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Beverages, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Sensory Profile, Consumer Preference and Chemical Composition of Craft Beers from Brazil
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040106
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Craft beers are known for their distinct flavor, brew, and regional distribution. They are made using top-fermenting (ale) yeast, bottom-fermenting (lager) yeast, or through spontaneous fermentation. Craft beers are consumed and produced in Brazil in large quantities. However, they present a high level [...] Read more.
Craft beers are known for their distinct flavor, brew, and regional distribution. They are made using top-fermenting (ale) yeast, bottom-fermenting (lager) yeast, or through spontaneous fermentation. Craft beers are consumed and produced in Brazil in large quantities. However, they present a high level of polyphenols, which affects consumer preference as they may yield a taste of bitterness to beers. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between polyphenols and bitterness as well as the composition of the main styles of craft beers and consumer preference for them. Six different styles were analyzed according to their polyphenol content, bitterness, chemical composition, sensory profile, and preference. For preference, a panel of 62 untrained assessors was used. For sensory profile, quantitative descriptive analysis was performed using expert assessors (n = 8). The most preferred style was classic American pilsner, and the least preferred was standard American lager. The most preferred style showed less bitterness (9.52) and lower polyphenol content (0.61 mg EAG/mL), total solids (6.75 °Brix), and turbidity (7.27 NTU). This beer also exhibited reduced sensory notes of malty, fruity, smoked, hoppy, and phenolic but a higher perception of floral, sweet, and yeast notes; the bitterness attribute had a reduced perception. This study advances the understanding and complexity of the sensory profile of different styles of craft beers from Southern Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing the Sustainability of the Coffee Agro-Industry: Spent Coffee Grounds as a Source of New Beverages
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040105
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
This work describes a new process for the production of beverages from spent coffee grounds (SCG), as well as the chemical and sensory profiles. The process consisted of the extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract [...] Read more.
This work describes a new process for the production of beverages from spent coffee grounds (SCG), as well as the chemical and sensory profiles. The process consisted of the extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract supplemented with sucrose and fermented broth distillation. Thus, two fermented (10.4% and 10.0% of ethanol, by volume) and two distillated (38.1% and 40.2% of ethanol, by volume) beverages were obtained. A total of 45 and 59 volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, aldehydes, terpenes, lactones, pyrazines, norisoprenoids, volatile phenols and acids) identified and quantified by GC-MS characterized the aroma and flavor of the fermented and distilled beverages, respectively. Twenty sensory descriptors define the sensory profile of the two beverages which corroborated the pleasant smell and taste of coffee in the distillate beverage. Therefore, this work demonstrates that the fermented and distilled beverages obtained from spent coffee grounds have acceptable organoleptic qualities that make them suitable for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Beverage Industry By-products)
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional, Antioxidant and Quality Acceptability of Smoothies Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaves
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040104
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
This study evaluated the impact of the level of supplementation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5%) of Moringa oleifera leaves on the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin contents) and antioxidant capacities of smoothies made from a blend of pineapple, banana and apple. The results obtained [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the impact of the level of supplementation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5%) of Moringa oleifera leaves on the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin contents) and antioxidant capacities of smoothies made from a blend of pineapple, banana and apple. The results obtained were moisture (49.24–78.62%), total ash (1.01–9.71), crude fiber (5.14–9.39%), crude fat (0.72–1.86%), crude protein (5.47–19.37%) and carbohydrate (3.65–16.99%). Calcium (12.03–15.53) and potassium (17.22–25.38) were the predominant mineral elements when compared to magnesium (1.51–3.05) mg/L. The vitamin contents were in the ranges 2.5–10.8 and 0.15–0.93 mg/L for vitamins C and E, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were in the ranges 4.68–6.18 mg/mL and 0.01–0.14 mg/mL, respectively. The radical scavenging abilities (DPPH) of the samples ranged between 16.05% and 88.77%, while the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) ranged between 0.38 and 7.36 mg/mL. The brix values showed high sugar contents (15–18%) while the pH results showed that the sample was almost neutral at a range between 6.3 and 6.5. The overall quality (sensory) acceptability of the different quality parameters evaluated indicated that the control sample was more preferred. While supplementation with M. oleifera leaves significantly affected the sensory parameters, its addition nevertheless offers a potential avenue to obtain additional nutrients besides its improved antioxidative properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Profiles of Sparkling Wines Produced by the Traditional Method from a Semi-Arid Region
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040103
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
São Francisco Valley (SFV) is located in Northeastern Brazil, in a tropical semi-arid region where one vine can produce two harvests per year, due to high temperatures, solar radiation rates, and irrigation throughout the year. This is the main characteristic differing this from [...] Read more.
São Francisco Valley (SFV) is located in Northeastern Brazil, in a tropical semi-arid region where one vine can produce two harvests per year, due to high temperatures, solar radiation rates, and irrigation throughout the year. This is the main characteristic differing this from other winegrowing region in the world. The objective of this study was to characterize volatile profiles of sparkling wines produced by the traditional method, using Chenin Blanc and Syrah grapes, the two main varieties used for white and red wines, respectively, grown in the region. The sparkling wines remained on lees for six months maturing. The sparkling wines were characterized by the parameters density, pH, total titratable and volatile acidities, residual sugars, dry extract, alcohol content, total phenolic compounds, in vitro antioxidant activity and volatile fraction. The volatile fraction extraction was performed by the HS-SPME technique and tentative identification of the volatile compounds was carried out with GC-MS using the scan mode. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified, among them 11 alcohols, 13 esters, five carboxylic acids, and four different chemical classes. The volatile profile of Chenin Blanc sparkling wine was associated mainly to 2,3-butanediol, 3-ethoxypropan-1-ol, diethyl succinate, and ethyl decanoate, while Syrah sparkling wine was characterized by benzaldehyde, butyric acid, and some acetates. This study reported for the first time volatile profiles of traditional sparkling wines from SFV, as new products, contributing to better understand the quality potential of these beverages for a tropical semi-arid region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Important Volatile Compounds Are for the Success of Beverages?)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Oak Fragments during the Aging of Red Wines. Effect on the Phenolic, Aromatic, and Sensory Composition of Wines as a Function of the Contact Time with the Wood
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040102
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
The use of oak fragments allows wine cellars to reduce costs and the length of wine aging compared to traditional aging in oak barrels in the winery. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of oak [...] Read more.
The use of oak fragments allows wine cellars to reduce costs and the length of wine aging compared to traditional aging in oak barrels in the winery. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of oak fragments on the volatile, phenolic, and organoleptic characteristics of Tempranillo red wines, as a function of the contact time between the wood and the wine. The results showed important changes in the wines’ colorimetric parameters after two months of contact time. Extraction kinetics of volatile compounds from the wood was highest during the first month of contact for chips, variable for staves, and slower and continuous over time for barrels. Wines macerated with fragments showed the best quality in short periods of aging, while barrel-aged wines improved over the time they spent in the barrel. In addition, the results allowed an analytical discrimination between the wines aged with oak fragments and those aged in oak barrels, and between chips and staves, just as at the sensory level with triangular tasting tests. In conclusion, the use of oak fragments is a suitable practice for the production of red wines, which may be an appropriate option for wines destined to be aged for short periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Purple Grape Juice (Vitis Labrusca) against Temozolamide Treatment in Rat Brains
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
Considering that grape juice has high levels of phenolic compounds that produce beneficial physiological effects, important for the maintenance of redox balance, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro neuroprotective effect of purple grape juice on the oxidative damage [...] Read more.
Considering that grape juice has high levels of phenolic compounds that produce beneficial physiological effects, important for the maintenance of redox balance, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro neuroprotective effect of purple grape juice on the oxidative damage caused by temozolomide (TMZ) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of Wistar rats. In pre-incubation, TMZ increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, enhanced protein oxidation in all tissues studied, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the hippocampus, decreased SOD activity in the cerebellum, and enhanced catalase (CAT) activity in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. In co-incubation, there was enhanced protein oxidation in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, decreased SOD activity in the cerebellum, inhibition of CAT activity in the hippocampus, and increased CAT activity in the cerebellum. Purple grape juice improved these oxidative alterations. Therefore, the intake of grape juice might have a protective effect against diseases that affect the oxidative status of the central nervous system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Spray-Drying Temperatures and Ratios of Gum Arabic to Microcrystalline Cellulose on Antioxidant and Physical Properties of Mulberry Juice Powder
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040101
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influences of inlet air temperatures (120 °C, 130 °C, 140 °C and 150 °C, 160 °C) and the ratios of gum Arabic to microcrystalline cellulose on the quality of mulberry juice powder produced by the spray drying [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influences of inlet air temperatures (120 °C, 130 °C, 140 °C and 150 °C, 160 °C) and the ratios of gum Arabic to microcrystalline cellulose on the quality of mulberry juice powder produced by the spray drying process. Determination of moisture content, bulk density, solubility, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of the obtained powders was performed. The study on temperatures showed that all parameters studied were significantly affected by the shift in temperatures. The powder dried at 160 °C had the highest TPC (38.32 ± 0.36 mg GAE/g DW) and water solubility index (78.70 ± 0.75%); however, it had the lowest moisture content (3.90 ± 0.14%) when compared with the samples dried at other temperatures. Meanwhile, at 140 °C, powder samples with the highest TAC (4.690 ± 0.18 mg cyd-3-glu/g DW) and highest AC (648.09 ± 22.98 µmol TE/g DW), respectively, were obtained. Increasing microcrystalline cellulose and decreasing gum Arabic contents in the carrier mixtures showed significant decreases in moisture content, bulk density, solubility, TPC, TAC and AC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Biochemical and Physiological Parameters in Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet: The Protective Effect of Chronic Treatment with Purple Grape Juice (Bordo Variety)
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040100
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
High-fat-diet (HFD) has been related to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Consumption of grapes and their byproducts containing phenolic compounds has been reported due to the benefits they produce for human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and protective [...] Read more.
High-fat-diet (HFD) has been related to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Consumption of grapes and their byproducts containing phenolic compounds has been reported due to the benefits they produce for human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and protective effect of chronic intake of purple grape juice on certain biochemical and physiological changes promoted by the consumption of HFD. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups to receive standard or HFD diet and/or conventional (CGJ) or organic grape juice (OGJ) for three months. Dietary intake, body weight gain, cardiometabolic parameters, and serum lipoperoxidation were investigated. Results showed that consumption of CGJ and OGJ changed the pattern of food and drink intake of the animals. There was a reduction in the body weight of animals that consumed grape juices and an increase in the weight gain in HFD and OGJ rats. HFD increased abdominal fat and the abdominal fat/weight ratio, and both grape juices prevented these modifications. HFD increased hepatic enzymes levels (aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)) and reduced urea. Purple grape juices prevented some of these changes. HFD enhanced lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in serum and CGJ and OGJ prevented this increase. The consumption of purple grape juice has the potential to prevent and ameliorate most of the alterations provoked by HFD, therefore regular intake of grape products could promote beneficial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Open AccessArticle Consumer Drivers of Muscadine Wine Purchase Decisions
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Muscadine wine, fresh muscadine grapes, and other derivatives have enjoyed a heritage niche for decades in the Southeast. Muscadine growers in North Carolina in the United States (US) have asked whether the purchase of muscadine wine is linked to consumption of the fruit [...] Read more.
Muscadine wine, fresh muscadine grapes, and other derivatives have enjoyed a heritage niche for decades in the Southeast. Muscadine growers in North Carolina in the United States (US) have asked whether the purchase of muscadine wine is linked to consumption of the fruit itself or even familiarity with other muscadine-based products in terms of spillover effects. The authors explored the interdependency between the market for fresh muscadine grapes and muscadine wine purchase. Consumer panel data were obtained from a State of North Carolina agency with oversight of the grape and wine industry; the agency contracted quota sampling of online consumers from six states in the US South. A total of 543 cases were used in the present study. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)® was employed in analysis. Results show that prior muscadine wine knowledge and knowledge of other muscadine products, e.g., jams, juices, smoothies, sauces, and health/beauty products were significant factors associated with buying muscadine wine. Beliefs about muscadine grapes as a healthy ingredient showed a slight influence, while direct experience with fresh muscadines and consumer attitudes towards buying local or US products were insignificant. Therefore, marketing efforts should focus on increasing consumer exposure to and knowledge of muscadine wine and other muscadine related products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing and Management of Wine and Consumer Choice)
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Open AccessArticle Geographical Classification of Tannat Wines Based on Support Vector Machines and Feature Selection
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Geographical product recognition has become an issue for researchers and food industries. One way to obtain useful information about the fingerprint of wines is by examining that fingerprint’s chemical components. In this paper, we present a data mining and predictive analysis to classify [...] Read more.
Geographical product recognition has become an issue for researchers and food industries. One way to obtain useful information about the fingerprint of wines is by examining that fingerprint’s chemical components. In this paper, we present a data mining and predictive analysis to classify Brazilian and Uruguayan Tannat wines from the South region using the support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm with the radial basis kernel function and the F-score feature selection method. A total of 37 Tannat wines differing in geographical origin (9 Brazilian samples and 28 Uruguayan samples) were analyzed. We concluded that given the use of at least one anthocyanin (peon-3-glu) and the radical scavenging activity (DPPH), the Tannat wines can be classified with 94.64% accuracy and 0.90 Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC). Furthermore, the combination of SVM and feature selection proved useful for determining the main chemical parameters that discriminate with regard to the origin of Tannat wines and classifying them with a high degree of accuracy. Additionally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to classify the Tannat wine variety in the context of two countries in South America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessReview Wine Polyphenols and Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Update on the Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Their Protective Effects
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are the most common age-related and predominantly idiopathic neurodegenerative disorders of unknown pathogenesis. Although these diseases differ in their clinical and neuropathological features, they also share some common aetiologies, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are the most common age-related and predominantly idiopathic neurodegenerative disorders of unknown pathogenesis. Although these diseases differ in their clinical and neuropathological features, they also share some common aetiologies, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo evidences suggest an inverse correlation between wine consumption and the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders. Wine benefits are, in large part, attributable to the intake of specific polyphenols, which mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the role that wine polyphenols play in delaying neurodegenerative disorders. We discuss animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and we consider how their biological mechanisms at the cellular level may underpin their physiological effects. Together, these data indicate that polyphenols present in wine may hold neuroprotective potential in delaying the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Age Gelation in UHT Milk
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
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Abstract
Milk samples with twelve combinations of κ- and β-casein (CN) and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) variants were obtained to investigate the effect of protein variant on the mechanism/s of age gelation in ultra-high temperature (UHT) skim milk. Only milk groups with κ-CN/β-CN/β-Lg combinations AB/A1A2/AB and [...] Read more.
Milk samples with twelve combinations of κ- and β-casein (CN) and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) variants were obtained to investigate the effect of protein variant on the mechanism/s of age gelation in ultra-high temperature (UHT) skim milk. Only milk groups with κ-CN/β-CN/β-Lg combinations AB/A1A2/AB and AB/A2A2/AB suffered from the expected age gelation over nine months storage, although this could not be attributed to the milk protein genetic variants. Top-down proteomics revealed three general trends across the twelve milk groups: (1) the abundance of intact native proteins decreases over storage time; (2) lactosylated proteoforms appear immediately post-UHT treatment; and (3) protein degradation products accumulate over storage time. Of the 151 identified degradation products, 106 (70.2%) arose from β-CN, 33 (21.9%) from αs1-CN, 4 (2.7%) from β-Lg, 4 (2.7%) from α-La, 3 (2%) from κ-CN and 1 (0.7%) from αs2-CN. There was a positive correlation between milk viscosity and 47 short peptides and four intact proteoforms, while 20 longer polypeptides and 21 intact proteoforms were negatively correlated. Age gelation was associated with specific patterns of proteolytic degradation and also with the absence of the families Bacillaceae, Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae, Staphylococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, present in all the non-gelling milk groups pre-UHT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics and Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Different Woods in Cooperage for Oenology: A Review
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
Contact of wine with wood during fermentation and ageing produces significant changes in its chemical composition and organoleptic properties, modifying its final quality. Wines acquire complex aromas from the wood, improve their colour stability, flavour, and clarification, and extend their storage period. New [...] Read more.
Contact of wine with wood during fermentation and ageing produces significant changes in its chemical composition and organoleptic properties, modifying its final quality. Wines acquire complex aromas from the wood, improve their colour stability, flavour, and clarification, and extend their storage period. New trends in the use of barrels, replaced after a few years of use, have led to an increased demand for oak wood in cooperage. In addition, the fact that the wine market is becoming increasingly saturated and more competitive means that oenologists are increasingly interested in tasting different types of wood to obtain wines that differ from those already on the market. This growing demand and the search for new opportunities to give wines a special personality has led to the use of woods within the Quercus genus that are different from those used traditionally (Quercus alba, Quercus petraea, and Quercus robur) and even woods of different genera. Thus, species of the genus Quercus, such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Quercus faginea Lam., Quercus humboldtti Bonpl., Quercus oocarpa Liebm., Quercus frainetto Ten, and other genera, such as Robinia pseudoacacia L. (false acacia), Castanea sativa Mill. (chestnut), Prunus avium L. and Prunus cereaus L. (cherry), Fraxinus excelsior L. (European ash), Fraxinus americana L. (American ash), Morus nigra L, and Morus alba L. have been the subject of several studies as possible sources of wood apt for cooperage. The chemical characterization of these woods is essential in order to be able to adapt the cooperage treatment and, thus, obtain wood with oenological qualities suitable for the treatment of wines. This review aims to summarize the different species that have been studied as possible new sources of wood for oenology, defining the extractable composition of each one and their use in wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies)
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Open AccessBrief Report Technical Report—Applying Physics and Sensory Sciences to Spirits Nosing Vessel Design to Improve Evaluation Diagnostics and Drinking Enjoyment
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
Ethanol is the direct by-product of distillation. The vast majority of straight spirit beverages are bottled at 40%+ ABV (alcohol by volume). Aficionados, critics, spirits judges, and a significant percentage of drinkers choose to drink and evaluate spirits at bottled strength from traditional [...] Read more.
Ethanol is the direct by-product of distillation. The vast majority of straight spirit beverages are bottled at 40%+ ABV (alcohol by volume). Aficionados, critics, spirits judges, and a significant percentage of drinkers choose to drink and evaluate spirits at bottled strength from traditional vessels. Olfactory perceptions are quickly compromised by abundant ethanol, numbing olfactory sensors and severely inhibiting aroma detection during evaluation. Traditional vessel redesigns have concentrated on minor styling changes, ignoring olfactory and physical sciences. Consumers’ continued search for value and quality and increased dependency on spirits competitions as a primary source of ratings emphasizes the need for a functional diagnostic vessel which displays and delivers aromas unobscured by ethanol olfactory numbing. The application of olfactory and physical science creates an engineered tasting vessel which eliminates severe ethanol olfactory numbing, optimizes aroma definition, and significantly improves diagnostics for those who evaluate, judge, rate, distill, and enjoy flavor nuances of spirits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The German Wine Market: A Comprehensive Strategic and Economic Analysis
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Even though it is famous for beer, Germany offers one of the most attractive wine markets, exemplified by being the fourth biggest wine consumption market and a world champion in sparkling wine consumption as well as in wine imports. Still, fragmentation, intensive competition, [...] Read more.
Even though it is famous for beer, Germany offers one of the most attractive wine markets, exemplified by being the fourth biggest wine consumption market and a world champion in sparkling wine consumption as well as in wine imports. Still, fragmentation, intensive competition, lack of growth, and a changing environment speak to a challenging market for suppliers. In the absence of a comprehensive investigation on the market, this article aspires to deliver an economic and strategic market analysis. The statistical data is therefore complemented by the primary market research, notably online surveys on strategy and innovation, a proprietary database on wineries’ reputation, and an international expert survey on export success factors. The following market study aims to provide a concise overview covering the relevant market data, and to disclose strategic information about the German wine industry beyond pure market statistics. The German wine market, in the stable wine volume sold, shows dynamism underneath “the tip of the iceberg”, with industry specific environmental forces. Indeed, as the wine industry deals with agricultural products of a high emotional utility, players need to address the world of commodities and of differentiation. Structural changes are visible in the drive-out of players. Moreover, diverse and even restricting environmental factors motivate supplier´s innovation. The key is the changing consumer. Adaptive and innovative suppliers seize market opportunities and expand, despite a lack of market growth. Although the overall price level of wine in the German market is comparatively low, a voluminous premium market exists, where consumers search for experience. Sustainability has been gaining ground, and in cases of appealing offerings and strategic profiling, wineries outperform intensive rivalries and are not limited by missing growth perspectives. Expenditures for marketing will further increase, and cost management is indispensable. Success in the German wine business requires an in-depth knowledge of the complex market and its evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Market)
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Open AccessReview New Strategies to Improve Sensorial Quality of White Wines by Wood Contact
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Ageing wine is a common practice used in winemaking, since the quality and sensory profile increase due to the extractable compounds coming from wood, by means of barrels or chips. The quantitative and qualitative compounds of the wood depend on the species, its [...] Read more.
Ageing wine is a common practice used in winemaking, since the quality and sensory profile increase due to the extractable compounds coming from wood, by means of barrels or chips. The quantitative and qualitative compounds of the wood depend on the species, its origins and the treatments applied in cooperages. Traditionally, oak wood species are most often used in cooperage, specifically Quercus alba (Q. alba), Known as American oak and Quercus robur (Q. robur) and Quercus petraea (Q. petraea), both known as French oak. Although this stage is very common for red wines, its use is still restricted in the case of white wines. However, this topic is particularly interesting, since due to the sensorial benefits of wood contact, the option for ageing white wines in barrels or chips could be chosen by winemakers. This review compiles the novel strategies applied to white wines by means of wood contact in recent years with the aim to increase wine quality and sensorial features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Nutrients Assimilation and Chlorophyll Contents for Different Grapevine Varieties in Calcareous Soils in the Somontano DO (Spain)
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Abstract
Lime-induced chlorosis (LIC) is an important abiotic constraint affecting the growth and yield of grapevines growing in calcareous soils in the Mediterranean region, and the sensory properties of the produced wine. In the work presented herein, the impact of LIC on the nutritional [...] Read more.
Lime-induced chlorosis (LIC) is an important abiotic constraint affecting the growth and yield of grapevines growing in calcareous soils in the Mediterranean region, and the sensory properties of the produced wine. In the work presented herein, the impact of LIC on the nutritional status and chlorophyll content was assessed for eleven varieties and a clone (Merlot, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Parraleta, Moristel, Aglianico, Macabeo, Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Riesling), grafted to the same rootstock (1103 Paulsen). Macro- and micronutrient contents were determined in the fruit set and veraison stages by petiole analyses, while chlorophyll content in young leaves was monitored by SPAD. Significant differences were detected amongst varieties for all nutrients (including Fe), and inverse relationships between Fe and P contents in the petiole and chlorophyll concentration in the young leaves were found. Regarding LIC resistance, the Fe and chlorophyll contents suggest that Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo and Aglianico varieties would show the best performance, while Sauvignon would be the least tolerant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture for Wine Production)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Phenolic Compound Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Syrah Red and Sparkling Moscatel Wines Stored in Bottles of Different Colors
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and bottle color on the phenolic compound profiles of Syrah red and sparkling Moscatel wines stored for 12 months in green, amber, and clear bottles. The profile of the phenolic [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and bottle color on the phenolic compound profiles of Syrah red and sparkling Moscatel wines stored for 12 months in green, amber, and clear bottles. The profile of the phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in vitro were determined. Commercial wines were bottled in an automatic filling machine and closed with natural cork. After the bottling process, the wines were stored vertically on shelves which received natural light indirectly (±8 h/day), at temperatures which varied from 24 to 30 °C and relative humidity 40–65%. The wines were analyzed every three months over one year. Several phenolic compound families were quantified through reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to diode-array detection (DAD) and fluorescence detection (FD). The different bottle colors studied had not influenced the evolution of the sparkling Moscatel and Syrah red wines. The main variations obtained were related to storage time. The main changes were observed in the Syrah wine, where storage time was associated with an increase in hue (h*), decrease in catechin and epicatechin, and most notably, a decrease in the anthocyanin malvidin 3-glucoside. The sparkling Moscatel wine did not show important changes in most phenolic compounds; however, the catechin increased significantly during storage and this increase was similar in bottles of all colors. In general, the wines were stable in relation to the antioxidant activity in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging 2019)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Wine in Modulating Inflammatory Processes: A Review
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Several epidemiological studies associated the consumption of wine with the reduction of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, as well as for diabetes. These conditions are characterized by inflammatory mechanisms in addition to other biological mechanisms. Acute and chronic inflammation [...] Read more.
Several epidemiological studies associated the consumption of wine with the reduction of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, as well as for diabetes. These conditions are characterized by inflammatory mechanisms in addition to other biological mechanisms. Acute and chronic inflammation is mediated by a plethora of biomarkers production and pathway activation. Since the health promoting properties of wine in different pathological conditions may include the reduction of inflammation, the aim of this paper was to collect and review the in vitro, in vivo, and human studies performed to evaluate the effects of wine on different models of inflammation. Although great variability in wine intake, period of consumption, and content of phenolic compounds was observed, data from both human and animal studies showed a positive modulation of inflammatory biomarkers (cytokines, coagulation parameters) and oxidative stress (mainly malondialdehyde) involved in cardiovascular function. In addition, some convincing evidence was obtained in different models suggesting a positive modulation of risk factors for gastric and intestinal inflammation. Contradictory results were obtained for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. To date, no significant paper has been published in the area of immune function. Integrating in vivo data and in vitro studies, the NF-κB pathway has been identified as a critical target for the protective properties of a moderate wine consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
Open AccessArticle The Evolution of the UK Wine Market: From Niche to Mass-Market Appeal
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
This article is an historic narrative account of the emergence of the mass-market wine category in the UK in the post-World War II era. The role of the former vertically-integrated brewing industry in the early stages of development is described from the perspective [...] Read more.
This article is an historic narrative account of the emergence of the mass-market wine category in the UK in the post-World War II era. The role of the former vertically-integrated brewing industry in the early stages of development is described from the perspective of both their distributional effects and their new product development initiatives. Significant in the narrative is the story of Babycham, the UK’s answer to Champagne that was targeted to the new consumers of the 1950s; women. Then a specially-developed French wine, Le Piat D’Or, with its catchy advertising campaign, took the baton. These early brands were instrumental in extending the wine category, as beer continued its precipitous decline. That the UK is now one of the largest wine markets globally owes much to the success of these early brands and those that arrived later in the 1990s, with Australia displacing France as the source for mass-market appeal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing and Management of Wine and Consumer Choice)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Vitamin B2 Content in Black, Green, Sage, and Rosemary Tea Infusions by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin (RF) is an essential micronutrient for human health and must be obtained from dietary sources. Plants biosynthesize riboflavin and are important dietary sources of vitamin B2 for humans. Our present study reports sensitive detection of vitamin B2 [...] Read more.
Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin (RF) is an essential micronutrient for human health and must be obtained from dietary sources. Plants biosynthesize riboflavin and are important dietary sources of vitamin B2 for humans. Our present study reports sensitive detection of vitamin B2 in widely consumed tea infusions, namely black, green, sage and rosemary tea infusions, by a capillary electrophoresis method combined with laser induced fluorescence detection. Moreover, the correlation between the vitamin B2 content of tea plants with their total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacity are evaluated in this study. Whereas green teas have the highest TPs and antioxidant capacity, the highest RF content is in sage infusions. The RF content ranged between 0.34 and 10.36 µg/g for all tea samples studied. Comparing the RF content of tea samples found in this study to the RF content of known RF sources, tea infusions are proposed as important dietary sources of vitamin B2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mineral Composition through Soil-Wine System of Portuguese Vineyards and Its Potential for Wine Traceability
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
The control of geographic origin is one of a highest priority issue regarding traceability and wine authenticity. The current study aimed to examine whether elemental composition can be used for the discrimination of wines according to geographical origin, taking into account the effects [...] Read more.
The control of geographic origin is one of a highest priority issue regarding traceability and wine authenticity. The current study aimed to examine whether elemental composition can be used for the discrimination of wines according to geographical origin, taking into account the effects of soil, winemaking process, and year of production. The elemental composition of soils, grapes, musts, and wines from three DO (Designations of Origin) and for two vintage years was determined by using the ICP-MS semi-quantitative method, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. The elemental composition of soils varied according to geological formations, and for some elements, the variation due to soil provenance was also observed in musts and wines. Li, Mn, Sr and rare-earth elements (REE) allowed wine discrimination according to vineyard. Results evidenced the influence of winemaking processes and of vintage year on the wine’s elemental composition. The mineral composition pattern is transferred through the soil-wine system, and differences observed for soils are reflected in grape musts and wines, but not for all elements. Results suggest that winemaking processes and vintage year should be taken into account for the use of elemental composition as a tool for wine traceability. Therefore, understanding the evolution of mineral pattern composition from soil to wine, and how it is influenced by the climatic year, is indispensable for traceability purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Spray-Drying Temperatures and Carriers on Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Lemongrass Leaf Extract Powder
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
This research was conducted to identify influences of spray-drying temperatures and carriers on physical and antioxidant properties of lemongrass leaf extract powder. Two variables including: inlet temperatures (110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C, 140 °C and 150 °C) and carriers (Gum Arabic, Maltodextrin [...] Read more.
This research was conducted to identify influences of spray-drying temperatures and carriers on physical and antioxidant properties of lemongrass leaf extract powder. Two variables including: inlet temperatures (110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C, 140 °C and 150 °C) and carriers (Gum Arabic, Maltodextrin and Gum Arabic: Maltodextrin mixture) were studied. Loose density, moisture content, solubility, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant capacity of the obtained powder were analyzed. Overall, moisture content, TPC and TFC were reduced; however, loose density, solubility and antioxidant capacity were enhanced when temperature increased. Among all powder samples, the one produced at 110 °C had the highest TPC (3.02 mg GAE/100 g DW) and TFC (541.82 mg CE/100 g DW) compared to the others. However, due to high moisture content, which is not suitable for the shelf life of powder product, this condition cannot be recommended as a favorable condition for lemongrass powder manufacturing. The powder samples produced by mixing with Maltodextrin at 130 °C retained the high levels of antioxidant capacity, TFC, TPC and had the highest water-soluble ability and lowest moisture content as compared to the others, matching well with quality requirements for an instant powder product. Full article
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Open AccessReview Mycotoxin Contamination of Beverages Obtained from Tropical Crops
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
This review is mainly centered on beverages obtained from tropical crops, including tea, nut milk, coffee, cocoa, and those prepared from fruits. After considering the epidemiological data found on the matrices above, the focus was given to recent methodological approaches to assess the [...] Read more.
This review is mainly centered on beverages obtained from tropical crops, including tea, nut milk, coffee, cocoa, and those prepared from fruits. After considering the epidemiological data found on the matrices above, the focus was given to recent methodological approaches to assess the most relevant mycotoxins. Aspects such as singularities among the mycotoxin and the beverage in which their were found, and the economic effects and repercussions that the mycotoxin-tainted ingredients have on the beverage industry were pointed out. Finally, the burden of their consumption through beverages, including risk and health effects on humans, was addressed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Low-Alcohol Wine: A Narrative Review on Consumer Perception and Behaviour
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Low- and reduced-alcohol beverages become increasingly popular in many countries with different factors driving a change in the beverage market. The aim of the current narrative review is (a) to provide an introduction on low-alcohol wine, and (b) to provide an overview of [...] Read more.
Low- and reduced-alcohol beverages become increasingly popular in many countries with different factors driving a change in the beverage market. The aim of the current narrative review is (a) to provide an introduction on low-alcohol wine, and (b) to provide an overview of the literature on research that investigated perception and behaviour related to low-alcohol wine consumption. Wines with reduced alcohol content can be an interesting product for a variety of stakeholders and may offer benefits for consumers while having the potential to reduce alcohol consumption and therefore contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm. Additional research and marketing efforts are needed to further increase awareness of the availability and quality of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile and Content in Infusions and Concentrated Infusions of Buddleja Scordioides Treated by High-Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields (HiPEF)
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HiPEF) has been reported on the microbial resistance of fruit juices and beverages. However, the influence of HiPEF on bioactive compounds in herbal infusions is still limited. The objective of the present work was to evaluate [...] Read more.
The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HiPEF) has been reported on the microbial resistance of fruit juices and beverages. However, the influence of HiPEF on bioactive compounds in herbal infusions is still limited. The objective of the present work was to evaluate chemical stability of polyphenols of infusions from Buddleja scordioides or Salvilla under thermal processing (concentrates) followed by HiPEF treatments. Buddleja infusions were prepared at 1% w/v of salvilla, heated, filtered and concentrated in a thin falling film evaporator. Three different HiPEF treatments were applied to Buddleja scordioides concentrated beverages. The percentage of pulse rate was 25 and 90%; output temperature, 18.3 ± 1 °C; and the frequency range, 100, 300 and 400 Hz. The feed flow was 0.5 L/h. DPPH radical scavenging assay, inhibition of Nitric Oxide activity and analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS were determined. ANOVA one-way analysis and Tukey test (p < 0.05) were used to analyze results. Concentration process increases the amount of flavonols; however, the use of HiPEF produces a minor reduction on antioxidant capacity. The use of HiPEF at 1000 kJ/kg and 1100 kJ/kg displays a similar profile on phenolic acids between HiPEF-treated beverages and concentrates, showing that the use of HiPEF may be a promissory technology in the processing practices of herbal infusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulse Electric Field in Liquid Food Processing and Extraction)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Various Drying Conditions on Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Carrot Peel
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Drying is an important process in the research of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal condition to dry carrot peel. (2) Methods: In this study, various drying conditions including hot-air (50 °C and 100 °C), [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Drying is an important process in the research of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal condition to dry carrot peel. (2) Methods: In this study, various drying conditions including hot-air (50 °C and 100 °C), vacuum (50 °C and 100 °C), microwave (600 W and 1200 W) and freeze dying (−45 °C) were applied, and the phytochemical yield and antioxidant activity of carrot peel were then assessed. (3) Results: The results showed that the highest amount of phytochemical compounds was achieved by microwave drying at 1200 W, followed by microwave drying at 600 W and freeze drying at −45 °C. In contrast, hot-air drying resulted in the lowest level of phytochemical compounds. Regarding the antioxidant activity of carrot peel, microwave drying at 1200 W was an optimal condition as it possessed the best antioxidant activity whereas hot-air, vacuum and freeze drying were not effective methods for retaining antioxidant activity. (4) Conclusions: Based on the results obtained from this study, microwave drying at 1200 W is recommended to dry carrot peel for potential application in the nutraceutical, beverage and/or functional food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Beverage Industry By-products)
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Open AccessCommunication Bioactive Constituents in Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Their Effect on the Risk of Depression—A Comparative Constituent Analysis Study
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Coffee, a popular beverage throughout the world, has been shown to have numerous beneficial health effects, including reducing the risk of developing depression. This effect has only been shown with the consumption of caffeinated coffee and not decaffeinated coffee or caffeine alone and [...] Read more.
Coffee, a popular beverage throughout the world, has been shown to have numerous beneficial health effects, including reducing the risk of developing depression. This effect has only been shown with the consumption of caffeinated coffee and not decaffeinated coffee or caffeine alone and one of many hypotheses attributes this to the loss of key constituents during the decaffeination process. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any of the key bioactive coffee constituents with known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are lost during the decaffeination process. The analysis of nine caffeinated and nine decaffeinated samples of various brands and batches of commonly consumed coffee in Australia using HPLC analysis found that, with the exception of caffeine, there were no significant differences in the quantity of other key bioactive coffee constituents in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. These results suggest that there may be an alternative explanation for the observed inverse correlation between caffeinated coffee consumption and the risk of developing depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
Open AccessArticle Grape Juice Consumption with or without High Fat Diet during Pregnancy Reduced the Weight Gain and Improved Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Levels in Liver and Serum from Wistar Rats
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fat diet with or without grape juice during the pregnancy on gestational weight gain, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress in plasma and liver from Wistar rats. Forty-nine rats were divided into [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fat diet with or without grape juice during the pregnancy on gestational weight gain, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress in plasma and liver from Wistar rats. Forty-nine rats were divided into four groups: control diet group (CD), high fat diet (HFD), grape juice and control diet (PGJCD), and grape juice and high fat diet (PGJHFD). During the treatment the weight gain of the rats was tracked. They had free access to their respective diets during 42 days of treatment. After offspring weaning, the mother rats were euthanized and blood and liver were collected. The high fat diet increased the total cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels as well as carbonyl levels in the liver, however this diet reduced the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and urea levels in serum. Grape juice consumption reduced gestational body weight gain. In liver, the juice consumption increased sulfhydryl levels and reduced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and TBARS level, in serum the consumption reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and TBARS. We can conclude that the consumption of a diet rich in fat can promotes harmful effects on health during pregnancy, however the consumption of grape juice seems to be an important alternative to prevent oxidative damages and to promote the improvement of health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Open AccessReview Minerality in Wine: Towards the Reality behind the Myths
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Tasting minerality in wine is highly fashionable, but it is unclear what this involves. The present review outlines published work concerning how minerality in wine is perceived and conceptualised by wine professionals and consumers. Studies investigating physico-chemical sources of perceived minerality in wine [...] Read more.
Tasting minerality in wine is highly fashionable, but it is unclear what this involves. The present review outlines published work concerning how minerality in wine is perceived and conceptualised by wine professionals and consumers. Studies investigating physico-chemical sources of perceived minerality in wine are reviewed also. Unusually, for a wine sensory descriptor, the term frequently is taken to imply a genesis: the sensation is the taste of minerals in the wine that were transported through the vine from the vineyard rocks and soils. Recent studies exploring tasters’ definitions of minerality in wine support this notion. However, there are reasons why this cannot be. First, minerals in wine are nutrient elements that are related distantly only to vineyard geological minerals. Second, mineral nutrients in wine normally have minuscule concentrations and generally lack flavour. Results of reviewed studies overall demonstrate marked variability in both wine professionals’ and wine consumers’ definitions and sensory-based judgments of minerality in wine, although there is some consensus in terms of the other wine attributes that associate with the term mineral. The main wine composition predictors of perceived minerality involve a complex combination of organic compounds dependent on grape ripeness and/or derived from wine fermentations and redox status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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