4–7 September 2018 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC2018)
Glasgow, Scotland, UK
The 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC2018) will be held at Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, UK, 4th–7th September, 2018.
UPEC is a long-established conference, which is very popular with young researchers, PhD students and engineers from the electrical power industry. The aim of the conference is to allow participants to exchange experiences and discuss the most up-to-date topics in power engineering.
The global energy challenges, the ageing of electrical networks in industrial countries, and the extension of the grid system in developing countries require significant research input in the area. UPEC is an ideal forum to address some of these issues, and to network and meet with talented engineers and innovators in these areas.
29 July–1 August 2018 2018 EU–China Symposiums on Renewable Energy/Sustainable Energy and Energy Storage Technologies
8–13 July 2018 The 5th International Workshop on Computational Energy Management in Smart Grids (CEMiSG 2018)
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1–5 July 2018 Process Systems Engineering, PSE 2018
Manchester Grand Hyatt, San Diego, CA, USA
MDPI will be attending the PSE2018 conference. PSE2018 is part of a series of conferences on Process Systems Engineering held every three years, rotating between Asia, Europe, and North and South America. The high quality scientific program will cover advances in core PSE topics and cross-cutting themes. The role, contributions, and future directions of PSE research addressing challenges in energy, water, manufacturing, sustainable environment, and health will be highlighted.
The following MDPI open access journals will be represented at this event:
25–27 June 2018 ESDEIC: The Economy, Sustainable Development and Energy International Conference
18–20 June 2018 EGTEIC: The Environment, Green Technology and Engineering International Conference
17–22 June 2018 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy
The Organizing Committee would like to welcome you to ECOS 2018 conference.
22–24 May 2018 The 5th International Conference Energy & Meteorology (ICEM 2018)
The 5th International Conference Energy & Meteorology (ICEM) will focus on creating effective approaches for improved weather, climate and water services for energy. An exciting line-up of Chinese and international industry speakers will lead the conference’s keynote presentations, complemented by an exceptional program of parallel sessions and poster presentations!
Targeted workshops, panel discussions and networking events will enable interaction with the conference’s global audience of energy specialists, water experts, economists, scientists, and policymakers working at the thriving nexus of energy and meteorology. Join us in Shanghai for this unique event!
14–18 May 2018 26th EUROPEAN BIOMASS CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION
As the leading platform for the collection, exchange and dissemination of scientific and industrial know-how in the field of biomass, the EUBCE combines one of the largest biomass science and technology conferences with a high quality industry exhibition, attracting biomass professionals from around the globe.
Our booth number is booth #H3 and we are looking forward to meeting you at 26th EUROPEAN BIOMASS CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION in Copenhagen, Denmark.
9–11 May 2018 BSE 2017: 9th International Conference on Biosystmes Engineering
Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
The Biosystems Engineering (BSE) aims to become the leading annual conference in Baltic region in fields related to traditional and modern engineering techniques and technical solutions applied to biological systems. The goal of BSE 2018 is to gather scholars from all over the world to present advances in the fields of biosystems engineering and to foster an environment conducive to exchanging ideas and information. This conference will also provide an ideal environment to develop new collaborations and meet experts on the fundamentals, applications, and products of the mentioned fields.
Among the more prominent topics of the conference are energy and fuels from renewable sources, bioenergy, waste to energy etc.
25–27 April 2018 International Conference on Renewable Energy (ICREN 2018)
6–8 April 2018 The 2nd International Conference on Energy Economics and Energy Policy (ICEEEP 2018)
6–8 April 2018 The 3rd International Conference on Advances on Clean Energy Research (ICACER 2018)
20–22 November 2017 The Second International Conference on Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection (EEEP 2017)
5–8 November 2017 The International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA) 2017
San Diago, CA, USA
4–8 October 2017 The 12th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES2017)
SDEWES2017 Conference is dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars.
16–17 September 2017 EEE2017 - Third International Conference on Environment, Engineering and Energy 2017
Chestnut Conference Centre, University of Toronto, Canada
21–23 August 2017 ICCE 2017: 6th International Conference & Exhibition on Clean Energy
ICCE2017 takes place in Toronto, Canada. ICCE 2017 is an opportunity to network with some of the world’s leading scientists, and visit one of the greatest Canadian city. The conference will cover major themes such as the fundamental knowledge about the clean energy processes, materials and production, state of matter, advanced energy generation and the impact of clean energy on environment. This is an excellent opportunity for the delegates from universities and industries to interact with the their colleagues.
14–17 August 2017 2017 the 5th IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering
26–28 July 2017 International Research Conference on Sustainable Energy, Engineering, Materials and Environment (SEEME)
Newcastle upon Tyne
21–23 July 2017 2017 International Conference on New Energy Vehicle and Vehicle Engineering
17–20 July 2017 2017 The 4th International Conference On Energy and Environment Research
27–30 June 2017 The 10th International Conference on Sustainable Energy & Environmental Protection
12–14 June 2017 The 2017 6th International Conference on Petroleum Industry and Energy
5–8 June 2017 The 4th International Workshop on Computational Energy Management in Smart Grids
San Sebastian, Spain
20–22 May 2017 2017 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power
7–9 April 2017 2017 2nd International Conference on Advances on Clean Energy Research
27–28 January 2017 Cape Town, South Africa
Cape Town, South Africa
An international scientific conference of the journal Sustainability under the patronage of the University of Basel, University of the Western Cape, University of Cape Town and the National Research Foundation of the Republic of South Africa.
18–21 January 2017 6th International Conference on Biorefinery (ICB2017)
The Chateau on the Park, Christchurch, New Zealand
Topics to be covered include bioenergy, bio-based materials and chemicals, integration and integrated assessment of biorefinery technologies and processes.
19–22 August 2016 2016 International Conference on New Energy and Future Energy System
88 Dengshikou, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China
19–23 June 2016 The 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS) 2016
15–17 June 2016 Fiery Ice 2016: the 10th International Workshop on Methane Hydrate Research and Development
Hawaii Imin International Conference Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
4–6 July 2015 Second Energy Future Conference
Following the success of Energy Future (EF) 2014, the second EF conference will take place in Sydney, Australia on the 4-6 July 2016 at the University of New South Wales, Sydney. EF conferences provide a unique platform to generate and foster nexus between the scientific world, policy makers, investors, industry and the community.
This second conference will focus on Energy storage – from generation to distribution, and cover international advances alongside an impressive exhibition showcasing advanced energy technologies across the energy sector.The first day of the conference is a great opportunity for delegates to get the latest up to date information on where future energy opportunities and solution are. Through plenary talks from influential speakers and forum discussions delegates will find out what is new, what is happening and will have plenty of opportunities to network with peers and colleagues. In depth description of the latest technologies and scientific advances will be addressed during the following two days.
30 June–3 July 2015 ECOS-2015: 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy System
Starting with precise education in thermodynamics and its application to all forms of energy conversion, exergy, thermoeconomics, energy harvesting and bringing to life new energy systems have been the primary reason this conference has been going on for 28 years in all parts of the world but primarily in Europe.
The initial intent was to bring together the European scholars with those from other lands, particularly North America. For twenty seven years, this has been accomplished and a healthy conference has been held every year.
Participation in ECOS will expand one's horizon not only in the technical areas that are covered but also to interact and network with colleagues throughout the world and start and continue professional and personal friendships.
Previous conferences, were very successful and scientist and companies from many countries gathered to exchange information and research results. The objective of this Conference is to bring together engineers, scientists and managers working in mining industry, research organizations and government organizations, on development and application of best practice in mining industry in the respect of environment protection.
The attendance of representatives from almost all Serbian mines is expected, as well as, a significant participation of professionals from mines, institutes and universities from Europe, Russia, Asia, Canada and America.
The framework of the Conference offers wide possibilities for program presentations: advertising in the Conference Proceedings, exhibitions in premises available at the Conference, presentations displayed on illustration boards or videotapes, oral presentation etc.
- Basic and applied thermodynamics
- Heat and mass transfer, fluid dynamics
- Exergy analysis and Second Law analysis
- Process integration, simulation and optimization of energy systems
- Refrigeration and air conditioning; Heat pumps
- Fuel cells
- Biomass / biofuels; bio-refinery concepts; waste-to-energy
- Non-biomass renewable energy: solar, wind, others
- Engines, furnaces and boilers, combustion/gasification
- Chemical reactions and reaction engineering
- Advanced fossil energy: clean coal, oil, natural gas
- Nuclear power
- Carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage
- Energy and water interactions, use of water resources
- Energy systems: social, environmental and sustainability issues
- Building, urban and distributed energy systems
- Industrial production, sustainability and use of resources; Transport
- System operation, control, diagnostics and prognosis
- Thermo-economic analysis and optimization
- Energy policy and planning
- Life Cycle Assessment, industrial ecology, environmental impact of energy systems
- Electricity from waste heat
14–31 March 2014 1st International e-Conference on Energies
The 1st International e-Conference on Energies will be held at
http://sciforum.net/conference/ece-1/call , a platform developed
by MDPI to organize electronic conferences for scholars.
Join this special event and submit your research paper!
4–8 February 2013 2013 Advanced Automotive Battery Conference
Pasadena Convention Center, California, USA
13–15 November 2012 11th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants
The 11th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants will be held in Lisbon, Portugal from November 13 - 15, 2012.
The Wind Integration Workshop is to be held in a line with the 2nd International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems as well as with corresponding Wind and Solar Tutorials.
21–23 October 2012 The World Resources Forum (WRF) 2012
The World Resources Forum (WRF) conference is the flagship activity of the World Resources Forum Secretariat. It is a bi-annual global conference, to be held in Davos, Switzerland, with regional events in the years between.
The WRF conference is hereby an independent, international expert platform to discuss the economic and political implications of the current resource use trends, and to promote and facilitate innovation for resource productivity by building bridges between scientists, researchers and consultants (supply side) and policymakers, business, NGO’s, media and the public (demand side).
The WRF aims to bring the issues of global resource consumption and resource productivity, of which climate change is an important aspect, higher on the agenda of policymakers and business. Scarcity and security of supply and price risks of certain resources, pollution and energy use over the lifecycle of certain resources, and social impacts, in particular in developing countries, are aspects which the WRF includes in its work.
WRF 2012 will be held at China National Convention Center (Beijing) on October 21-23, 2012. Main theme of this forum is Resources and Green Economy.
The WRF 2012 provide a platform to exchange knowledge about scientific, technological, economic, political and environmental implications. It aims to promote innovation for resource productivity and utilization by building bridges among researchers, policymakers, business, NGO’s and the general public. The WRF 2012 is the first WRF conference held outside Switzerland event. We invite you to participate in the exciting event.
18–22 June 2012 20th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition
The international science and technology Conference of the 20th EU BC&E is the leading Conference in the field of Biomass, comprising more than 800 presentations in plenary, oral and visual sessions. The 20th EU BC&E attracts policy and industry decision makers through several parallel events, addressing special topics which are currently in the focus of discussion.
17–22 June 2012 IMLB 2012: 16th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries
Jeju, South Korea
The IMLB has been held biannually since 1982 as a scientific meeting in the field of lithium batteries for energy storage and conversion. As the most highly acclaimed meeting in this field, the IMLB 2012 is expected to make a large number of scientists and engineers get together from around the world.
The IMLB 2012 will be an excellent learning experience for all participants. Under the theme “New Era for Smart Energy Storage,” a wide range of scientific programs and stimulating social activities will be organized. In addition, renowned experts will address the pertinent issues and technological advances in the broad areas of lithium batteries throughout the meeting. Furthermore, participants will have a great networking opportunity through extensive discussions and informative exchange.
29–30 May 2012 CIRED Workshop 2012
CIRED, the Leading Forum where the Electricity Distribution Community meets, holds the major International Electricity Conference & Exhibition every two years in different venues in Europe with a worldwide perspective and participation.
CIRED works for the purpose of increasing the business relevant competencies, skills and knowledge of those who see themselves as a part of the electricity distribution community, whether they are from the utility, product, consultancy, service, business or Academic sector.
9–11 May 2012 e-Energy: 3rd International Conference on Future Energy Systems
Due to the increasing significance of power consumption in computing and networking, the goal of e-Energy is to bring together researchers, developers and practitioners working in this area to discuss recent and innovative results, as well as identify future directions and challenges.
The conference addresses the varied fields of servers and communication infrastructures, services in data centers, end-systems in home and office environments, broadband access networks, sensor networks, cloud computing, smart grids and future networks such as The Internet of Things.
19–21 September 2011 World Resources Forum (WRF) 2011
The World Resources Forum (WRF) is an independent, international platform to discuss the economic and political implications of the current resource use trends, advocating innovation for resource productivity.
4–7 July 2011 The 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems
Novi Sad, Serbia
Central theme: International and regional cooperation for sustainable development of energy systems: Needs, methodologies, technologies, accomplishments, plans, and potential. An important area of emphasis would be the rapidly developing region of South-Eastern Europe. Every effort would be made to encourage scientific, business, and personal connections between the South-East European energy community and its overall international complement.
14–16 February 2011 International Conference on Energy Systems and Technologies (ICEST 2011)
Energy is fundamental to the quality of life on the earth. It is a key ingredient in all sectors of modern economies. We are totally dependent on an abundant and uninterrupted supply of energy for living and working. Meeting the growing demand for energy sustainably is one of the major challenges of the twenty-first century. By 2050, the world’s population is set to increase from 6.6 billion currently to more than nine billion. Energy use during this period is set to double. Consumption of energy resources by humans adds substantially to CO2 emissions that contribute to climate change. Urgently arresting climate change is in the interests of all nations. Transition to a low carbon economy is therefore a global aim that envelops every single nation. That is why an international forum for the exchange of ideas and experience amongst experts from a broad range of disciplines on the technology, policy and economic frame work is essential. Such a forum will lead to better understanding of energy issues on local, regional and global scales. ICEST offers the opportunity for scientists, professionals, policymakers and other parties to review recent developments in this rapidly changing discipline. The aim is to create a global sustainable energy infrastructure.
The International Conference on Nuclear Energy Science and Technology aims to bring together academic scientists, leading engineers, industry researchers and scholar students to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.
22–23 November 2010 International Conference on Green Energy
Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Energy has emerged as a major challenge for the world. The fact that energy is the most pervasive factor in global sustainability is no longer debatable. There is growing concern not only over whether the world will have sufficient energy to power life, but also over the impact of the many sources of energy on life itself.
25–30 September 2010 World Renewable Energy Congress XI and Exhibition 2010
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
With the accelerated approach of the global climate-change point-of-no-return the need to address the pivotal role of renewable energy in the formation of coping strategies, rather than prevention, is more crucial than ever. Sustainability, green buildings, and the development of the large-scale renewable energy industry must be at the top of all development, economic, financial and political agendas. The time for action has arrived. Prevention and questioning how and why we face this great challenge is a luxury we can no longer indulge. We welcome the establishment of the long overdue International Renewable Energy Agency which we hope will work side-by-side with similar intergovernmental agencies striving for the adoption of renewable energies.
15–17 September 2010 10th International Conference on Clean Energy (ICCE 2010)
Famagusta, North Cyprus
Conference will provide a platform for the presentation of solutions to the two important global problems facing the humankind: (a) Depletion of Fossil Fuels, and (b) Environmental problems caused by the utilization of fossil fuels, such as the global warming, ozone layer depletion, acid rains, pollution, oxygen depletion, oil spills, etc.
Consequently, it will cover hydrogen economy, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy, clean hydrocarbon technologies, as well as energy conservation, energy storage and distribution, intelligent electrical grids, clean energy utilization, environmental impact, remediation of environmental problems, risk analysis and economics.
15–17 September 2010 Implementation in Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research, Practice and Teaching
In a knowledge society, research questions, processes and results cannot be disconnected from everyday practices. Politicians, funding bodies and society at large increasingly demand of researchers to propose efficient ways of how to use abstract findings in concrete situations and as a common good. From the very start, implementation strategies should therefore include processes of embedding the research in its social and scientific contexts, recursiveness and negotiation with non-academic actors, and testing the expected impact through ‘real-world’ experiments. How exactly to bring research results to fruition, integrate theory and practice and build truly participative collaborations are key issues of inter- and transdisciplinarity. Keynotes includes experts in the fields of public health, new media, urban planning, sustainability, action research. Please visit our website for further information. Deadline for paper/poster/workshop submissions: 3 May 2010.
12–16 September 2010 World Energy Congress (WEC 2010)
The World Energy Council is the foremost global and inclusive forum for impartial dialogue and thought leadership on our common energy future. Our network of 93 national committees represents over 3000 member organizations including governments, industry and expert institutions. Our mission is to promote the sustainable supply and use of energy for the greatest benefit of all. Every 3 years, we hold the World Energy Congress, the world’s premier energy gathering. The next Congress will be in Montréal in September, 2010.
6–8 September 2010 The Third IASTED African Conference on Power and Energy Systems (AfricaPES 2010)
The International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED) is a non-profit organization devoted to promoting economic and cultural advancement. Established in 1977, IASTED organizes multidisciplinary conferences for academics and professionals, mainly in the fields of engineering, science, and education. IASTED holds conferences and courses in both industrialized and developing nations.
The topics of interest to be covered by AfricaPES 2010 include, but are not limited to:
• alternative energy and the environment
• power transmission and generation
• regulations, management and economics
The International Conference on Energy Science and Technology aims to bring together academic scientists, leading engineers, industry researchers and scholar students to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Energy Science and Technology, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.
The International Conference on Energy and Environment aims to bring together academic scientists, leading engineers, industry researchers and scholar students to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Energy and Environment, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.
23–24 June 2010 International Advanced Coal Technologies Conference
Laramie, Wyoming, USA
A two-day conference in the heart of the Rocky Mountain West’s coal country brings together policy makers, technology developers and industry leaders from the largest coal-producing regions in the world. Fossil fuels, including coal, are the prime source of the world’s energy and are the focus of the world’s environmental concern. Because international economies depend on energy produced from coal, finding environmentally sound ways to generate energy with advanced coal technologies is critical. Sponsored by the University of Wyoming and The University of Queensland, Australia, the conference will allow participants to share best practices and technology advances, and it will encourage cooperation among nations.
- Presentations from the U.S. Department of Energy and representatives from coal-producing regions around the world, including Wyoming and Queensland, Australia
- Invited talks from key research groups and companies at the forefront of developing advanced coal technologies from the United States and other nations in areas such as coal gasification and combustion, coal bed methane, carbon management and fuels and chemicals derived from coal
- Contributing talks and posters from prominent researchers and technology experts
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Topics: • Development, application and teaching of methods in: basic and applied thermodynamics; thermoeconomics and environomics; simulation, improvement and optimization of energy conversion systems; process design, analysis and integration of thermal and chemical systems; diagnostic and control of thermal systems; environmental impact and sustainability of energy systems • Relevant physical systems conventional and advanced power plants; polygeneration and district heating/cooling systems; new technologies in heat pumps, refrigeration and air conditioning; new technologies for electricity (co)generation; industrial process plants; energy storage; carbon capture and storage; hydrogen and natural gas technologies; biomass conversion systems; energy conversion systems for transportation; water desalination and treatment • Focus points technology, environmental and economical aspects of biofuels and other renewable energies (biomass, geothermal, thermal solar); fuel cells systems; heat pumps and Organic Rankine Cycles
17–21 May 2010 Energy Sustainability Conference (ES2010)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA
We invite researchers, engineers, scientists architects, consultants, and policy-makers in universities, industries, research laboratories, and government establishments to participate in this exciting event meant as a forum for exchange of innovative ideas, leading edge concepts, new technologies and devices, ongoing R&D efforts, prototype and demonstration projects, commercialization technologies and projects, and visions of the future related to the general theme of Energy Sustainability. The conference will consist of plenary talks, invited talks, panel discussions, workshops, tutorials, technical sessions, poster presentations, and exhibitions. The conference provides a unique opportunity for communication and collaboration between academia, industry and planners in the areas of Solar Energy, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy and Advanced Energy Technologies. The Conference will feature a special track for students interested in solar and energy efficiency consisting of technical and poster sessions, networking, and a job fair.
16–21 May 2010 World Hydrogen Energy Congress (WHEC 2010)
Hydrogen has excellent prospects in serving as an energy hub for a wide range of energy applications in transport, stationary power generation and portables. Intensive worldwide efforts have significantly advanced the technological status of components for the supply and use of hydrogen. In view of the still large number of unresolved issues, there remains a considerable need for ongoing scientific progress and technical solutions.
10–14 May 2010 International Conference on Thermal Engineering Theory and Applications (ICTEA)
The conference focuses on emerging research trends in thermal energy. The conference offers the opportunity to share research results and discuss new technologies, market information and consumer education programs. Both stand-up presentations and posters will be considered. Papers are solicited in all areas of thermal energy and its applications.
21–23 April 2010 International Conference on Applied Energy - Energy Solution for a Sustainable World (ICAE 2010)
The International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE) looks set to become a truly integrated forum on research, development and application of energy technology and policy. ICAE 2010 aims to facilitate debate on a wide range of topics under the theme, “Energy Solutions for a Sustainable World”. Besides the usual technical presentations and posters, the Conference will feature a number of keynote lectures and special focused sessions incorporating panel discussions and Q and A sessions. We invite specialists from all over the world to come and share experiences and contribute towards building the framework for sustainable development in the 21st century.
19–23 April 2010 European Energy Conference
The European Science Foundation, the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, the European Materials Research Society and the European Physical Society share the conviction that fundamental scientific aspects of energy research and development will be substantially more efficient, with faster progress and a promotion of understanding through an interaction of their specialist disciplines; chemistry, material sciences and physics. The European scientific community has the potential to optimise interdisciplinary cooperation and communication in energy research. Therefore this newly launched European Energy Conference series will promote, consolidate and communicate this vitally necessary synergy. Although focused on energy research and technology, this conference series fully recognises the political,economic, social and environmental aspects of energy supply and consumption. Sustainable development is ultimately a social and community imperative, which can only be accomplished within this larger context.
8–10 March 2010 International Conference on Renewable Energy: Generation and Applications (ICREGA 2010)
Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
The “International Conference on Renewable Energy: Generation and Applications” ICREGA’10 is organized by the faculty of Engineering at UAE University. This conference is a continuation to the successful Renewable Energy Seminar held in Abu Dhabi on April 2008.
Range of Topics:
• Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Energy
• Wind Energy Systems
• Fuel Cells Systems
• Other Sustainable Energy Sources
• Energy Storage Systems
• Electrical Energy Market, Management and Economics
• Intelligent Energy/Power Transmission and Distribution
• Energy Efficiency in Utilization
• Environmental Issues
• Energy Harvesting for Autonomous and Biomedical Applications
• Green Buildings
5–6 March 2010 MIT Energy Conference
Boston, MA, United States
The MIT Energy Conference is an annual student-run conference that brings together leaders in the fields of technology, policy, industry, and finance to develop solutions for the the world’s most pressing energy challenges. Environmental and security concerns have created an opportunity for fundamental change in the way the world produces and consumes energy. The MIT Energy Conference will explore these opportunities and showcase promising technology and policy pathways that have the potential to make a significant impact on energy solutions across the global energy landscape.
The desired outcome is to build a joint vision of the future that will help remove roadblocks to implementation, develop collaborative solutions, and bring the energy community closer together.
26–28 February 2010 2010 International Conference on Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Technologies (FDTT 2010)
The 2010 International Conference on Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Technologies (FDTT 2010) will be held in conjunction with ICCAE 2010 in Singapore during February 26-28, 2010. FDTT 2010 is sponsored by the IACSIT Power Engineering Society, and supported by the IACSIT. FDTT 2010 aims at bringing together the researchers, scientists, engineers, and scholar students in all areas of Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics, and provides an international forum for the dissemination of original research results, new ideas and practical development experiences which concentrate on both theory and practices. The conference focuses on the frontier topics in the Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics subjects.
26–28 February 2010 2010 International Conference on Electrical and Energy Systems (ICEES 2010)
The 2010 International Conference on Electrical and Energy Systems (ICEES 2010) will be held in conjunction with ICCAE 2010 in Singapore during February 26-28, 2009. ICEES is sponsored by IACSIT Circuits & Systems Society, and supported by IACSIT and etc. The aim objective of ICEES 2010 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers, academicians as well as industrial professionals from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in Electrical and Energy Systems. This conference provides opportunities for the delegates to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.
24–26 February 2010 Energy Indaba 2010 - Solutions for Africa
Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Energy: A Time of Change
The flagship African energy event, ENERGY INDABA 2010, is an annual event on the African business calendar with a specific focus on exploring solutions for a new energy future for Africa. With the recent and ever increasing world-wide attention to Energy, ENERGY INDABA 2010, provides an ideal platform to encourage debate and provides the ideal networking climate for companies and individuals to interact.
24–25 February 2010 International Oil, Gas and Energy Conference 2010 (InOGE Expo)
Expo guarantees world class maintenance and best practice techniques
In today\'s challenging financial climate, it is more important than ever for operators to have their plants and equipment running at an optimal level. Cost effective, world class maintenance and sourcing the best materials at the keenest prices are detrimental to this. Top industry leaders will have representatives at this Expo, using this event as a platform to network with new colleagues, strengthen existing relationships, learn from best practices and discover and develop new advances for the future.
Cape Town, South Africa
The International Conference on Electrical Power and Energy Systems aims to bring together academic scientists, leading engineers, industry researchers and scholar students to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.
26 January 2010 GEA and The Smart Grid Development in Ontario
St. Andrew’s Club and Conference Centre, 150 King Street West, Toronto, Canada
This conference will tackle such key matters as:
• Providing the regulatory framework for Smart Grid development
• How to plan and operate the Smart Grid reliably and efficiently
• How to translate vision into action
• Technologies enabling a revolution in wise energy use, connection of renewable resources, electric car, better energy and transportation planning and a reduction of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
25–27 January 2010 Nuclear Power Asia
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The need for power is on the rise. Local sources of power like hydropower and thermopower are limited and purchasing power from neighboring countries can’t help ensure power security. Therefore the push for nuclear energy is an increasingly popular solution to address the issues of energy security, supply and climate change in Asia. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand are implementing plans to turn to nuclear energy to curb their dependence on conventional fossil fuels.
14–16 September 2009 Resources 2009 Twin World Congress
Nagoya, Japan and Davos, Switzerland
The R’09 Twin World Congress promotes innovative technologies and frameworks for resource management to improve material and energy efficiencies in the production, use, and recycling of materials.
The R’09 Twin World Congress is the 9th event in the bi-annual R’ World Congress series started in 1993. It aims to improve material and energy efficiencies in industry, including energy supply, cement and building materials, metallurgical, chemical, glass, pulp and paper, machinery, the automobile and electronic industries as well as activities of collection, sorting, further treatment and final disposal of post-consumer material. The factor information and therefore the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are of increasing importance in resource management and will find special consideration at R’09.