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Vet. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 46 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): During the COVID-19 pandemic, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported in zoological institutions around the world. This review analyses these reports to better understand which species are susceptible, and to discuss the variety of available diagnostic methods and treatment options. Moreover, the factors involved in the transmission of the virus are discussed to assess the risk of viral transmission between people and animals. Part of this risk may lie in the occurrence of mutations under different viral evolutionary constraints in different animal species, which could potentially spill back to humans. This review stresses the implementation of disease monitoring protocols and biosecurity measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission in a One Health perspective. View this paper
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16 pages, 12926 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Molecular, and Histopathological Patterns of a Novel Variant of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Chicken Flocks in Egypt
by Ahmed H. Salaheldin, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Hany F. Ellakany, Mostafa A. Mohamed and Ahmed R. Elbestawy
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020098 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1354
Abstract
After an extended period of detecting classical virulent, attenuated, and very virulent IBDV, a novel variant (nVarIBDV) was confirmed in Egypt in this study in 18, IBD vaccinated, chicken flocks aged 19–49 days. Partial sequence of viral protein 2 (VP2) [219 aa, 147–366, [...] Read more.
After an extended period of detecting classical virulent, attenuated, and very virulent IBDV, a novel variant (nVarIBDV) was confirmed in Egypt in this study in 18, IBD vaccinated, chicken flocks aged 19–49 days. Partial sequence of viral protein 2 (VP2) [219 aa, 147–366, resembling 657 bp] of two obtained isolates (nos. 3 and 4) revealed nVarIBDV (genotype A2d) and OR682618 and OR682619 GenBank accession numbers were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both nVarIBDV isolates were closely related to nVarIBDV strains (A2d) circulating in China, exhibiting 100% identity to SD-2020 and 99.5–98.1% similarity to ZD-2018-1, QZ, GX and SG19 strains, respectively. Similarity to USA variant strains, belonging to genotypes A2b (9109), A2c (GLS) and A2a (variant E), respectively, was 95.5–92.6%. Also, the VP2 hypervariable region in those two, A2d, isolates revealed greater similarities to Faragher 52/70 (Vaxxitek®) at 90.4% and to an Indian strain (Ventri-Plus®) and V217 (Xtreme®) at 89.7% and 86–88.9% in other vaccines. Histopathological examination of both the bursa of Fabricius and spleen collected from diseased chickens in flock no. 18 revealed severe atrophy. In conclusion, further studies are required to investigate the epidemiological situation of this novel genotype across the country, and to assess various vaccine protections against nVarIBDV. Additionally, vaccination of breeders with inactivated IBD vaccines including this nVarIBDV is essential to obtain specific maternal antibodies in their broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and Pathology of Virus Infection in Poultry)
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14 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
A Three-Year Study on the Nutritional Composition and Occurrence of Mycotoxins of Corn Varieties with Different Transgenic Events Focusing on Poultry Nutrition
by Juliano Kobs Vidal, Cristina Tonial Simões, Adriano Olnei Mallmann, Denize Tyska, Helder Victor Pereira and Carlos Augusto Mallmann
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020097 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Corn is one of the most produced cereals in the world and plays a major role in poultry nutrition. As there is limited scientific information regarding the impact of transgenic technology on the quality and nutrient composition of the grains, this study investigated [...] Read more.
Corn is one of the most produced cereals in the world and plays a major role in poultry nutrition. As there is limited scientific information regarding the impact of transgenic technology on the quality and nutrient composition of the grains, this study investigated the effect of three major transgenic corn varieties—VT PRO3®, PowerCore® ULTRA, and Agrisure® Viptera 3—on the field traits, nutrient composition, and mycotoxin contamination of corn grains cultivated in southern Brazil during three consecutive harvests. VT PRO3®, while demonstrating superior crop yield, showed susceptibility to mycotoxins, particularly fumonisins. In contrast, PowerCore® ULTRA, with the lowest yield, consistently exhibited lower levels of fumonisins. VT PRO3® had higher AMEn than the other varieties, while PowerCore® ULTRA had the highest total and digestible amino acid contents over the three years. The study’s comprehensive analysis reveals the distinct impact of transgenic corn technologies on both productivity and nutritional levels. Balancing the crops yield, mycotoxin resistance, and nutritional content of corn is crucial to meet the demands of the poultry feed industry. Such insights are essential for decision-making, ensuring sustainability and efficiency in agricultural production as well as meeting the demands of the poultry industry. Full article
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14 pages, 4077 KiB  
Article
Evidence Supporting Oral Hygiene Management by Owners through a Genetic Analysis of Dental Plaque Bacteria in Dogs
by Jeong suk Yu, Minhee Kim, Il-Hoon Cho, Yu-Min Sim and Young Sun Hwang
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020096 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
With the increase in the number of households raising dogs and the reports of human-to-dog transmission of oral bacteria, concerns about dogs’ oral health and the need for oral hygiene management are increasing. In this study, the owners’ perceptions about their dogs’ oral [...] Read more.
With the increase in the number of households raising dogs and the reports of human-to-dog transmission of oral bacteria, concerns about dogs’ oral health and the need for oral hygiene management are increasing. In this study, the owners’ perceptions about their dogs’ oral health and the frequency of oral hygiene were determined along with the analysis of dog dental plaque bacteria through metagenomic amplicon sequencing so as to support the need for oral hygiene management for dogs. Although the perception of 63.2% of the owners about their dogs’ oral health was consistent with the veterinarian’s diagnosis, the owners’ oral hygiene practices regarding their dogs were very poor. The calculi index (CI) and gingiva index (GI) were lower in dogs who had their teeth brushed more than once a week (57.89%) than in dogs brushed less than once a month (42.10%); however, the difference was nonsignificant (CI: p = 0.479, GI: p = 0.840). Genomic DNA was extracted from dental plaque bacteria removed during dog teeth scaling, and metagenomic amplicons were sequenced. The 16S amplicons of 73 species were identified from among the plaque bacteria of the dogs. These amplicons were of oral disease-causing bacteria in humans and dogs. The 16S amplicon of Streptococcus mutans matched that of the human S. mutans, with type c identified as the main serotype. This result suggests that human oral bacteria can be transmitted to dogs. Therefore, considering the high frequency of contact between dogs and humans because of communal living and the current poor oral health of dogs, owners must improve the oral hygiene management of their dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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12 pages, 1399 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hypotension and Dobutamine on Gastrointestinal Microcirculations of Healthy, Anesthetized Horses
by Philip J. Kieffer, Jarred M. Williams, Molly K. Shepard, Steeve Giguère and Kira L. Epstein
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020095 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Horses undergoing abdominal exploratory surgery are at risk of hypotension and hypoperfusion. Normal mean arterial pressure is used as a surrogate for adequate tissue perfusion. However, measures of systemic circulation may not be reflective of microcirculation. This study measured the mean arterial pressure, [...] Read more.
Horses undergoing abdominal exploratory surgery are at risk of hypotension and hypoperfusion. Normal mean arterial pressure is used as a surrogate for adequate tissue perfusion. However, measures of systemic circulation may not be reflective of microcirculation. This study measured the mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, lactate, and four microcirculatory indices in six healthy, anesthetized adult horses undergoing elective laparotomies. The microcirculatory parameters were measured at three different sites along the gastrointestinal tract (oral mucosa, colonic serosa, and rectal mucosa) with dark-field microscopy. All macro- and microcirculatory parameters were obtained when the horses were normotensive, hypotensive, and when normotension returned following treatment with dobutamine. Hypotension was induced with increases in inhaled isoflurane. The horses successfully induced into hypotension did not demonstrate consistent, expected changes in systemic perfusion or microvascular perfusion parameters at any of the three measured gastrointestinal sites. Normotension was successfully restored with the use of dobutamine, while the systemic perfusion and microvascular perfusion parameters remained relatively unchanged. These findings suggest that the use of mean arterial pressure to make clinical decisions regarding perfusion may or may not be accurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Abdominal Surgery)
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40 pages, 2703 KiB  
Review
Collaborative Metabolism: Gut Microbes Play a Key Role in Canine and Feline Bile Acid Metabolism
by John C. Rowe and Jenessa A. Winston
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020094 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Bile acids, produced by the liver and secreted into the gastrointestinal tract, are dynamic molecules capable of impacting the overall health of dogs and cats in many contexts. Importantly, the gut microbiota metabolizes host primary bile acids into chemically distinct secondary bile acids. [...] Read more.
Bile acids, produced by the liver and secreted into the gastrointestinal tract, are dynamic molecules capable of impacting the overall health of dogs and cats in many contexts. Importantly, the gut microbiota metabolizes host primary bile acids into chemically distinct secondary bile acids. This review explores the emergence of new literature connecting microbial-derived bile acid metabolism to canine and feline health and disease. Moreover, this review highlights multi-omic methodologies for translational research as an area for continued growth in veterinary medicine aimed at accelerating microbiome science and medicine as it pertains to bile acid metabolism in dogs and cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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16 pages, 12504 KiB  
Article
Development of Virus-like Particle Plant-Based Vaccines against Avian H5 and H9 Influenza A Viruses
by Ola A. Elbohy, Munir Iqbal, Janet M. Daly and Stephen P. Dunham
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020093 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1597
Abstract
Avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a significant cause of mortality in poultry, causing substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries, and has zoonotic potential. For example, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype have been circulating in Egypt for [...] Read more.
Avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a significant cause of mortality in poultry, causing substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries, and has zoonotic potential. For example, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype have been circulating in Egypt for around two decades. In the last decade, H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 have been succeeded by the antigenically distinct H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses. Furthermore, H9N2 viruses co-circulate with the H5N8 viruses in Egyptian poultry. It is widely recognised that effective vaccination against IAV requires a close antigenic match between the vaccine and viruses circulating in the field. Therefore, approaches to develop cost-effective vaccines that can be rapidly adapted to local virus strains are required for developing countries such as Egypt. In this project, the haemagglutinin (HA) proteins of Egyptian H5 and H9 viruses were expressed by transient transfection of plants (Nicotiana benthamiana). The formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Mice were immunised with four doses of either H5 or H9 VLPs with adjuvant. Antibody and cellular immune responses were measured against the corresponding recombinant protein using ELISA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISpot), respectively. Chickens were immunised with one dose of H5 VLPs, eliciting HA-specific antibodies measured by ELISA and a pseudotyped virus neutralisation test using a heterologous H5 HA. In conclusion, plant-based VLP vaccines have potential for producing an effective vaccine candidate within a short time at a relatively low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Control in Avian Virus Infections)
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16 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Residue Accumulation Contributes to Higher Levels of Rhodococcus equi Carrying Resistance Genes in the Environment of Horse-Breeding Farms
by Courtney Higgins, Noah D. Cohen, Nathan Slovis, Melissa Boersma, Pankaj P. Gaonkar, Daniel R. Golden and Laura Huber
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020092 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Antimicrobial residues excreted in the environment following antimicrobial treatment enhance resistant microbial communities in the environment and have long-term effects on the selection and maintenance of antimicrobial resistance genes (AMRGs). In this study, we focused on understanding the impact of antimicrobial use on [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial residues excreted in the environment following antimicrobial treatment enhance resistant microbial communities in the environment and have long-term effects on the selection and maintenance of antimicrobial resistance genes (AMRGs). In this study, we focused on understanding the impact of antimicrobial use on antimicrobial residue pollution and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment of horse-breeding farms. Rhodococcus equi is an ideal microbe to study these associations because it lives naturally in the soil, exchanges AMRGs with other bacteria in the environment, and can cause disease in animals and humans. The environment is the main source of R. equi infections in foals; therefore, higher levels of multidrug-resistant (MDR) R. equi in the environment contribute to clinical infections with MDR R. equi. We found that macrolide residues in the environment of horse-breeding farms and the use of thoracic ultrasonographic screening (TUS) for early detection of subclinically affected foals with R. equi infections were strongly associated with the presence of R. equi carrying AMRGs in the soil. Our findings indicate that the use of TUS contributed to historically higher antimicrobial use in foals, leading to the accumulation of antimicrobial residues in the environment and enhancing MDR R. equi. Full article
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22 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
The Efficacy of Encapsulated Phytase Based on Recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica on Quails’ Zootechnic Features and Phosphorus Assimilation
by Ekanerina A. Ovseychik, Olga I. Klein, Natalia N. Gessler, Yulia I. Deryabina, Valery S. Lukashenko and Elena P. Isakova
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020091 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2073
Abstract
In this study, we used the Manchurian golden breed of quails. We assessed the efficacy of the food additives of the phytase from Obesumbacterium proteus encapsulated in the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica yeast, which was supplied at a concentration of 500 phytase activity units [...] Read more.
In this study, we used the Manchurian golden breed of quails. We assessed the efficacy of the food additives of the phytase from Obesumbacterium proteus encapsulated in the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica yeast, which was supplied at a concentration of 500 phytase activity units per kg of the feed. One hundred fifty one-day-old quails were distributed into six treatment groups. The results showed that adding the O. proteus encapsulated phytase to the quails’ diets improved live weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion compared to those in the control groups and the groups using a commercial phytase from Aspergillus ficuum. The results obtained during the experiments indicate a high degree of assimilation of phytate-containing feeds if the encapsulated phytase was fed by the quails compared to that in the other groups. We can conclude that the class D encapsulated phytase is an expedient additive to the diets possessing better kinetic features compared to the PhyA and PhyC classes phytases when it acts inside the quail’s chyme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
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12 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Tick Diversity and Pathogen Transmission in Daejeon, Korea: Implications from Companion Animals and Walking Trails
by Jinwoo Seo, Gyurae Kim, Jeong-ah Lim, Seungho Song, Dae-Sung Yoo, Ho-Seong Cho and Yeonsu Oh
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020090 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
With the ongoing global warming-induced climate change, there has been a surge in vector-borne diseases, particularly tick-borne diseases (TBDs). As the population of companion animals grows, there is growing concern from a One Health perspective about the potential for these animals to spread [...] Read more.
With the ongoing global warming-induced climate change, there has been a surge in vector-borne diseases, particularly tick-borne diseases (TBDs). As the population of companion animals grows, there is growing concern from a One Health perspective about the potential for these animals to spread TBDs. In this study, ticks were collected from companion animals and the surrounding environment in Daejeon Metropolitan City, Korea, using flagging and dragging, and CO2 trap methods. These ticks were then subjected to conventional (nested) PCR for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. We identified a total of 29,176 ticks, consisting of three genera and four species: H. longicornis, H. flava, I. nipponensis, and A. testudinarium. Notably, H. longicornis was the predominant species. The presence of A. testudinarium suggested that the species traditionally found in southern regions are migrating northward, likely as a result of climate change. Our PCR results confirmed the presence of all four pathogens in both companion animals and the surrounding environment, underscoring the potential for the indirect transmission of tick-borne pathogens to humans through companion animals. These findings emphasize the importance of the ongoing surveillance of companion animals in the management and control of TBDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Strategies of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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10 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Lesional Skin in Canine Pemphigus Foliaceus
by Haley Starr, Elizabeth W. Howerth, Renato Leon, Robert M. Gogal, Jr. and Frane Banovic
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020089 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Canine pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is considered the most common autoimmune skin disease in dogs; the mechanism of PF disease development is currently poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the molecular mechanisms and altered biological pathways in the skin lesions of canine [...] Read more.
Canine pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is considered the most common autoimmune skin disease in dogs; the mechanism of PF disease development is currently poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the molecular mechanisms and altered biological pathways in the skin lesions of canine PF patients. Using an RNA microarray on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, we analyzed the transcriptome of canine PF lesional skin (n = 7) compared to healthy skin (n = 5). Of the 800 genes analyzed, 420 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (p < 0.05) were found. Of those, 338 genes were significantly upregulated, including pro-inflammatory and Th17-related genes. Cell type profiling found enhancement of several cell types, such as neutrophils, T-cells, and macrophages, in PF skin compared to healthy skin. Enrichment analyses of the upregulated DEGs resulted in 78 statistically significant process networks (FDR < 0.05), including the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In conclusion, canine PF lesional immune signature resembles previously published changes in human pemphigus skin lesions. Further studies with canine PF lesional skin using next-generation sequencing (e.g., RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, etc.) and the development of canine keratinocyte/skin explant PF models are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Dermatology: Challenges and Advances)
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35 pages, 28759 KiB  
Article
Blood Vessel Topography of the Feet in Selected Species of Birds of Prey and Owls
by Rebekka Schwehn, Elisabeth Engelke, Christian Seiler, Dominik Fischer, Hermann Seifert, Christiane Pfarrer, Michael Fehr and Marko Legler
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020088 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Birds of prey and owls are susceptible to diseases of and traumatic injuries to their feet, which regularly require surgical intervention. A precise knowledge of the blood vessel topography is essential for a targeted therapy. Therefore, the metatarsal and digital vasculature was examined [...] Read more.
Birds of prey and owls are susceptible to diseases of and traumatic injuries to their feet, which regularly require surgical intervention. A precise knowledge of the blood vessel topography is essential for a targeted therapy. Therefore, the metatarsal and digital vasculature was examined in eight species of birds of prey and owls. The study included contrast micro-computed tomography scans and anatomical dissections after intravascular injection of colored latex. In all examined species, the dorsal metatarsal arteries provided the main supply to the foot and their branching pattern and number differed between species. They continued distally as digital arteries. All examined species showed a basic pattern of four collaterally located digital blood vessels per toe: a prominent artery and small vein on one side and a small artery and prominent vein on the other side. Digital veins united to form common digital veins, most of which joined into a superficial, medially located metatarsal vein. This vein provided the main drainage of the foot. The detailed visualization of the topography of pedal blood vessels will help veterinary surgeons during surgical procedures. In addition, differences in the plantar arterial arch between hawks and falcons were discussed regarding their possible influence on the prevalence of pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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13 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Metagenome-Based Analysis of the Microbial Community Structure and Drug-Resistance Characteristics of Livestock Feces in Anhui Province, China
by Ying Shao, Zhao Qi, Jinhui Sang, Zhaorong Yu, Min Li, Zhenyu Wang, Jian Tu, Xiangjun Song and Kezong Qi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020087 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
We analyzed metagenome data of feces from sows at different physiological periods reared on large-scale farms in Anhui Province, China, to provide a better understanding of the microbial diversity of the sow intestinal microbiome and the structure of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence [...] Read more.
We analyzed metagenome data of feces from sows at different physiological periods reared on large-scale farms in Anhui Province, China, to provide a better understanding of the microbial diversity of the sow intestinal microbiome and the structure of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence genes it carries. Species annotation of the metagenome showed that in the porcine intestinal microbiome, bacteria were dominant, representing >97% of the microorganisms at each physiological period. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial community. In the porcine gut microbiome, the viral component accounted for an average of 0.65%, and the species annotation results indicated that most viruses were phages. In addition, we analyzed the microbiome for ARGs and virulence genes. Multidrug-like, MLS-like, and tetracycline-like ARGs were most abundant in all samples. Evaluation of the resistance mechanisms indicated that antibiotic inactivation was the main mechanism of action in the samples. It is noteworthy that there was a significant positive correlation between ARGs and the total microbiome. Moreover, comparative analysis with the Virulence Factor Database showed that adhesion virulence factors were most abundant. Full article
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16 pages, 981 KiB  
Review
Exploring Endogenous and Exogenous Factors for Successful Artificial Insemination in Sheep: A Global Overview
by Bouchra El Amiri and Abdellatif Rahim
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020086 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Artificial insemination (AI) plays a vital role in animal breeding programs. AI is applied to enhance animal genetics and facilitate the widespread integration of desirable characteristics with a high potential for productivity. However, in sheep, this biotechnology is not commonly practicable due to [...] Read more.
Artificial insemination (AI) plays a vital role in animal breeding programs. AI is applied to enhance animal genetics and facilitate the widespread integration of desirable characteristics with a high potential for productivity. However, in sheep, this biotechnology is not commonly practicable due to multi-factorial challenges, resulting in inconsistent outcomes and unpredictable results. Thoughtful selection of semen donors and recipients based on genetic merit deeply impacts ovine AI outcomes. Additionally, endogenous factors such as breed, age, fertility traits, genetic disorders, and cervical anatomy in ewes contribute to ovine AI success. Extensive research has studied exogenous influences on sexual behavior, reproductive health, and hormonal regulation, all impacting ovine AI success. These exogenous factors include techniques like estrus induction, synchronization, semen handling methods (fresh/chilled/frozen), and insemination methods (cervical/laparoscopic), as well as nutritional factors and climatic conditions. This overview of the literature highlights the endogenous and exogenous challenges facing successful ovine AI and proposes strategies and best practices for improvement. This paper will serve as a guide for understanding and optimizing the success of ovine AI. Full article
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17 pages, 5588 KiB  
Article
Identification of Sarcocystis and Trichinella Species in Muscles of Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) from Lithuania
by Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu, Evelina Maziliauskaitė, Muza Kirjušina, Petras Prakas, Rasa Vaitkevičiūtė, Jolanta Stankevičiūtė and Dalius Butkauskas
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020085 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Apicomplexan Sarcocystis and Trichinella nematodes are food-borne parasites whose life cycle is carried-out in various wildlife and domestic animals. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is an apex predator acting as an ecosystem engineer. This study aimed to identify the species of [...] Read more.
Apicomplexan Sarcocystis and Trichinella nematodes are food-borne parasites whose life cycle is carried-out in various wildlife and domestic animals. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is an apex predator acting as an ecosystem engineer. This study aimed to identify the species of Sarcocystis and Trichinella found in the muscles of gray wolves in Lithuania. During the 2017–2022 period, diaphragm, heart, and hind leg samples of 15 animals were examined. Microscopical analysis showed the presence of two types of Sarcocystis parasites in 26.7% of the analyzed muscle samples. Based on the sequencing of five loci, nuclear 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1, mitochondrial cox1, and apicoplast rpoB, S. arctica, and S. svanai were identified. The current work presents the first report of S. svanai in gray wolf. Phylogenetically, S. svanai clustered together with S. lutrae, infecting various carnivorans, and S. arctica was most closely related to S. felis from domestic cats. Trichinella spp. were found in 12 gray wolves (80%). For the first time, Trichinella species were molecularly identified in gray wolves from Lithuania. Trichinella britovi was confirmed in all of the isolated Trichinella larvae using a multiplex PCR. Gray wolves in Lithuania may serve as a major source of zoonotic pathogens due to the presence of these parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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12 pages, 709 KiB  
Article
Perception about the Major Health Challenges in Different Swine Production Stages in Spain
by Alba Meléndez, María Teresa Tejedor, Olga Mitjana, María Victoria Falceto and Laura Garza-Moreno
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020084 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
One of the main challenges for the sustainability and productivity of the Spanish swine industry is health instability, resulting in significant economic losses. Information on the main swine diseases which affect the Spanish pig industry could help in optimizing the efforts within control [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges for the sustainability and productivity of the Spanish swine industry is health instability, resulting in significant economic losses. Information on the main swine diseases which affect the Spanish pig industry could help in optimizing the efforts within control programs. This study determined the frequency of occurrence of the main diseases in Spain and the main control tool used, based on perceptions from veterinarians and consultants in a specific survey. Results showed that Streptococcus (S.) suis, E. coli, and coccidia are the most frequent pathogens in the gestation and lactation phase, whereas the most important were Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the nursery phase, the most frequent were S. suis, E. coli, and PRRSV, the latter being the most important for the participants. Finally, in the fattening phase, PRRSV and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were the most frequent and important pathogen, respectively. Statistical differences among responses were detected with respect to the location and the gestation and lactation phases by farm size. Regarding the tools used for controlling the diseases, vaccination was the main strategy in all production phases, except in the fattening period, in which antibiotherapy was the most common response from the participants. Finally, the improvement of management practices was the most proposed tool, suggesting its importance within control programs. Full article
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11 pages, 260 KiB  
Review
Prevalence, Infection, and Risk to Human Beings of Toxocara canis in Domestic Food-Producing Animals
by Jingyun Xu and Qian Han
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020083 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Toxocariasis is a significant food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease, and a range of birds and mammals are the paratenic hosts of Toxocara canis. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat and viscera of these paratenic hosts frequently leads to T. canis infection and [...] Read more.
Toxocariasis is a significant food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease, and a range of birds and mammals are the paratenic hosts of Toxocara canis. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat and viscera of these paratenic hosts frequently leads to T. canis infection and the development of human toxocariasis. In this review, we will perform an analysis of relevant papers published in the National Center for Biotechnology Infrastructure database on the parasitism, migration, and infection of T. canis in chickens, pigeons, quail, pigs, cattle, sheep, and other food-producing animals, so as to make the public aware of the risk factors of human toxocariasis, improve the public’s understanding of T. canis infection, and provide evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
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16 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Microbial Isolates Cultured from Endometrial Swab Samples Collected from United Kingdom Thoroughbred Mares from 2014 to 2020
by Rebecca Mouncey, Juan Carlos Arango-Sabogal, Polly Rathbone, Camilla J. Scott and Amanda M. de Mestre
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020082 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2690
Abstract
Determining whether endometrial microbial isolates are pathogens, contaminants, or even part of the “normal” microbiome is extremely complex, particularly given the absence of “gold standard” tests for endometritis. Population-level benchmarking and temporal monitoring can provide novel insights and a wider context to improve [...] Read more.
Determining whether endometrial microbial isolates are pathogens, contaminants, or even part of the “normal” microbiome is extremely complex, particularly given the absence of “gold standard” tests for endometritis. Population-level benchmarking and temporal monitoring can provide novel insights and a wider context to improve understanding. This study aimed to (i) estimate the prevalence of endometrial isolates from swabs of Thoroughbred broodmares in Newmarket, UK between 2014 and 2020; and (ii) evaluate the effects of year, mare age, and cytology findings on isolate prevalence. Generalised linear mixed models with a logit link, both null models and models using year of sampling, mare age, or cytology findings as predictors, were fitted to estimate isolate prevalence. Over the 7-year period, data were available from 18,996 endometrial-swab samples from 6050 mares on 290 premises. The overall isolate prevalence was 35.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.0–37.9), and this varied significantly between years. The most prevalent isolates were β-hemolytic Streptococcus (17.9; 95% CI: 17–19) and E. coli (10.3%; 95% CI: 9.0–11.6). Isolate prevalence increased with mare age except for E. coli isolates, and with increasing category of cytology findings except for α-hemolytic Streptococcus isolates. The results provide novel estimates of isolate prevalence and highlight knowledge gaps around potential complexities in the interpretation of findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horse Reproduction and Fertility)
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13 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Diversity of Haemotropic Mycoplasma Species in Cats and Their Ectoparasites (Fleas and Ticks)
by Miglė Razgūnaitė, Indrė Lipatova, Algimantas Paulauskas, Justina Snegiriovaitė, Birutė Karvelienė, Gintaras Zamokas, Monika Laukutė and Jana Radzijevskaja
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020081 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Mycoplasma spp. pathogens frequently cause chronic and acute diseases in cats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and genetic diversity of Mycoplasma spp. in cats and their ectoparasites using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma spp. pathogens frequently cause chronic and acute diseases in cats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and genetic diversity of Mycoplasma spp. in cats and their ectoparasites using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Blood samples were collected from 541 domestic and stray cats in Lithuania. Ectoparasites (153 fleas and 321 ticks) were collected from owned domestic cats that live both outdoors and indoors. Mycoplasma spp. were detected in 7.2% of cat blood samples and 4.4% of Ctenocephalides felis fleas. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of Mycoplasma haemofelis in 1.1% of cats and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematominutum’ in 4.8% of cats. Ct. felis fleas harboured M. haemofelis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma bacteria in cats in Lithuania and cat fleas in the Baltic States. Full article
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17 pages, 1041 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Blood Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Dogs with Portosystemic Shunt
by Anja Becher, Els Acke, Gonçalo Serrano, Ingmar Kiefer, Michaele Alef, Wolf von Bomhard and Romy M. Heilmann
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020080 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1704
Abstract
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can help in assessing inflammatory diseases, sepsis, and chronic hepatic conditions in humans. Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts (PSSs) have signs of generalized inflammation, and the clinical signs can overlap with other conditions, including hypoadrenocorticism (HOC). Thus, the potential [...] Read more.
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can help in assessing inflammatory diseases, sepsis, and chronic hepatic conditions in humans. Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts (PSSs) have signs of generalized inflammation, and the clinical signs can overlap with other conditions, including hypoadrenocorticism (HOC). Thus, the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of leukocyte ratios as surrogate markers was assessed in a retrospective case–control study including 106 dogs diagnosed with PSSs. The disease control groups were dogs with parenchymal hepatopathy (PH; n = 22) or HOC (n = 31). In the PSS dogs, the blood NLRs were associated with the severity of systemic inflammation but not with the shunt type, hepatoencephalopathy, systemic infection, or hypoglycemia. The baseline NLRs did not differ between the three disease groups, between medically and surgically treated PSS dogs, or between those with successful PSS ligation and dogs experiencing peri-/post-surgical complications. However, dogs requiring two consecutive surgical interventions had significantly higher NLRs, and an NLR of <2.53 distinguished dogs with successful shunt ligation in one surgery from those requiring two consecutive surgeries for PSS closure. The blood NLR might be a useful clinicopathologic variable in PSS, but its value in helping differentiate PSS from HOC cases appears low. Integrating the NLR into a diagnostic algorithm may allow for a prediction of the number of surgical interventions required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Immune Biomarkers in Animal Diseases)
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12 pages, 1230 KiB  
Article
Hypoglycemia after Mitral Valve Repair in Dogs
by Yasuyuki Nii, Emi Takahashi, Miho Tabata, Shimon Furusato, Masaya Katsumata and Masami Uechi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020079 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Hypoglycemia has not been previously reported as a postoperative complication of mitral valve repair (MVR) in dogs; however, the authors have encountered cases of hypoglycemia after MVR. This study aimed to determine the incidence of hypoglycemia in dogs after MVR and investigate its [...] Read more.
Hypoglycemia has not been previously reported as a postoperative complication of mitral valve repair (MVR) in dogs; however, the authors have encountered cases of hypoglycemia after MVR. This study aimed to determine the incidence of hypoglycemia in dogs after MVR and investigate its causes. Blood glucose levels were measured at multiple timepoints in dogs undergoing MVR. Simultaneously, insulin and glucagon blood concentrations in dogs with hypoglycemia preoperatively and postoperatively were compared to verify the physiological responses to hypoglycemia. Furthermore, risk factors for hypoglycemia, using variables selected based on the characteristics of MVR and dogs undergoing MVR, were examined prospectively. The incidence of hypoglycemia after MVR was 14.2%, and plasma glucagon concentrations increased in these dogs (mean: 260 pg/mL and 644 pg/mL pre- and postoperatively, p < 0.001), whereas serum insulin concentrations decreased (median: 0.50 ng/mL and 0.29 ng/mL pre- and postoperatively, p = 0.002). Therefore, hyperinsulinemia or hypoglucagonemia is unlikely to be the cause of postoperative hypoglycemia. The identified risk factors for hypoglycemia included low body weight and asymptomatic myxomatous mitral valve disease. Monitoring blood glucose levels after MVR should be included in the standard hospitalization plan to prevent hypoglycemic emergencies in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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23 pages, 416 KiB  
Review
Perspectives on SARS-CoV-2 Cases in Zoological Institutions
by Remco A. Nederlof, Melissa A. de la Garza and Jaco Bakker
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020078 - 07 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a zoological institution were initially reported in March 2020. Since then, at least 94 peer-reviewed cases have been reported in zoos worldwide. Among the affected animals, nonhuman primates, carnivores, and artiodactyls appear to be [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a zoological institution were initially reported in March 2020. Since then, at least 94 peer-reviewed cases have been reported in zoos worldwide. Among the affected animals, nonhuman primates, carnivores, and artiodactyls appear to be most susceptible to infection, with the Felidae family accounting for the largest number of reported cases. Clinical symptoms tend to be mild across taxa; although, certain species exhibit increased susceptibility to disease. A variety of diagnostic tools are available, allowing for initial diagnostics and for the monitoring of infectious risk. Whilst supportive therapy proves sufficient in most cases, monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as a promising additional treatment option. Effective transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in some species raises concerns over potential spillover and the formation of reservoirs. The occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of animal species may contribute to the emergence of variants of concern due to altered viral evolutionary constraints. Consequently, this review emphasizes the need for effective biosecurity measures and surveillance strategies to prevent and control SARS-CoV-2 infections in zoological institutions. Full article
15 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Expression in Equine Melanocytic Tumors
by José Pimenta, Justina Prada, Isabel Pires and Mário Cotovio
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020077 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Equine melanocytic tumors are common and have an unusual benign behavior with low invasiveness and metastatic rates. However, tumoral mass growth is usually a concern that can have life-threatening consequences. COX-2 is related to oncogenesis, promoting neoplastic cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The [...] Read more.
Equine melanocytic tumors are common and have an unusual benign behavior with low invasiveness and metastatic rates. However, tumoral mass growth is usually a concern that can have life-threatening consequences. COX-2 is related to oncogenesis, promoting neoplastic cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in equine melanocytic tumors. Through extension and intensity of labeling, 39 melanocytomas and 38 melanomas were evaluated. Of the malignant tumors, 13.2% were negative and 63.2% presented a low COX-2 expression. Only 6 malignant tumors presented >50% of labeled cells, 18 malignant and 8 benign had an expression between 21 and 50%, 8 malignant and 3 benign tumors had an expression between 6 and 20%, 1 malignant tumor had an expression between 1 and 5%, and 5 malignant and 28 benign tumors had no expression. Malignant tumors showed higher COX-2 expression than did benign tumors, with statistically significant differences. The low levels of COX-2 may be one of the molecular reasons for the presence of expansive mass growth instead of the invasive pattern of other species, which is related to high COX-2 levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models in Cancer Research: Advancement and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 1889 KiB  
Article
Identify Candidate Genes Associated with the Weight and Egg Quality Traits in Wenshui Green Shell-Laying Chickens by the Copy Number Variation-Based Genome-Wide Association Study
by Suozhou Yang, Chao Ning, Cheng Yang, Wenqiang Li, Qin Zhang, Dan Wang and Hui Tang
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020076 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Copy number variation (CNV), as an essential source of genetic variation, can have an impact on gene expression, genetic diversity, disease susceptibility, and species evolution in animals. To better understand the weight and egg quality traits of chickens, this paper aimed to detect [...] Read more.
Copy number variation (CNV), as an essential source of genetic variation, can have an impact on gene expression, genetic diversity, disease susceptibility, and species evolution in animals. To better understand the weight and egg quality traits of chickens, this paper aimed to detect CNVs in Wenshui green shell-laying chickens and conduct a copy number variation regions (CNVRs)-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify variants and candidate genes associated with their weight and egg quality traits to support related breeding efforts. In our paper, we identified 11,035 CNVRs in Wenshui green shell-laying chickens, which collectively spanned a length of 13.1 Mb, representing approximately 1.4% of its autosomal genome. Out of these CNVRs, there were 10,446 loss types, 491 gain types, and 98 mixed types. Notably, two CNVRs showed significant correlations with egg quality, while four CNVRs exhibited significant associations with body weight. These significant CNVRs are located on chromosome 4. Further analysis identified potential candidate genes that influence weight and egg quality traits, including FAM184B, MED28, LAP3, ATOH8, ST3GAL5, LDB2, and SORCS2. In this paper, the CNV map of the Wenshui green shell-laying chicken genome was constructed for the first time through population genotyping. Additionally, CNVRs can be employed as molecular markers to genetically improve chickens’ weight and egg quality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Improvement and Reproductive Biotechnologies)
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13 pages, 1495 KiB  
Article
Respiratory Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Administered during Recovery from General Anesthesia in Brachycephalic Dogs
by Caterina Vicenti, Pablo E. Otero, Angela Briganti, Vincenzo Rondelli, Marzia Stabile, Claudia Piemontese, Antonio Crovace, Luca Lacitignola and Francesco Staffieri
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020075 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1753
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of applying 5 cmH2O of CPAP using a pediatric helmet during the recovery phase from general anesthesia in brachycephalic dogs. Brachycephalic dogs undergoing various surgical procedures were included in this study, and a total [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of applying 5 cmH2O of CPAP using a pediatric helmet during the recovery phase from general anesthesia in brachycephalic dogs. Brachycephalic dogs undergoing various surgical procedures were included in this study, and a total of 64 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either standard oxygen supplementation (NO-CPAP group) or oxygen supplementation combined with CPAP (CPAP group). This study evaluated arterial blood pH, blood gas partial pressures of O2 and CO2, arterial blood O2 saturation, and related parameters during recovery. The dogs were monitored, and helmet tolerance was assessed using predefined criteria. Of the initially assessed 69 dogs, 64 were enrolled: 32 in the CPAP group and 32 in the NO-CPAP group. Fifteen dogs in the NO-CPAP group were excluded based on predetermined criteria. The CPAP group showed significant improvements in PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, P(A-a)O2, F-Shunt, and respiratory rate compared with the NO-CPAP group (p < 0.001). The incidence of reintubation and helmet intolerance was higher in the NO-CPAP group (18% and 15.6%, respectively) than in the CPAP group (0%). This study highlights the potential benefits of incorporating CPAP, delivered through a pediatric helmet, in the perioperative management of brachycephalic dogs. Full article
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13 pages, 6319 KiB  
Article
Dexmedetomidine Sedation in Dogs: Impact on Electroencephalography, Behavior, Analgesia, and Antagonism with Atipamezole
by Jeff C. Ko, Carla Murillo, Ann B. Weil, Matthia Kreuzer and George E. Moore
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020074 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the impact of dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on key parameters in dogs. Six dogs received a 60 µg/kg/h dexmedetomidine infusion over 10 min, followed by three 15 min decremental CRIs (3, 2, and 1 µg/kg/h). A subsequent [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the impact of dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on key parameters in dogs. Six dogs received a 60 µg/kg/h dexmedetomidine infusion over 10 min, followed by three 15 min decremental CRIs (3, 2, and 1 µg/kg/h). A subsequent reversal phase employed 600 µg/kg/h atipamezole over 5 min. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) assessment, and cardiorespiratory and analgesia monitoring (every 3 min) were conducted, including analgesia evaluation through responses to electric stimulation. Dexmedetomidine induced profound sedation, evidenced by lateral recumbency and immobility. Patient State Index (PSI) decreased from awake (90.4 ± 4.3) to Phase 1 (50.9 ± 30.7), maintaining sedation (29.0 ± 18.1 to 33.1 ± 19.1 in Phases 2–4). Bradycardia (37.8 ± 3.5 bpm, lowest at Phase 3) and hypertension (133.7 ± 17.0 mmHg, highest at Phase 1) were observed, with minimal analgesia. Atipamezole promptly reversed sedation, restoring cognitive function (tail wagging behavior), and normalizing cardiovascular parameters. During atipamezole CRI, the EEG exhibited a transition from delta waves to alpha and low beta waves. This transition was observed alongside gradual increases in PSI and electromyographic activities. Additionally, spindle activities disappeared during this process. This study’s results suggest potential clinical utility for EEG-guided dexmedetomidine sedation with reversal using atipamezole, warranting further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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21 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Combined Dietary Supplementation of Tenebrio molitor Larvae and Chitosan in Growing Pigs: A Pilot Study
by Christos Zacharis, Eleftherios Bonos, Chrysoula (Chrysa) Voidarou, Georgios Magklaras, Konstantina Fotou, Ilias Giannenas, Ioannis Giavasis, Chrysanthi Mitsagga, Christos Athanassiou, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Katerina Grigoriadou, Athina Tzora and Ioannis Skoufos
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020073 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Nowadays, the global animal industry faces considerable challenges in securing sufficient feed resources. Responding to consumer demands for reduced use of antibiotics in animal nutrition, better animal welfare status, and reduced impact on the environment, there is an increased urgency to develop innovative [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the global animal industry faces considerable challenges in securing sufficient feed resources. Responding to consumer demands for reduced use of antibiotics in animal nutrition, better animal welfare status, and reduced impact on the environment, there is an increased urgency to develop innovative functional feeds with a reduced environmental footprint and the ability to improve meat quality and safety. In an effort to explore innovative feed ingredients for growing pig diets, the combined dietary supplementation of Tenebrio molitor larvae and chitosan was investigated. An experimental trial was performed with 48 weaned pigs (34 days of life; mixed sex) that were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (with six males and six females each): Group A (control), Group B (supplemented with T. molitor larvae at 10%), Group C (supplemented with chitosan at 0.05%), and Group D (supplemented with both ingredients at 10% and 0.05%, respectively). On the 42nd day of the experimental trial, samples of blood, feces, and carcass parts were taken for analysis. The results indicated that the insect larvae meal significantly improved (p < 0.05) overall performance, increased (p < 0.05) blood red blood cell content, increased meat phenolic content (p < 0.05), improved meat oxidative stability (p < 0.05), and affected meat fatty acid profile (p < 0.05). On the other hand, chitosan had no significant effect on overall performance (p > 0.05), but it significantly increased blood lymphocyte content (p < 0.05), affected the fecal microbiota (p < 0.05), improved meat oxidative stability (p < 0.05), increased meat phenolic content (p < 0.05), and affected meat fatty acid composition (p < 0.05) and (p < 0.05) meat color. Finally, the combined use of both T. molitor and chitosan significantly affected some important zootechnical parameters (p < 0.05), fecal microbial populations (p < 0.05), meat color (p < 0.05), and fatty acid profile (p < 0.05). Further investigation into the potential interaction between insect larvae meals and chitosan in pig diets is advised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in Veterinary Medicine)
9 pages, 3041 KiB  
Case Report
Cutaneous Plasmacytoma with Systemic Metastases in a Cape Serotine Bat (Laephotis capensis)
by Louise van der Weyden, Alida Avenant and Nicolize O’Dell
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020072 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Despite their relatively long life-spans, reports of neoplasia in bats are rare and are limited to a handful of cases. In this report, we describe a 2-year-old female wild Cape serotine bat (Laephotis capensis) that had been caught by a domestic [...] Read more.
Despite their relatively long life-spans, reports of neoplasia in bats are rare and are limited to a handful of cases. In this report, we describe a 2-year-old female wild Cape serotine bat (Laephotis capensis) that had been caught by a domestic cat and presented with a skin mass over the chest area. Histopathological analysis of a subsequent biopsy revealed proliferating sheets of neoplastic round cells, occasionally appearing to form packets, supported by a fine, fibrovascular stroma. Marked nuclear pleomorphism was seen, as well as a high mitotic count. Immunohistochemistry displayed positive labelling for MUM1 in the neoplastic cells. The diagnosis was extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP); a neoplasm consisting of plasma cells derived from B lymphocytes. Due to a deteriorating condition, the bat was anaesthetised, and the mass was surgically removed two weeks later. However, the bat succumbed under the anaesthetic. Histopathological examination of the mass showed the same neoplastic cell population as observed in the biopsy; in addition, there was a locally extensive infiltration of neoplastic cells in the spleen and a mild presence of neoplastic cells in circulation. This is the first report of an EMP in a bat, and we compare the findings with that seen in dogs and cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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13 pages, 585 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Investigation of Florfenicol Resistance and Molecular Detection of floR Gene in Canine and Feline MDR Enterobacterales
by Marios Lysitsas, Eleutherios Triantafillou, Vassiliki Spyrou, Charalambos Billinis and George Valiakos
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020071 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Florfenicol is a promising antibiotic for use in companion animals, especially as an alternative agent for infections caused by MDR bacteria. However, the emergence of resistant strains could hinder this potential. In this study, florfenicol resistance was investigated in a total of 246 [...] Read more.
Florfenicol is a promising antibiotic for use in companion animals, especially as an alternative agent for infections caused by MDR bacteria. However, the emergence of resistant strains could hinder this potential. In this study, florfenicol resistance was investigated in a total of 246 MDR Enterobacterales obtained from canine and feline clinical samples in Greece over a two-year period (October 2020 to December 2022); a total of 44 (17,9%) florfenicol-resistant strains were recognized and further investigated. Most of these isolates originated from urine (41.9%) and soft tissue (37.2%) samples; E. coli (n = 14) and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 12) were the predominant species. The strains were examined for the presence of specific florfenicol-related resistance genes floR and cfr. In the majority of the isolates (31/44, 70.5%), the floR gene was detected, whereas none carried cfr. This finding creates concerns of co-acquisition of plasmid-mediated florfenicol-specific ARGs through horizontal transfer, along with several other resistance genes. The florfenicol resistance rates in MDR isolates seem relatively low but considerable for a second-line antibiotic; thus, in order to evaluate the potential of florfenicol to constitute an alternative antibiotic in companion animals, continuous monitoring of antibiotic resistance profiles is needed in order to investigate the distribution of florfenicol resistance under pressure of administration of commonly used agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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16 pages, 3883 KiB  
Article
CircRNA-5335 Regulates the Differentiation and Proliferation of Sheep Preadipocyte via the miR-125a-3p/STAT3 Pathway
by Wei Guo, Renzeng Ciwang, Lei Wang, Shuer Zhang, Nan Liu, Jinshan Zhao, Lisheng Zhou, Hegang Li, Xiaoxiao Gao and Jianning He
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020070 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
The content of intramuscular fat (IMF) from preadipocytes is proportional to meat quality in livestock. However, the roles of circRNAs in IMF deposition in sheep are not well known. In this study, we show that circRNA-5335/miR-125a-3p/STAT3 play a crucial adjective role in the [...] Read more.
The content of intramuscular fat (IMF) from preadipocytes is proportional to meat quality in livestock. However, the roles of circRNAs in IMF deposition in sheep are not well known. In this study, we show that circRNA-5335/miR-125a-3p/STAT3 play a crucial adjective role in the proliferation and differentiation of sheep preadipocytes. In this study, we characterized the roles of differentially expressed circRNA-5335/miR-125a-3p/STAT3, which were screened from sheep of different months of age and based on sequencing data. Firstly, the expression profiles of circRNA-5335/miR-125a-3p/STAT3 were identified during the differentiation of preadipocytes in vitro by RT-qPCR and WB. Then, the targeting relationship of the circRNA-5335/miR-125a-3p/STAT3 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assays. The results of RT-qPCR, CCK8, EdU and Oil Red O staining assay showed that miR-125a-3p suppressed the differentiation and raised the proliferation of preadipocytes by targeting STAT3. As a competing endogenous RNA, the downregulation of circRNA-5335 decreased the expression of STAT3 by increasing miR-125a-3p, which inhibited the differentiation of preadipocytes and promoted proliferation. Our present study demonstrates the functional significance of circRNA-5335/miR-125a-3p/STAT3 in the differentiation of sheep preadipocytes, and provides novel insights into exploring the mechanism of IMF. Full article
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14 pages, 2980 KiB  
Article
Deciphering the Dual Role of Heligmosomoides polygyrus Antigens in Macrophage Modulation and Breast Cancer Cell Growth
by Patryk Firmanty, Maria Doligalska, Magdalena Krol and Bartlomiej Taciak
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020069 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1675
Abstract
In our study, we explored how parasitic nematodes, specifically Heligmosomoides polygyrus, influence the immune response, focusing on their potential role in tumor growth. The study aimed to understand the mechanisms by which these parasites modify immune cell activation, particularly in macrophages, and [...] Read more.
In our study, we explored how parasitic nematodes, specifically Heligmosomoides polygyrus, influence the immune response, focusing on their potential role in tumor growth. The study aimed to understand the mechanisms by which these parasites modify immune cell activation, particularly in macrophages, and how this might create an environment conducive to tumor growth. Our methods involved analyzing the effects of H. polygyrus excretory-secretory antigens on macrophage activation and their subsequent impact on breast cancer cell lines EMT6 and 4T1. We observed that these antigens significantly increased the expression of genes associated with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Il-6 (Interleukin), and arginase. Additionally, we observed changes in the expression of macrophage surface receptors like CD11b, F4/80, and TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4). Our findings indicate that the antigens from H. polygyrus markedly alter macrophage behavior and increase the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a laboratory setting. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex interactions between parasitic infections and cancer development, highlighting the need for further research in this area to develop potential new strategies for cancer treatment. Full article
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