Special Issue "Innovation and Inventions of Electro-Optical Materials and Devices and their Application"

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shoou-Jinn Chang

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: optical and electronic devices, semi-conductive materials, nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chien-Hung Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan
E-Mail
Fax: +886 4 2287 7170
Interests: high precision instrument design; laser engineering; smart sensors and actuators; optical device; optical measurement; metrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of electro-optical and photovoltaic technology and its influence on the economics of such installations over the next few years is likely to establish which of the energy technologies will dominate for decades to come. The opportunity to share and discuss these crucial developments in a timely and influential forum is important. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as patent-based reviews, to this Special Issue. Potential topics include

1. Innovation and Inventions of Electro-Optical Materials
2. Innovation and Inventions of Electro-Optical Devices
3. Advanced materials for electro-optical and photovoltaic device application.
4. Advanced materials with new optical and photoelectric properties.
5. Nanoparticles, nanowires, or nanosheets for electro-optical devices
6. Device structures and processing techniques.
7. Sensing Device

Prof. Shoou-Jinn Chang
Prof. Dr. Chien-Hung Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inventions is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electro-Optical Materials
  • Electro-Optical Devices
  • Photovoltaic device
  • Nanoparticles, nanowires, nanosheets
  • Sensing device

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Performance Analysis of Smartphone-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning and Wireless Locating Technology for Indoor Navigation Application
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in smartphone technology have increased user demand for indoors applications. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the Inertial Navigation System (INS) are the two advanced systems for navigation technology. However, it is still difficult for GNSS to provide an accurate [...] Read more.
Recent developments in smartphone technology have increased user demand for indoors applications. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the Inertial Navigation System (INS) are the two advanced systems for navigation technology. However, it is still difficult for GNSS to provide an accurate and practical navigation solution, especially in environments with little or no signal availability. These failings should be easy to overcome; because of their portability and multiple embedded hardware sensors, smartphones seem well positioned to make pedestrian navigation easy and convenient in any environment. Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) is one of the most commonly used technologies used for pedestrian navigation, but it is not always accurate because its positioning errors tend to accumulate over time. Therefore, this research introduces a new tool to overcome this failing; a Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) beacon can maintain and improve the accuracy of PDR. Moreover, a BLE beacon can be initialized from any user position in an indoor environment. The random and unpredictable positions of pedestrians inevitably result in the degradation of navigation guidance systems’ data. To rectify this problem, we have implemented activity recognition technology to notify the proposed system so as to provide a more accurate heading estimate. This study proposes a Personal Navigation System (PNS) based on this technology; it can estimate navigation solutions in real time and combines the advantages of PDR and Bluetooth positioning technology. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the system and the efficacy of our proposed algorithms. Preliminary results show the average relative precision of PDR to be about 2.5%, when using a mobile hand-held device. The error of initial position from 2-D beacon positioning is less than two meters. The proposed system works well without post-processing, and the multi-sensor activity recognition system can determine the placement of the device when it is being carried or used by someone with close to 100% accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A ZnO Nanoparticle-Coated Long Period Fiber Grating as a Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a long period fiber grating (LPFG) with a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle layer for use as a carbon dioxide (CO2) gas sensor. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching, corona treatment, and electrostatic spraying were used to fabricate this ZnO [...] Read more.
This study proposes a long period fiber grating (LPFG) with a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle layer for use as a carbon dioxide (CO2) gas sensor. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching, corona treatment, and electrostatic spraying were used to fabricate this ZnO nanoparticle-coated LPFG CO2 gas sensor. Repeated gas sensor tests showed that, when a 15% CO2 mixture was injected (0.2 L/min) into a closed chamber into which the sensor had been placed, the CO2 gas was absorbed by the ZnO nanoparticle-coated LPFG sensor. In these tests, the transmission loss gradually decreased, and the maximum transmission loss was 2.039 dB. The concentration test results showed that as the concentration of CO2 introduced into the chamber was increased, the rate of the transmission loss change was increased in direct proportion. In addition, the sensitivity was 0.0513 dB/%. The results confirm that this low-cost ZnO nanoparticle-coated LPFG gas sensor was successfully applied to the measurement of CO2 gas. Therefore, the proposed ZnO nanoparticle-coated LPFG can be used to measure CO2 gas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sandwiched Magnetic Coupler for Adjustable Gear Ratio
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
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Abstract
An innovative design of a magnetic coupler for shaft speed amplification is proposed and verified by experiments. The structure of the proposed magnetic coupler is similar to an infinite-stage gearbox. In addition, the mathematical model of flux density is derived to look into [...] Read more.
An innovative design of a magnetic coupler for shaft speed amplification is proposed and verified by experiments. The structure of the proposed magnetic coupler is similar to an infinite-stage gearbox. In addition, the mathematical model of flux density is derived to look into the equation of adjustable gear ratio and effect of speed amplification. Moreover, two sets of experiments, namely verification of gear ratio and observation of stall phenomenon, are built up to examine the capabilities and drawbacks of the proposed variable-gear-ratio magnetic coupler. Three types of gear ratios are presented by theoretical analysis at first and then examined by experiments. The gear ratios for these three specific types between the input and output rotors are 4.75, 5.75 and 10.5, respectively. That is, the rotational speed of the output rotor can be precisely and realistically amplified. Besides, in order to reduce the torque inertia of the outer rotor, a ferrite bush is inserted to the inner side of the core rotor to decrease the flux density in the air gap. On the other hand, the overlapped depth of permanent magnets, which are attached onto the inner rotor and outer rotor, has to be appropriately chosen. The smaller the overlapped depth, the weaker is the magnetic attractive force in the air gap. As long as these two modifications (an inserted ferrite bush and the aforesaid overlapped depth) are validated, the torque inertia of the outer rotor can be significantly reduced. Accordingly, the required power to rotate the outer rotor can be greatly reduced if the overlapped depth is shortened. However, insufficient overlapped depth between the high-speed rotor and low-speed rotor will bring about a stall phenomenon caused by the magnetic attractive force between the high-speed rotor and the low-speed rotor being weaker than the start-up torque inertia. In other words, the reduced overlapped depth can also reduce the start-up torque inertia but stall phenomenon may easily occur. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Design and Control of a z-Tilt Piezoelectric Based Nano-Scale Compensation Stage with Circular Flexure Hinges
Received: 5 May 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
The Taguchi method is widely used for the optimization of mechanical design and this study is used it in the design of a 2D circular flexure hinge for a z-tilt piezoelectric based nano-scale compensation stage. Maximum displacement of the stage is 16 [...] Read more.
The Taguchi method is widely used for the optimization of mechanical design and this study is used it in the design of a 2D circular flexure hinge for a z-tilt piezoelectric based nano-scale compensation stage. Maximum displacement of the stage is 16 μm at z-axis and ±30 arcsec at θx and θy. The most important design parameters for such a flexure hinge are minimal diameter, body height, and notch radius. The important requirements for the optimal design of a flexure hinge is that the z-tilt stage should have the highest possible natural frequency and the smallest coupling displacement. Simulation results show the nano-stage to have a higher natural frequency (626 Hz) and lower coupling displacement (0.032%). A kinematic model for the z-tilt stage has also been proposed in this study and the experimental results show the actual natural frequency of 510 Hz to be slightly lower than in the simulation. By keeping the angular displacement less than ±30 arcsec for z-tilt motion of the stage, the results of tracking experiments show a coupling displacement of 300 nm for the z-axis and 1 arcsec for θx while the θy tracked a sine wave of 1 Hz and an amplitude of 5 arcsec. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recycling and Refurbishing of Epoxy Packaging Mold Ports and Plungers
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
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Abstract
During the integrated circuit (IC) packaging process, acid or alkaline chemical ingredients in the packaging material and in the mold cleaning cake are the major contributor to the corrosion of mold ports and plungers. To prolong the service life of these parts, this [...] Read more.
During the integrated circuit (IC) packaging process, acid or alkaline chemical ingredients in the packaging material and in the mold cleaning cake are the major contributor to the corrosion of mold ports and plungers. To prolong the service life of these parts, this study concentrates of three aspects of the problem: First, after recycling and cleaning the plungers and ports, a special vacuum coating is applied to counteract corrosion and reduce abrasion. This coating is resistant to acid and alkali and has a hardness of up to HV4000. This makes it both resistant to abrasion and prolongs working life. Halogen-free packaging material has now been introduced to produce Green Electric Membership Corporations (EMC). However, this material is more viscous than the older, more polluting, plastic cake and this shortens the time between mold cleaning and subsequently reduces time for production as well. Also, most abrasion of the plunger occurs within 3 mm of the tip. We have developed a silver welding technique for this portion and a process in which several materials are used for the main body of the plunger. The procedure involves cutting off the tip and welding on a compound material, we have used DC53 + F10 Steel. These techniques allow recycling and refurbishment of the plungers and ports of packaging molds to prolong their service life to a considerable degree. Take Advanced Semiconductor Engineering Inc. as an example, if each plant uses 1000 sets a month, 12 plants will use 144 thousand sets every year. The saving on each set is about NT$1600. This represents a saving of half the expenditure on mold ports and plungers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Development of a Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Oxygen Sensor
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a highly sensitive fiber-optic oxygen sensor. The sensor was fabricated using palladium (II) meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PdTFPP) and porous silica nanoparticles embedded in a tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS)/n-octyl-triethoxysilane (Octyl-triEOS) composite xerogel present as a coating on the end of the fiber. Sensitivity [...] Read more.
This paper presents a highly sensitive fiber-optic oxygen sensor. The sensor was fabricated using palladium (II) meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PdTFPP) and porous silica nanoparticles embedded in a tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS)/n-octyl-triethoxysilane (Octyl-triEOS) composite xerogel present as a coating on the end of the fiber. Sensitivity is quantified in terms of the ratio IN2/IO2, where IN2 and IO2 represent the intensity of fluorescence detected in a pure nitrogen or pure oxygen environment. The experimental results reveal that this PdTFPP-doped oxygen sensor with porous silica nanoparticles has a sensitivity of IN2/I100O2 = 386. The results also show that this sensor has higher sensitivity than an oxygen sensor based on Pd(II) complex immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. Furthermore, the optical oxygen sensor yields a linear Stern–Volmer plot. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of easy fabrication, low cost, and high sensitivity to oxygen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Ga-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Hydrothermal Method and Their Application to Ultraviolet Photodetector
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, high-density single crystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanorods were grown on glass substrate by the hydrothermal method. The structural and optoelectronic properties of Ga-doped ZnO nanorods were studied. The microstructure of the GZO was studied by scanning electrical microscope (SEM). The [...] Read more.
In this study, high-density single crystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanorods were grown on glass substrate by the hydrothermal method. The structural and optoelectronic properties of Ga-doped ZnO nanorods were studied. The microstructure of the GZO was studied by scanning electrical microscope (SEM). The structural characteristics of the GZO were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the peaks related to the wurtzite structure ZnO (100), (002), and (101) diffraction peaks. The (002) peak indicates that the nanorods were preferentially oriented in the c-axis direction. The existence of Ga was examined by energy diffraction spectra (EDS), indicating the Ga atom entered into the ZnO lattice. The optical properties of the GZO were measured by photoluminescence spectra. It was found that all GZO nanorod arrays showed two different emissions, including UV (ultraviolet) and green emissions. GZO nanorod metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PD) were also fabricated. The photo-current and dark-current constant ratio of the fabricated PD was approximately 15.2 when biased at 1 V. Full article
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