Topic Editors

Department of Electronic Engineering, National United University, Miaoli City 36063, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan

Innovation of Applied System

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 August 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 January 2024)
Viewed by
68545

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 8th IEEE International Conference on Applied System Innovation 2022 (IEEE ICASI 2022, https://2022.icasi-conf.net/) will be held in Sun Moon Lake (日月潭), Nantou, Taiwan on April 21-23, 2022, and will provide a unified communication platform for a wide range of topics. The Topic of “Innovation of Applied System” is not only expected to select excellent papers presented at iTIKI IEEE ICASI 2022 but also to welcome other submissions related to novel materials, electronics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrochemistry, biomedical engineering, sustainability science, and design innovations. We welcome studies from both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering designs. Technological innovation by electrical/mechanical engineering includes IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations, and applied materials in nanosciences and nanotechnology. These new technologies, which implant intelligence in machine systems, are an interdisciplinary area combining conventional mechanical technology and new information technology. The main goal of this topic is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations, and applied materials in nanosciences and nanotechnology. We invite investigators interested in applied system innovation to contribute original research articles to this topic. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Intelligent electronic/electrical engineering including novel materials, device fabrication, ic design and related applications;
  • Intelligent mechanical manufacturing systems;
  • Mathematical problems on mechanical system designs;
  • Smart electromechanical system analysis and designs;
  • Applied materials in nanosciences and nanotechnology;
  • Optical system design and optoelectronic engineering;
  • Sustainability, green technology, and biomedical technology;
  • Computer-aided methods for electrical/mechanical design procedures and manufacturing;
  • Artificial intelligence, computers, virtual reality, entertainment, and human–machine interactions;
  • Internet technology impacts on mechanical system innovation and IOTs;
  • Machine diagnostics and reliability;
  • Information systems, computer networking, and the Internet;
  • Education and awareness of sustainability.

Prof. Dr. Sheng-Joue Young
Prof. Dr. Shoou-Jinn Chang
Prof. Dr. Liang-Wen Ji
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • novel materials
  • optoelectronic engineering
  • electrical engineering
  • mechanical engineering
  • electrochemistry
  • biomedical engineering
  • sustainability science
  • design innovations
  • education

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 5.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Computers
computers
2.8 5.4 2012 17.7 Days CHF 1800
Electronics
electronics
2.9 5.3 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
Micromachines
micromachines
3.4 5.2 2010 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 6.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (29 papers)

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18 pages, 7982 KiB  
Article
Integrated Optimization of Structure and Control for Fast Steering Mirrors
by Zijie Chen, Qianwen Duan, Luyao Zhang, Yi Tan, Yao Mao and Ge Ren
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030298 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 897
Abstract
This study concerns the problem of integrated optimization of structure and control based on a fast steering mirror, aiming to achieve simultaneous optimization of the mechanical structure and control system. The traditional research and development path of the fast steering mirror involves a [...] Read more.
This study concerns the problem of integrated optimization of structure and control based on a fast steering mirror, aiming to achieve simultaneous optimization of the mechanical structure and control system. The traditional research and development path of the fast steering mirror involves a lengthy process from the initial design to the final physical manufacture. In the prior process, it was necessary to produce physical prototypes for repeated debugging and iterative optimization to achieve design requirements, but this approach consumes a significant amount of time and cost. To expedite this process and reduce unnecessary experimental costs, this study proposes an integrated optimization of structure and control (IOSC) method. With the use of IOSC, it is possible to achieve simultaneous optimization of structure and control. Specifically, the use of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) obtains globally optimal controller parameters and mechanical structure parameters under certain performance indices. This achieves an effective balance between the resonance frequency generated by the system and the working bandwidth, providing a high-precision reference for the research and development of fast steering mirrors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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17 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
Development of Circuits for Antilogarithmic Converters with Efficient Error–Area–Delay Product Using the Fractional-Bit Compensation Scheme for Digital Signal Processing Applications
by Chao-Tsung Kuo
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041487 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Digital signal processing (DSP) has been widely adopted in sensor systems, communication systems, digital image processing, artificial intelligence, and Internet of Things applications. However, these applications require circuits for complex arithmetic computation. The logarithmic number system is a method to reduce the implementation [...] Read more.
Digital signal processing (DSP) has been widely adopted in sensor systems, communication systems, digital image processing, artificial intelligence, and Internet of Things applications. However, these applications require circuits for complex arithmetic computation. The logarithmic number system is a method to reduce the implementation area and transmission delay for arithmetic computation in DSP. In this study, we propose antilogarithmic converters with efficient error–area–delay products (eADPs) based on the fractional-bit compensation scheme. We propose three mathematical approximations—case 1, case 2, and case 3—to approximate the accurate antilogarithmic curve with different DSP requirements. The maximum percentage errors of conversion for case 1, case 2, and case 3 are 1.9089%, 1.7330%, and 1.2063%, respectively. Case 1, case 2, and case 3 can achieve eADP savings of 15.66%, 80.80%, and 84.61% compared with other methods reported in the literature. The proposed eADP-efficient antilogarithmic converters can achieve lower eADP and digitalized circuit implementation. The hardware implementation utilizes Verilog Hardware Description Language and the digital circuits are created via very-large-scale integration by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company with 0.18 µm CMOS technology. This proposed antilogarithmic converter can be efficiently applied in DSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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11 pages, 4298 KiB  
Article
Combined Ionic Membrane and Silica Desiccant Configuration for Maintenance-Free Humidity Control in Equipment
by Stavros Misopoulos, Dirk Nather and Jose Marques-Hueso
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12885; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312885 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Much scientific equipment requires the use of humidity control technologies. This includes instruments with hygroscopic optics, such as infrared spectrometers, OPOs and some lasers. The most common strategies include nitrogen purging or desiccant bag replacement, which involve maintenance and running costs. In this [...] Read more.
Much scientific equipment requires the use of humidity control technologies. This includes instruments with hygroscopic optics, such as infrared spectrometers, OPOs and some lasers. The most common strategies include nitrogen purging or desiccant bag replacement, which involve maintenance and running costs. In this work we present a dual strategy, combining both ionic membranes and silica desiccant, which results in a reusable and maintenance-free scheme for humidity control. The desiccant action of the silica gels, the membrane, and combinations thereafter, are studied. It is shown that the combination of the silica gel desiccants and the membrane is the most efficient configuration, reducing the humidity from 73% to only 15% in 20 h in a 70 L volume and from 80% to 20% in 40 h in a 230 L volume. An experiment over 5 days showed that the status of the silica gel desiccants that had adsorbed high water vapor levels returned to normal after they were enclosed together with the ionic membrane in the 70 L volume. Finally, measurements taken by a commercial infrared spectrometer of the reduction in the H2O lines absorption in the mid-infrared region under the operation of the combined configuration are examined. It was demonstrated that H2O lines with low to moderate absorption almost disappeared when the humidity levels inside the spectrometer dropped from 42.5% to 15.1% in the span of 90 min, while lines with stronger absorption remained present even though they showed the highest percentage of change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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20 pages, 2435 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Intrusion Detection Systems in Three Phases on the CSE-CIC-IDS-2018 Dataset
by Surasit Songma, Theera Sathuphan and Thanakorn Pamutha
Computers 2023, 12(12), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers12120245 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
This article examines intrusion detection systems in depth using the CSE-CIC-IDS-2018 dataset. The investigation is divided into three stages: to begin, data cleaning, exploratory data analysis, and data normalization procedures (min-max and Z-score) are used to prepare data for use with various classifiers; [...] Read more.
This article examines intrusion detection systems in depth using the CSE-CIC-IDS-2018 dataset. The investigation is divided into three stages: to begin, data cleaning, exploratory data analysis, and data normalization procedures (min-max and Z-score) are used to prepare data for use with various classifiers; second, in order to improve processing speed and reduce model complexity, a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and random forest (RF) is used to reduce non-significant features by comparing them to the full dataset; finally, machine learning methods (XGBoost, CART, DT, KNN, MLP, RF, LR, and Bayes) are applied to specific features and preprocessing procedures, with the XGBoost, DT, and RF models outperforming the others in terms of both ROC values and CPU runtime. The evaluation concludes with the discovery of an optimal set, which includes PCA and RF feature selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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15 pages, 3696 KiB  
Article
Conclusive Model-Fit Current–Voltage Characteristic Curves with Kink Effects
by Hsin-Chia Yang and Sung-Ching Chi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12379; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212379 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Current–voltage characteristic curves of NFinFET are presented and fitted with modified current–voltage (I-V) formulas, where the modified term in the triode region is demonstrated to be indispensable. In the as-known I-V formula, important parameters need to be determined to make both the measured [...] Read more.
Current–voltage characteristic curves of NFinFET are presented and fitted with modified current–voltage (I-V) formulas, where the modified term in the triode region is demonstrated to be indispensable. In the as-known I-V formula, important parameters need to be determined to make both the measured data and the fitting data as close as possible. These parameters include kN (associated with the sizes of the transistor and mobility), λ (associated with early voltage), and Vth (the threshold voltage). The differences between the measured data and the fitting data vary with the applied source–drain bias, proving that the mobility of the carriers is not consistently constant. On the other hand, a modified formula, called the kink effect factor, is negatively or positively added, simulating solitary heat waves or lattice vibration, which disturb the propagation of carriers and thus influence the source–drain current (IDS). The new statistical standard deviations (δ) are then found to be effectively suppressed as the kink effect is taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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18 pages, 3443 KiB  
Article
Concealed Conduit Routing in Building Slabs
by Shyh-Kuang Ueng and Chun-Chieh Chang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10847; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910847 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Concealed pipes are vital facilities for transporting water, air, electricity, and natural gas in modern buildings. These pipes are constructed inside slabs of buildings, and thus conventional piping algorithms, dedicated to arranging exposed pipes in open spaces or on object surfaces, are not [...] Read more.
Concealed pipes are vital facilities for transporting water, air, electricity, and natural gas in modern buildings. These pipes are constructed inside slabs of buildings, and thus conventional piping algorithms, dedicated to arranging exposed pipes in open spaces or on object surfaces, are not suitable for laying out their paths. In this article, an innovative method is presented for designing the concealed conduits of modern buildings. In the proposed piping procedure, the target building is regarded as a framework composed of beams, columns, and slabs. These substructures are encoded in a weighted graph, which serves as the top-level representation of the workspace. Then, these substructures are split into voxels and constitute the bottom-level representation of the workspace. Each concealed pipe is constructed by using a two-stage piping scheme to comply with the representation of the workspace. In the first stage, the slabs containing the terminals of the pipe are located in the top-level representation, and the shortest path connecting these slabs is calculated using Dijkstra’s algorithm. In the second stage, a feasible space is generated by collecting selective voxels in these slabs first. Then, the pipe path is routed inside the feasible space by a shortest-path-finding computation. Next, the pipe surface is generated and represented by using triangle meshes. Finally, the bottom-level representation is modified and the routing process is repeated to lay out the remaining concealed pipes. The experimental results show that the proposed piping procedure efficiently arranges concealed pipes inside buildings of various topologies and internal layouts. As it benefits from the two-level representation and the two-stage routing method, the piping process consumes reasonable computational costs. The paths of the resultant pipes are optimized, and their positions meet the geometrical constraints and safety regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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12 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
FPGA Implementation of a Novel Multifunction Modulo (2n ± 1) Multiplier Using Radix-4 Booth Encoding Scheme
by Chao-Tsung Kuo and Yao-Cheng Wu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10407; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810407 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
The residue number system is widely used in applications such as communication systems, cryptography, digital filters, digital signal processors, fault-tolerant detection, and so on. This paper proposes a multifunction modulo (2n ± 1) multiplier based on the radix-4 Booth encoding scheme that [...] Read more.
The residue number system is widely used in applications such as communication systems, cryptography, digital filters, digital signal processors, fault-tolerant detection, and so on. This paper proposes a multifunction modulo (2n ± 1) multiplier based on the radix-4 Booth encoding scheme that can operate both modulo (2n − 1) and modulo (2n + 1) multipliers using the same hardware structure with only one control signal. A novel modulo (2n ± 1) multiplier based on radix-4 Booth encoding is proposed that can achieve superior performance, with low power, fast operation, high area efficiency, and low area-delay product (ADP) and power-delay product (PDP) compared with similar modified Booth-encoding methods. In addition, by integrating the separate modulo functions of the modulo (2n − 1) multiplier and modulo (2n + 1) multiplier into a single multifunction modulo (2n ± 1) multiplier, the proposed method can save up to 52.59% (n = 16) of hardware area, up to 5.45% (n = 32) of delay time, up to 49.05% (n = 16) of dynamic power, up to 50.92% (n = 32) of ADP, and up to 50.02% (n = 32) of PDP compared with the original separate circuits merged together. Furthermore, the operation ranges of the multiplicand and multiplier of the proposed modulo (2n + 1) multiplier and modulo (2n − 1) multiplier are {0, 2n + 1} and {0, 2n}, respectively, which are wider than for other reported hardware structures. The hardware area, power consumption, and delay time are simulated and verified using Verilog HDL and Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) Vivado tools. The Xilinx Artix-7 XC7A35T-CSG324-1 FPGA chipset is adopted in the proposed work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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14 pages, 4297 KiB  
Article
Using TRIZ Theory to Create Prototypes to Reduce the Potential Impact of a Phone’s Magnetic Field on the Human Body
by Chao-Jung Lai, Ming-Hsien Hsueh, Cheng-Wen Chang and Tsz-Ming Ip
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7920; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137920 - 6 Jul 2023
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Currently, people spend many more hours on smartphones, and the potential impact of phone radiation is receiving more attention. Reducing the impact of a phone’s magnetic field on human health is vital. Although many studies advise changing phone use habits, such as reducing [...] Read more.
Currently, people spend many more hours on smartphones, and the potential impact of phone radiation is receiving more attention. Reducing the impact of a phone’s magnetic field on human health is vital. Although many studies advise changing phone use habits, such as reducing call times to impede phone radiation, there are no specific products found in the literature to prevent or reduce phone radiation. Therefore, this study used TRIZ theory as a research method to design prototypes in order to reduce the potential impacts of magnetic fields generated by smartphones on the human body. The results show that the distance between the human body and the phone is negatively related to phone radiation; the longer the distance is, the less phone radiation there is. Three prototypes have been designed through this research in order to reduce a phone’s radiation. The first testing condition simulates a phone conversation in which the prototypes are installed on the phone while having a WhatsApp conversation. The second testing condition simulates phone standby mode in which the prototypes are installed on a phone while the phone’s Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, data, GPS, and hotpot are on. A magnetic field tester was used to measure the magnetic fields every 5 s, and each measurement set lasted for 3 min. Five sets of measurements were completed at the end, and the average result shows that the use of prototypes under these two conditions can reduce 100% and 90% of the magnetic field generated by a smartphone during a phone conversation and the phone’s standby mode, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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13 pages, 6753 KiB  
Article
Trawl Grid Structure Design and Analysis Using the Finite Element Method
by Nghia-Danh Nguyen and Shyh-Chour Huang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7536; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137536 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
The structure of fishnet knots has been simplified in previous studies to facilitate the construction of numerical equations of the fishnet structure. This leads to errors in the dynamic analysis of the trawl mesh structure with water flow. In this study, the finite [...] Read more.
The structure of fishnet knots has been simplified in previous studies to facilitate the construction of numerical equations of the fishnet structure. This leads to errors in the dynamic analysis of the trawl mesh structure with water flow. In this study, the finite element method was used to analyze the interaction of the trawl mesh structure with the solid object in a dynamic explicit environment. At the same time, design variables were optimized through impact assessment and the displacement of grid cells. The results show that the polyamide (PA) material, a 0.4 mm cross-section, and a 25 mm mesh size are the optimal choices. When the displacement speed of the solid body increased, the displacement and collision values of the mesh structure tended to increase gradually along the quadratic curve. Confirmation tests performed on the tensile tester machine showed a good load-carrying capacity of up to 1280 MPa for trawl mesh structures using the PA material. The characteristic curve for the stress of the trawl mesh structure is shown through the higher-order curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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19 pages, 2650 KiB  
Article
Public Innovation Policy Evaluation: Brazilian Electricity Tariff Paid by Consumers
by Gilmar dos Santos Marques, Maria Amélia de Paula Dias and José Luiz de Andrade Franco
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10142; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310142 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the SEB public policy of innovation on the average supply tariff (AST) from its implementation in the year 2000 until 2020, considering the tariff moderation foreseen in the RD&I of the SEB, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the SEB public policy of innovation on the average supply tariff (AST) from its implementation in the year 2000 until 2020, considering the tariff moderation foreseen in the RD&I of the SEB, which is aligned with SDG 7 of Agenda 2030. The methodological procedures included (a) a sample consisting of 40% of the market (seven of the one hundred and eleven electricity distributors) of the market (in consumers and billing); (b) a before and after real tariff model (1994–2020) applied through ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation; (c) calculation of the real AST of the sample using the present value (PV) method, updated based on the IPCA as an indexer; (d) calculation of the result of Model 4 before and after and the AST in PV to verify the impact of the SEB’s RD&I public policy on the AST. The results showed that the creation of the innovation contribution (ContribInova) impacted the AST value by 60.95% in terms of real increase. Three electricity purchasing power (EPP) indicators and the electricity purchasing power index (EPPi) were developed and calculated to track the evolution of the AST to help guide the tariff moderation of the SEB and the Brazilian commitment to Agenda 2030 to ensure access to energy services at affordable prices by 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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18 pages, 1098 KiB  
Review
A Review of Artificial Intelligence in Embedded Systems
by Zhaoyun Zhang and Jingpeng Li
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050897 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7242
Abstract
Advancements in artificial intelligence algorithms and models, along with embedded device support, have resulted in the issue of high energy consumption and poor compatibility when deploying artificial intelligence models and networks on embedded devices becoming solvable. In response to these problems, this paper [...] Read more.
Advancements in artificial intelligence algorithms and models, along with embedded device support, have resulted in the issue of high energy consumption and poor compatibility when deploying artificial intelligence models and networks on embedded devices becoming solvable. In response to these problems, this paper introduces three aspects of methods and applications for deploying artificial intelligence technologies on embedded devices, including artificial intelligence algorithms and models on resource-constrained hardware, acceleration methods for embedded devices, neural network compression, and current application models of embedded AI. This paper compares relevant literature, highlights the strengths and weaknesses, and concludes with future directions for embedded AI and a summary of the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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19 pages, 3400 KiB  
Article
Ultrafast Microfluidic PCR Thermocycler for Nucleic Acid Amplification
by Yi-Quan An, Shao-Lei Huang, Bang-Chao Xi, Xiang-Lian Gong, Jun-Hao Ji, You Hu, Yi-Jie Ding, Dong-Xu Zhang, Sheng-Xiang Ge, Jun Zhang and Ning-Shao Xia
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030658 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is essential in nucleic acid amplification tests and is widely used in many applications such as infectious disease detection, tumor screening, and food safety testing; however, most PCR devices have inefficient heating and cooling ramp rates for the [...] Read more.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is essential in nucleic acid amplification tests and is widely used in many applications such as infectious disease detection, tumor screening, and food safety testing; however, most PCR devices have inefficient heating and cooling ramp rates for the solution, which significantly limit their application in special scenarios such as hospital emergencies, airports, and customs. Here, we propose a temperature control strategy to significantly increase the ramp rates for the solution temperature by switching microfluidic chips between multiple temperature zones and excessively increasing the temperature difference between temperature zones and the solution; accordingly, we have designed an ultrafast thermocycler. The results showed that the ramp rates of the solution temperature are a linear function of temperature differences within a range, and a larger temperature difference would result in faster ramp rates. The maximum heating and cooling ramp rates of the 25 μL solution reached 24.12 °C/s and 25.28 °C/s, respectively, and the average ramp rate was 13.33 °C/s, 6–8 times higher than that of conventional commercial PCR devices. The thermocycler achieved 9 min (1 min pre-denaturation + 45 PCR cycles) ultrafast nucleic acid amplification, shortening the time by 92% compared to the conventional 120 min nucleic acid amplification, and has the potential to be used for rapid nucleic acid detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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14 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Integration of Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in a Production Environment
by Sri Nur Areena Mohd Zaini, Filzah Lina Mohd Safeiee, Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul Ghani, Nur Najmiyah Jaafar and Mohd Yazid Abu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042633 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
System integration is the act of combining numerous distinct subsystems into one bigger system that allows the subsystems to work together. The integrated system removes necessity of repeating operations. The purpose of this work was to investigate the best system integration in the [...] Read more.
System integration is the act of combining numerous distinct subsystems into one bigger system that allows the subsystems to work together. The integrated system removes necessity of repeating operations. The purpose of this work was to investigate the best system integration in the production environment. A few methods were tested such as conventional, Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS), Activity-Based Costing (ABC) and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC). As a result, critical activities may now be completed more effectively while reducing expenses. The organization should define the relation between cost and quality through system integration. As a consequence of system integration, four forms of integration are described, namely, integration A (conventional-ABC), integration B (conventional-TDABC), integration C (MTS-ABC), and integration D (MTS-TDABC). Integration D is the best in the production environment when compared to others because MTS recognizes the degree of contribution for each parameter that impacts the increase or decline in the final cost. Moreover, TDABC determines capacity cost rate from the costs associated with capacity provided, and time equations with versatility to dissipate the product’s complex nature. As a result of the integration of MTS and TDABC, various degrees of parameter contributions impact the time equations and capacity cost rate to generate a lower cost of product in the production environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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19 pages, 5536 KiB  
Article
Easily Attach/Detach Reattachable EEG Headset with Candle-like Microneedle Electrodes
by Takumi Kawana, Yuki Zemba, Ryo Ichikawa and Norihisa Miki
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020400 - 6 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1988
Abstract
To expand the applications of the electroencephalogram (EEG), long-term measurement, a short installation time, and little stress on the participants are needed. In this study, we designed, fabricated, and evaluated an EEG headset with three candle-like microneedle electrodes (CMEs). The user is able [...] Read more.
To expand the applications of the electroencephalogram (EEG), long-term measurement, a short installation time, and little stress on the participants are needed. In this study, we designed, fabricated, and evaluated an EEG headset with three candle-like microneedle electrodes (CMEs). The user is able to detach and reattach the electrodes, enabling long-term measurement with little stress. The design of the CMEs was experimentally determined by considering the skin-to-electrode impedance and user comfort. An EEG was successfully measured from areas with a high hair density without any preparation. The installation time was shorter than 60 s and the electrodes could be detached and reattached. The headset was designed such that the discomfort caused by its ear pads was higher than that caused by the electrodes. In 1 h experiments, the participants did not feel pain and the detachment of the CMEs was found to improve the comfort level of the participants in most cases. A successful demonstration of the long-term measurement of EEGs while watching a whole movie verified that the developed EEG headset with CMEs is applicable for EEG measurement in a variety of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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27 pages, 12752 KiB  
Article
CFD Body Force Propeller Model with Blade Rotational Effect
by Ping-Chen Wu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11273; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111273 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3640
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to consider propeller geometry and blade rotation in the propeller model in a CFD code. To predict propeller performance, a body force propeller model was developed based on blade element theory and coupled with URANS (unsteady Reynolds-averaged [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to consider propeller geometry and blade rotation in the propeller model in a CFD code. To predict propeller performance, a body force propeller model was developed based on blade element theory and coupled with URANS (unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes) solver CFDSHIP-IOWA V4.5 both implicitly and interactively. The model was executed inside the flow solver every inner iteration. The grid points inside each 2D blade geometry were identified by a numerical search algorithm. To calculate the lift coefficient, the total flow velocities at 25% foil chord length were obtained using the inverse distance weighting interpolation from the RANS solution. The body forces were distributed linearly along the chord length with the maximal value located at the leading edge and zero at the trailing edge. The main achievements are: (1) for a KP505 propeller in an open water condition, the error of the thrust coefficient generally is around or less than 3%, which is a better prediction than the previous model. (2) For a behind-hull condition, the error is about 1%. (3) For an E1619 propeller in an open water condition, the error is around 6%. (4) The blade-to-blade effect and unsteady flow field between blades are sufficiently resolved by the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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13 pages, 4721 KiB  
Article
New Actuation Control for Hybrid Electromagnetic Valve Train
by Yaojung Shiao, Mahendra Babu Kantipudi and Chang-Bo Weng
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10449; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010449 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Nowadays, vehicle industries are trying to introduce actively controllable variable valve trains to achieve maximumly efficient internal combustion engines. The electromagnetic valve train (EMV) is one of the promising valve actuators. A traditional electromagnet valve needs to be continuously supplied with current and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, vehicle industries are trying to introduce actively controllable variable valve trains to achieve maximumly efficient internal combustion engines. The electromagnetic valve train (EMV) is one of the promising valve actuators. A traditional electromagnet valve needs to be continuously supplied with current and consumes more energy during valve opening and closing, and the permanent magnet-assisted valves have a demagnetization issue. Thus, this study presents a hybrid permanent magnet electromagnetic valve (PMEMV), which needs a power supply only for a short interval of time during valve opening or closing; eventually, this PMEMV consumes much less energy than conventional EMVs. This paper proposed an improved control approach for this hybrid PMEMV to achieve variable valve actuation. Magnetic stimulation was performed on the proposed valve train to analyze the direction of the magnetic circuit during the valve actuation. An improved magnetic circuit control method was introduced to achieve the release and attraction of the armature. This innovative magnetic circuit control can make the armature effectively attract at each apex, so that the PMEMV can be effectively and completely actuated. The prototype of the valve train and the experimental platform were developed to test and validate the real-time performance of the composite EM valve. Peripheral sensor components were used to measure the valve displacement. The experimental results proved that the concept of the innovative magnetic-circuit drive and control can enable the successful operation of the hybrid compound EM valve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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14 pages, 2994 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Different following Mechanisms in VR Guided Tour: A Preliminary Study
by Hung-Yu Tsai, Ming-Han Tsai, Ting-Hui Chiang and Che-Cheng Chang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9630; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199630 - 25 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Given virtual reality (VR)’s popularity, VR already impacts various applications such as education and tourism. In the above applications, users usually need to follow a specific target, such as a teacher or a tour guide, to explore and learn from the environment. However, [...] Read more.
Given virtual reality (VR)’s popularity, VR already impacts various applications such as education and tourism. In the above applications, users usually need to follow a specific target, such as a teacher or a tour guide, to explore and learn from the environment. However, because of the constraint with visual senses and unintuitive locomotion, following a target in VR is not as easy as doing it in real life. As a result, the user may not concentrate on the audio narration or the surroundings. Therefore, finding a following mechanism that can help the user concentrate and learn in VR is important. In this paper, we focus on the following techniques in VR. We propose four types of following mechanisms: limited (which restricts the user’s ability to move), semi-limited (which constrains the user’s range of activity), improved semi-limited (with visual assistance), and not limited (user’s movement is not constrained). This study consisted of 29 participants divided into four groups and aimed to evaluate how the following mechanisms affect user experience and make users more concentrated in the virtual world. The experiment shows that the semi-limited following mechanism with visual assistance is superior to the other three types in the performance of the touring experience and helping users pay attention to the tour content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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19 pages, 2250 KiB  
Review
Current Issues in Combating Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Threats to Empower Sustainability: A Systematic Review
by Małgorzata Gawlik-Kobylińska
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8315; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168315 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4068
Abstract
Combating chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats with novel solutions reduces disasters and accident risks and, at the same time, aids sustainability. This research aims to identify the innovations in combating CBRN threats and verify how they fall within the scope of [...] Read more.
Combating chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats with novel solutions reduces disasters and accident risks and, at the same time, aids sustainability. This research aims to identify the innovations in combating CBRN threats and verify how they fall within the scope of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The study relies on mixed-method research, including bibliometrics and text-mining used to identify clusters, most frequent words, and codes. The material for the research was 156 publications from the Scopus database from 2017 to April 2022. From the analytical process, textual data served as the indicators of the innovations’ directions driven by SDGs. The research results indicated that innovations for combating CBRN threats support sustainability mainly in health and environmental areas, specifically in: SDG 3: Good Health and Well-being; SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation; SDG 14: Life Below Water; SDG 15: Life On Land. The research contributes to the landscape of innovations serving sustainable development. Further studies may focus on narrower perspectives, such as environmental protection and health innovations. There can also be concerns about the dark side of CBRN innovations and technologies of dual use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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21 pages, 2492 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Design of Active Fault-Tolerant Control System for Air–Fuel Ratio Control of Internal Combustion Engine Using Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, and Nonlinear Regression-Based Observer Model
by Turki Alsuwian, Muhammad Sajid Iqbal, Arslan Ahmed Amin, Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Saleh Almasabi and Mohammed Jalalah
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7841; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157841 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
In this article, three distinct strategies for designing an Active Fault-Tolerant Control System (AFTCS) for Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) control of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine in a process plant to avoid engine shutdown, are presented. The proposed AFTCS employs a Genetic Algorithm (GA), [...] Read more.
In this article, three distinct strategies for designing an Active Fault-Tolerant Control System (AFTCS) for Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) control of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine in a process plant to avoid engine shutdown, are presented. The proposed AFTCS employs a Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and a Nonlinear Regression (NLR)-based observer model in the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) unit for analytical redundancy. A comparison between these three proposed techniques is carried out to determine the least expensive and most accurate approach. The results show that the nonlinear regression produces highly accurate results by consuming very low computational power, and its response time is also very low as compared to GA and PSO. The results obtained show that NLR requires 99.6% and 93.1% less computational time for throttle and MAP estimation, respectively, by reducing the estimation error to as low as 0.01. The simulation of the proposed system is carried out in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The results prove the superior fault tolerance performance for sensor faults of the AFR control system, especially for the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor in terms of less oscillatory response as compared to that reported in existing literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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13 pages, 15189 KiB  
Article
Suspension Control and Characterization of a Variable Damping Magneto-Rheological Mount for a Micro Autonomous Railway Inspection Car
by Yaojung Shiao and Tan-Linh Huynh
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7336; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147336 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
This paper aims to present a suspension control strategy for a semi-active mount with variable damping utilizing a smart magneto-rheological fluid (MRF), which will be applied in a micro autonomous railway inspection car as a primary suspension to protect the inspection equipment from [...] Read more.
This paper aims to present a suspension control strategy for a semi-active mount with variable damping utilizing a smart magneto-rheological fluid (MRF), which will be applied in a micro autonomous railway inspection car as a primary suspension to protect the inspection equipment from the large suspension vibration on rails. We proposed a new multi-pole structure design for a semi-active magneto-rheological mount (MR mount) that can provide both a high damping force and a wide damping force band. Firstly, the mathematical model of MR mount dynamics was derived; secondly, a skyhook control strategy was developed for the MR mount; and finally, a dynamic simulation problem using Matlab software was constructed to evaluate the performance of the MR mount. The dynamic simulation results showed that the proposed MR mount using a skyhook control strategy showed greater vibration isolation performance compared to conventional passive mounts. In particular, the absolute displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the detector device were reduced by 83.33%, 77%, and 70%, respectively. The suspension vibration transmitted to the inspection device also decreased significantly, compared to input oscillation (i.e., un-sprung mass oscillation). Specifically, the suspension vibration reduced by a half at the excitation frequency of 2-fold the natural frequency and by greater magnitudes at higher excitation frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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15 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Process Automation: An Application in Manufacturing Industry
by Federico A. Lievano-Martínez, Javier D. Fernández-Ledesma, Daniel Burgos, John W. Branch-Bedoya and Jovani A. Jimenez-Builes
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8804; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148804 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5471
Abstract
Background: The intelligent processes automation has been cataloged as one of the most potential and strategic technology solutions to develop a corporate digital transformation. Method: This paper introduces essential concepts to create Intelligent Process Automation (IPA) in industries and proposes a framework to [...] Read more.
Background: The intelligent processes automation has been cataloged as one of the most potential and strategic technology solutions to develop a corporate digital transformation. Method: This paper introduces essential concepts to create Intelligent Process Automation (IPA) in industries and proposes a framework to implement IPA technologies successfully. The approach involves: firstly, assembling a good implementation setup and deeply researching the process using process mining techniques. Secondly, choosing and locating the best AI technology inside the IPA. Finally, defining an appropriate architecture of the IPA. Results: The paper illustrates an IPA use case in the manufacturing industry, where it is possible to automate the process of sending production orders to a manufacturing plant and optimize waste and plant capacity significantly. Conclusions: The research depicts the potential of intelligent process automation and its quantifiable benefits in the manufacturing process, and the contribution can be applied to different enterprises with a global context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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15 pages, 3629 KiB  
Article
A Practical App for Quickly Calculating the Number of People Using Machine Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks
by Ching-Ta Lu, Chun-Jen Ou and Yen-Yu Lu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6239; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126239 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Calculating the number of people is often necessary and repeated in real life. As the number of people increases, the calculation is time-consuming. Efficiently calculating the number of people is helpful to human life. In this article, we propose a valuable app to [...] Read more.
Calculating the number of people is often necessary and repeated in real life. As the number of people increases, the calculation is time-consuming. Efficiently calculating the number of people is helpful to human life. In this article, we propose a valuable app to quickly calculate the number of people in a photo by a convolutional neural network (CNN). Initially, suspected face areas are segmented into micro-blocks. The segmented blocks are then confirmed through the CNN by rejecting the segmented micro-blocks without the human face to ensure the detection accuracy of the face area. The experimental results reveal that the proposed app can efficiently calculate the number of people. The world is now seriously threatened by the COVID-19 epidemic. The proposed app can help quickly calculate the number of people, avoid crowd gathering, and cause the risk of group infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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13 pages, 5397 KiB  
Article
New Rotor Position Redundancy Decoding Method Based on Resolver Decoder
by Anbo Yu, Chenyu Wang, Xiaoqiang Guo, Zheng Li, Chunjiang Zhang and Josep M. Guerrero
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060903 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
In view of the frequent safety problems of electric vehicles, the research on accurately obtaining the rotor position of the motor through the resolver is an important means to improve the functional safety of the system. The commonly used resolver decoding method involves [...] Read more.
In view of the frequent safety problems of electric vehicles, the research on accurately obtaining the rotor position of the motor through the resolver is an important means to improve the functional safety of the system. The commonly used resolver decoding method involves the resolver decoding chip method and software decoding method, but few studies integrate the two decoding methods. A single method of motor rotor position acquisition cannot meet the requirements of system functional safety. To fill this gap, this paper proposes a method to simultaneously integrate hardware decoding and software decoding in the motor control system. The decoding chip and software decoding obtain the angle data at the same time, and they provide redundancy to improve the functional safety of the electronic control system. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed simultaneous operation of hardware decoding and software decoding is verified by experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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10 pages, 4215 KiB  
Article
Design and Implementation of a Car’s Black Box System Using a Raspberry Pi and a 4G Module
by Abel Garcia-Barrientos, David Torres-Uresti, Francisco R. Castillo-Soria, Ulises Pineda-Rico, Jose Antonio Hoyo-Montaño, Obed Perez-Cortes and Patricio Ordaz-Oliver
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5730; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115730 - 5 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
The design and implementation of a car’s black box system using a Raspberry Pi microcomputer and an Internet of things module is presented in this research. This system was built using a Raspberry Pi microcomputer and different sensors, including a GPS, camera module, [...] Read more.
The design and implementation of a car’s black box system using a Raspberry Pi microcomputer and an Internet of things module is presented in this research. This system was built using a Raspberry Pi microcomputer and different sensors, including a GPS, camera module, audio module, alcohol sensor module, and signals from the electronic control unit. The data were stored in both a secure digital card and in the cloud using the Waveshare SIM7600G-H 4G module. The results show that this embedded system can acquire and process video, audio, GPS data, alcohol concentration, speed, temperature, etc. Finally, a graphics user interface was developed to process the stored files. This system is similar to a black box in airplanes, which records all flight information into the black box using a specific algorithm. This makes the recorded flight data accessible to authorities when needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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19 pages, 7110 KiB  
Article
Multi-Source Data Fusion Method for the Truss Structure Stability Measurement of Space Telescope
by Tianxiao Xu, Xu He, Xiaohui Zhang, Jing Luo, Jinxin Wang, Chenghao Li, Chenxu You, Chengqiang Jiang and Yichen Liu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5562; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115562 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 1851
Abstract
It is necessary for large aperture space telescopes to achieve high measurement accuracy for mechanical reference mounting surfaces, complex deformation conditions, and difficulty in describing spatial geometric properties. In this manuscript, we propose a measurement method for evaluating the deformation of the trusses [...] Read more.
It is necessary for large aperture space telescopes to achieve high measurement accuracy for mechanical reference mounting surfaces, complex deformation conditions, and difficulty in describing spatial geometric properties. In this manuscript, we propose a measurement method for evaluating the deformation of the trusses structure by fusing multiple sources of data. The multi-source data are obtained from the theodolite, laser tracker, and photogrammetry systems. The datum alignment of the laser tracker and photogrammetry coordinate systems is achieved by establishing the transition coordinate system method of the datum platform, and the alignment accuracy (3σ) is about 8.8″, 5.1″ and 4.2″. Using the laser tracker to establish the relationship between the cubic mirror coordinate system and the geometric coordinate system of the mounting part, the fast and high-precision measurement of the mounting angle of the cubic prism is realized, and the measurement accuracy reaches 2″. The data from multiple sources are fused through datum transfer and alignment to establish a cosine matrix transfer chain between the mechanical characteristic coordinate system of each component and the transition coordinate system of the datum platform, and the Eulerian rotation angle is obtained to describe the angular relationship between the components after solving. Based on the Monte Carlo mathematical error modeling analysis, the datum transfer and alignment simulations were carried out, and related experiments were conducted. The experiments show that the transfer error (3σ) of the XYZ rotation angle is less than 20.6″ after the datum transfer, the maximum error is within 3″ compared to the simulation results, and the deviation of the comparison photographic measurement data is less than 7.6″. The datum transfer method combined with photogrammetry can describe the deformation trend of large-size trusses under different load conditions more objectively and reasonably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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18 pages, 5157 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of a Leaf Flexure Compliant Mechanism Based on 2-DOF Tuned Mass Damping Stage Analysis
by Yung-Sheng Chang, Vu N. D. Kieu and Shyh-Chour Huang
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060817 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 2448
Abstract
This study proposed an innovative design of a leaf flexural-based 2-DOF tuned mass damping stage that can be integrated into a micro-electromechanical system precision positioning stage to reduce the displacement response of the precision positioning stage excited by a specific vibration frequency and [...] Read more.
This study proposed an innovative design of a leaf flexural-based 2-DOF tuned mass damping stage that can be integrated into a micro-electromechanical system precision positioning stage to reduce the displacement response of the precision positioning stage excited by a specific vibration frequency and to achieve the damping effect and vibration reduction without adding viscous damping materials. A prototype that conforms to dual-axis decoupling and has 2-DOF translation capability was designed using parallel and vertical arrangements of a leaf flexure. The Taguchi design method and the finite element method were used on the relevant design parameters of the primary mass stage to determine the best size configuration for the maximum off-axial stiffness ratio and the parameters of the tuned mass damper closest to the natural frequency of the primary mass stage with the minimum deflection. In addition, an optimization module, based on a genetic algorithm (GA), was used to optimize the design of the flexure size of the tuned mass damper. Finally, experiments were conducted, the vibration displacement response of the primary mass stage was observed, and the effect with or without the addition of tuned mass damping on the system vibration response was compared. The results indicate that the tuned mass damper can effectively reduce the response amplitude of the stage, where the maximum reduction rate in the experiment was 63.0442%, and the mass of the damper was highly positively correlated with the amplitude reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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36 pages, 3900 KiB  
Article
A Dynamic Thermal-Mechanical Coupling Numerical Model to Solve the Deformation and Thermal Diffusion of Plates
by Wenxing Chen, Shuyang Dai and Baojuan Zheng
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050753 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Elastic materials include metal plates, rubber, foam, airbags and so on, which have a good buffer effect, toughness and strong recovery ability. In this paper, the deformation and thermal diffusion of 2D and 3D thin plates are studied. Two models are established [...] Read more.
Elastic materials include metal plates, rubber, foam, airbags and so on, which have a good buffer effect, toughness and strong recovery ability. In this paper, the deformation and thermal diffusion of 2D and 3D thin plates are studied. Two models are established for the deformation of 2D thin plates. The bending deformation equation of rectangular and circular plates is derived, and the semi-analytical solution of the deflection function w(x,y) is found through the Fourier series approximation in the polar coordinate. The consistencies of the numerical solution and the theoretical solution are verified by numerical method. Then, we find that the factors affecting the deformation are related to the Young’s modulus, load, plate length and deformation factor α of the material. In a separate temperature physics field, we establish a heat conduction model of 2D graphene film. Three numerical schemes of the transient heat conduction equation of FDM-FEM are given. In contrast, this paper uses the implicit Euler method to discrete the time term. Furthermore, we compared the difference between the adiabatic condition and the convection condition by the graphical method and the curve trend. The results show that the temperature near the adiabatic boundary is higher. Finally, we proposed a 3D dynamic thermal–mechanical coupling model (3D-DTMCM) that has been established. A laser heating monocrystalline silicon sheet with periodic motion formula is given. The temperature radiation of the laser heat source has Gaussian distribution characteristics. Our proposed model can dynamically determine Young’s modulus with a variable temperature. The numerical results show that the higher the temperature is, the higher the strain energy density of the plate is. In addition, the deformation amplitude of the plates in the coupling field is larger than that in the single mechanical field. Finally, we also discussed the stress field distribution of mixed cracks under high temperature and high load. Our research provides theoretical support for the deformation of different plates, and also reflects the value of the coupled model in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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17 pages, 4675 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Massively Parallel Systems Using SPEC OMP Suite
by Dheya Mustafa
Computers 2022, 11(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers11050075 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3151
Abstract
Performance analysis plays an essential role in achieving a scalable performance of applications on massively parallel supercomputers equipped with thousands of processors. This paper is an empirical investigation to study, in depth, the performance of two of the most common High-Performance Computing architectures [...] Read more.
Performance analysis plays an essential role in achieving a scalable performance of applications on massively parallel supercomputers equipped with thousands of processors. This paper is an empirical investigation to study, in depth, the performance of two of the most common High-Performance Computing architectures in the world. IBM has developed three generations of Blue Gene supercomputers—Blue Gene/L, P, and Q—that use, at a large scale, low-power processors to achieve high performance. Better CPU core efficiency has been empowered by a higher level of integration to gain more parallelism per processing element. On the other hand, the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor armed with 61 on-chip x86 cores, provides high theoretical peak performance, as well as software development flexibility with existing high-level programming tools. We present an extensive evaluation study of the performance peaks and scalability of these two modern architectures using SPEC OMP benchmarks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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13 pages, 7702 KiB  
Article
Case Study of a MEMS Snap-Through Actuator: Modeling and Fabrication Considerations
by Zhichao Shi, Emile Martincic, Johan Moulin, Elie Lefeuvre and Frédéric Lamarque
Micromachines 2022, 13(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13050654 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
MEMS actuators rely on the deformation of silicon structures. Using dimensions smaller than dozens of micrometers reveals that the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuators are affected by fabrication inaccuracies, leading to hardly predictable forces and/or actuation results. In this paper, MEMS bistable buckled beam [...] Read more.
MEMS actuators rely on the deformation of silicon structures. Using dimensions smaller than dozens of micrometers reveals that the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuators are affected by fabrication inaccuracies, leading to hardly predictable forces and/or actuation results. In this paper, MEMS bistable buckled beam actuators are presented. A series of structures based on pre-shaped buckled beams of lengths ranging from 2 to 4 mm, constant width of 5 μm and actuation stroke ranging from 20 to 100 μm was fabricated. Experimental data show a significant difference with predictions from a conventional analytical model. The model commonly used for buckled beams design assumes a rectangular beam section, but it is not the case of the fabricated beams. Furthermore, only symmetric buckling modes (mode 1, mode 3…) are supposed to exist during snap-through. In this paper, new analytical models have been developed on the basis of the models of the literature to consider the effective beam shape. The first improved analytical model enabled prediction of the MEMS buckled beams mechanical behavior in a 30% margin on the whole range of operation. A second model has been introduced to consider both the effective shape of the beam and centro-symmetric buckling modes. This refined model exhibits the partial suppression of buckling mode 2 by a central shuttle. Therefore, mode 2 and mode 3 coexist at the beginning and the end of snap-through, while mode 3 quickly vanishes due to increasing rotation of the central shuttle to leave exclusive presence of mode 2 near the mid-stroke. With this refined model, the effective force-displacement curve can be predicted in a margin reduced to a few percentages in the center zone of the response curve, allowing the accurate prediction of the position switch force. In addition, the proposed model allows accurate results to be reached with very small calculation time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovation of Applied System)
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