Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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14 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
Effect of Maturation with American Oak Chips on the Volatile and Sensory Profile of a Cabernet Sauvignon Rosé Wine and Its Comparison with Commercial Wines
by Miguel Ángel Hernández-Carapia, José Ramón Verde-Calvo, Héctor Bernardo Escalona-Buendía and Araceli Peña-Álvarez
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030072 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Rosé wines are commonly consumed as young wines mainly due to their freshness and fruity character. Nevertheless, in recent years a new market looking for alternatives to traditional wines has emerged. Considering this, the study of the volatile and sensory profiles of a [...] Read more.
Rosé wines are commonly consumed as young wines mainly due to their freshness and fruity character. Nevertheless, in recent years a new market looking for alternatives to traditional wines has emerged. Considering this, the study of the volatile and sensory profiles of a varietal rosé wine aged with oak chips was carried out. Two Cabernet Sauvignon rosé wines were made: one was maturated with oak chips and the other without. Both wines were physicochemically characterized. Then, their volatile and sensory profiles were analyzed, also including two commercial wines. The results showed that the produced wines complied with Mexican regulations. Also, they showed greater relative areas in compounds such as ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl 3-nonenoate, β-citronellol, (±)-trans-nerolidol, and β-damascenone. In their sensory profile, they were mostly related to attributes such as berries, prune, bell pepper, and herbaceous notes. Among the compounds related to barrel maturation, only cis-oak-lactone was identified in the rosé wine matured with chips. However, it was associated with vanilla, woody, smoky, and spicy attributes. According to the results, the maturation of rosé wines with oak chips could be a good alternative to provide them with unusual notes and thus offer new alternatives to traditional and new wine consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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28 pages, 2543 KiB  
Review
Sources of Volatile Aromatic Congeners in Whiskey
by Thomas J. Kelly, Christine O’Connor and Kieran N. Kilcawley
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030064 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7234
Abstract
Whiskey’s complex and diverse flavor stems from a range of reactions that create congeners that are primarily dependent upon the cereal source/mash bill and each stage of the process: malting, mashing, fermentation, distillation, and cask maturation. Therefore, in theory, the congener profile of [...] Read more.
Whiskey’s complex and diverse flavor stems from a range of reactions that create congeners that are primarily dependent upon the cereal source/mash bill and each stage of the process: malting, mashing, fermentation, distillation, and cask maturation. Therefore, in theory, the congener profile of a whiskey is a summation of its ingredients and the specific parameters of each stage of the manufacturing process. Congener profiles have been used as biomarkers for quality and authentication; however, to date, insufficient information has been published in relation to the extensive profiling of congeners associated with specific whiskey styles/types or the intra-and inter-variability within brands, especially in an Irish context due to the recent rapid expansion of the industry. As the ability to extract and identify congeners has progressed appreciably in recent years due to advances in extraction, chromatographic, and chemometric techniques, it is imperative that research is undertaken to gain a better understanding of the impact of specific congeners not only in relation to quality but also as biomarkers for authentication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavour Chemistry of Fermented Beverages)
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19 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Mineral Composition of Grapevine Canes for Wood Chip Applications in Alcoholic Beverage Production to Enhance Viticulture Sustainability
by Veronica D’Eusanio, Francesco Genua, Andrea Marchetti, Lorenzo Morelli and Lorenzo Tassi
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030060 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the metal content of tannic extracts obtained from grapevine canes, to evaluate their suitability as wood shavings for direct infusion during the aging process of alcoholic beverages or vinegars. Traditional barrel aging is a slow and costly process [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the metal content of tannic extracts obtained from grapevine canes, to evaluate their suitability as wood shavings for direct infusion during the aging process of alcoholic beverages or vinegars. Traditional barrel aging is a slow and costly process that can be enhanced through direct infusion of wood chips. Our investigation focused on the pruning materials of two widely cultivated Lambrusco cultivars in the Modena (Italy) area, Ancellotta and Salamino. The grapevine chips underwent preliminary heat treatments at temperatures ranging from 120 °C to 260 °C. Tannic extracts were obtained by ethanol maceration at 80 °C for 2 h. The metal composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Generally, the metal content increased with the roasting temperature of the chips. Two exceptions were noted in the Salamino extracts, where the concentrations of Bi and Ni decreased as the roasting temperature increased. The levels of heavy metal, such as Pb and Cd, were low, posing no toxicity concerns for using infused grapevine chips during the beverage aging process. The Ni concentration slightly exceeded the limits imposed by certain regulations. Its content is likely derived from the type of soil in which the plant has grown. Full article
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11 pages, 1666 KiB  
Article
Umami in Wine: Impact of Glutamate Concentration and Contact with Lees on the Sensory Profile of Italian White Wines
by Deborah Franceschi, Giovanna Lomolino, Ryo Sato, Simone Vincenzi and Alberto De Iseppi
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020052 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3765
Abstract
Umami is a fundamental taste, associated with the molecules of monosodium glutamate and other amino acids and nucleotides present in many fermented foods and beverages, including wine. Umami also plays the role of flavor enhancer and prolongs the aftertaste. In this research, monosodium [...] Read more.
Umami is a fundamental taste, associated with the molecules of monosodium glutamate and other amino acids and nucleotides present in many fermented foods and beverages, including wine. Umami also plays the role of flavor enhancer and prolongs the aftertaste. In this research, monosodium glutamate and aspartate, responsible for the umami taste, were quantified in Italian still and sparkling white wines aged through contact with yeasts. The wines were studied from a sensory point of view to quantify the perception of umami and relate it to other sensory parameters. The results show that monosodium glutamate and aspartate are present in the wines studied. However, sensory analysis shows that there is no clear relationship between the umami taste and the concentration of the two amino acids, but their presence plays a fundamental role in enhancing other gustatory and olfactory perceptions, making them even more persistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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13 pages, 639 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends in Fermented Beverages Processing: The Use of Emerging Technologies
by Mariana Morales-de la Peña, Graciela A. Miranda-Mejía and Olga Martín-Belloso
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020051 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4318
Abstract
Since ancient times, fermentation has been one of the most utilized techniques for food preservation and for the development of natural products with functional properties at low cost. Nowadays, fermented foods and beverages are highly attractive to consumers since they are perceived as [...] Read more.
Since ancient times, fermentation has been one of the most utilized techniques for food preservation and for the development of natural products with functional properties at low cost. Nowadays, fermented foods and beverages are highly attractive to consumers since they are perceived as natural and potential sources of functional compounds. Research efforts conducted in this area over the years have allowed for an understanding of the main reactions occurring during fermentation related to microbial growth, enzyme activity, metabolite production, and physicochemical changes. As a result, scientists and technologists have been able to improve the fermentation process in terms of efficiency, safety, costs, and high-quality production of products. The aim of this review was to gather the most recent and relevant information about fermentation evolution during the last decades, focused on the application of emerging technologies for the development of fermented beverages as interesting products in the functional food market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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23 pages, 665 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potential of Rice, Tiger Nut and Carob for the Development of Fermented Beverages in Spain: A Comprehensive Review on the Production Methodologies Worldwide
by Matteo Vitali, Mónica Gandía, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos, Antonio Cilla and Amparo Gamero
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020047 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
Rice, tiger nut and carob are Mediterranean products suitable for developing new foods, such as fermented beverages, due to their nutritional properties. These crops have a high carbohydrate content, are gluten and lactose-free and have a low allergenicity index. The development of fermented [...] Read more.
Rice, tiger nut and carob are Mediterranean products suitable for developing new foods, such as fermented beverages, due to their nutritional properties. These crops have a high carbohydrate content, are gluten and lactose-free and have a low allergenicity index. The development of fermented beverages from these crops can contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals by promoting human health and sustainable production and consumption. A narrative review of the nutritional value and potential functional activity of fermented beverages made from these crops was carried out. This literature review of existing studies on fermented and non-fermented beverages highlights their composition, production methodology, and health benefits. Fermented beverages made from these crops are high in fiber, essential fatty acids, vitamins (group B), and minerals. Fermentation increases the bioaccessibility of these nutrients while decreasing possible anti-nutritional factors. These fermented beverages offer several health benefits due to their antioxidant effects, modulating the intestinal microbiota and reducing the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Therefore, fermented rice, tiger nut and carob beverages can improve the Spanish diet by offering improved nutritional value and beneficial health effects. Additionally, these local crops promote sustainability, making them an appropriate choice for developing new fermented beverages. Full article
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18 pages, 673 KiB  
Review
Properties of Fermented Beverages from Food Wastes/By-Products
by Elisabete M. C. Alexandre, Nuno F. B. Aguiar, Glenise B. Voss and Manuela E. Pintado
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020045 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4242
Abstract
Current global research aims to explore the key role of diet and understand the benefits of a balanced diet. Furthermore, many authors have pointed to the added value of by-products as a solution to make food production chains more environmentally and economically sustainable. [...] Read more.
Current global research aims to explore the key role of diet and understand the benefits of a balanced diet. Furthermore, many authors have pointed to the added value of by-products as a solution to make food production chains more environmentally and economically sustainable. By-products emerge as an alternative matrix to fermentation, and the fermentation process has the potential to transform by-products into value-added products through an efficient and sustainable process. During fermentation, besides the consumption of molecules to grow, microbial enzymes act on several phytochemical compounds, creating new derivative compounds that affect the flavour and function of fermented beverages. As an alternative for consumers with lactose intolerance or vegan or vegetarian diets, new beverages produced from plant by-products and probiotic bacteria hold great promise for the global functional food market. Several challenges were overcome in developing these new products from by-products, namely the availability and quality/standardization of raw materials, adapted microbial starter cultures for fermentation, and optimization of production processes to maximize consumer acceptance and product yield. This review provides an overview of recent research/developments in the field of new fermented beverages from by-products, and aspects related to their functionality, beyond the challenges of these new beverages. Full article
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18 pages, 316 KiB  
Review
Measuring Wine Quality and Typicity
by Marianthi Basalekou, Panagiotis Tataridis, Konstantinos Georgakis and Christos Tsintonis
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020041 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6211
Abstract
Wine quality and typicity are complex concepts that can be hard to define. Wine is a product destined to not only be consumed and appreciated but also marketed, and its distinctiveness, quality and typicity are important characteristics that describe a wine’s sensory profile [...] Read more.
Wine quality and typicity are complex concepts that can be hard to define. Wine is a product destined to not only be consumed and appreciated but also marketed, and its distinctiveness, quality and typicity are important characteristics that describe a wine’s sensory profile and, ultimately, add value to the finished product. Even though both quality and typicity are mostly assessed using a sensory evaluation, many studies have examined the feasibility of using chemical analysis methods in order to increase the objectivity of assessments. Today, the use of chemometrics facilitates the handling of big data, and outcomes from various analytical techniques can be integrated to produce more accurate results. This study discusses the existing sensory and analytical approaches, implications and future prospects for an objective measurement of quality and typicity as well as methods for the selection of appropriate data for predictive model development. Full article
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17 pages, 1625 KiB  
Review
Functional Beverages in the 21st Century
by Mateusz Sugajski, Magdalena Buszewska-Forajta and Bogusław Buszewski
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010027 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4463
Abstract
Underlying the dawn of humanity was primarily the search for food and access to drinking water. Over the course of civilization, there has been a significant increase in drinking water quality. By the average of the nutritional standards, the daily water demand is [...] Read more.
Underlying the dawn of humanity was primarily the search for food and access to drinking water. Over the course of civilization, there has been a significant increase in drinking water quality. By the average of the nutritional standards, the daily water demand is 2.5 L (also including liquid products such as tea, coffee, or soup). However, it is worth noticing that the need is strictly individual for each person and depends on two major factors, namely, epidemiological (sex, age state of health, lifestyle, and diet) and environmental (humidity and air temperature). Currently, our diet is more and more often enriched with isotonic drinks, functional drinks, or drinks bearing the hallmarks of health-promoting products. As a result, manufacturing companies compete to present more interesting beverages with complex compositions. This article will discuss both the composition of functional beverages and their impact on health. Full article
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13 pages, 2531 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Cinnamon and Ginger Spices on Anthocyanins in Sweetened Roselle Beverages
by Esereosa D. Omoarukhe, Niamh Harbourne and Paula Jauregi
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010024 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
This study explores the potential benefits of spices (cinnamon and ginger) on Roselle anthocyanins within a sweetened Roselle beverage matrix. Anthocyanins and other related properties of the beverage (colour, antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and pH) were observed from the start and monitored for [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential benefits of spices (cinnamon and ginger) on Roselle anthocyanins within a sweetened Roselle beverage matrix. Anthocyanins and other related properties of the beverage (colour, antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and pH) were observed from the start and monitored for 30 days at accelerated storage conditions (40 °C). The sweeteners at the amounts used (80 g/L granulated sugar and 0.32 g/L Stevia Reb A) did not have a significant effect on the initial anthocyanin content in the beverage and did not significantly impact degradation. Upon the addition of spices to the sweetened beverage, ginger (1 g/L) did not result in significant changes, initially or during storage. However, following the addition of cinnamon (1 g/L) to the beverages (unsweetened and sweetened), an initial increase in the total phenolic and FRAP antioxidant activity in the Roselle beverages was observed; furthermore, it reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and improved colour stability during storage. This effect is postulated to be due to a co-pigmentation reaction or the acylation of anthocyanins with a complex formed from the reaction of glucose with the phenolic compounds contained in cinnamon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Supplement Drinks: Development and Health Benefits)
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12 pages, 1050 KiB  
Article
Impact of Ageing on Ultrasound-Treated Lees on Volatile Composition and Sensory Properties of Red Sparkling Base Wine
by Coro Blanco-Huerta, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández, Josefina Vila-Crespo, Violeta Ruipérez, Raúl Moyano and José Manuel Rodríguez-Nogales
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010023 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Ageing on lees can be a good technique to enhance the quality of red sparkling base wines. Ultrasound treatment of the lees, prior to addition to the wine, can improve the releasing of their components into the wine. This study carries out a [...] Read more.
Ageing on lees can be a good technique to enhance the quality of red sparkling base wines. Ultrasound treatment of the lees, prior to addition to the wine, can improve the releasing of their components into the wine. This study carries out a four month ageing on lees of a red sparkling base wine by the addition of lees sonicated at different amplitude levels: 30%, 60% and 90% for 10 min. The ageing on ultrasound-treated lees improved the quality of the red base wine, with a greater impact the higher the amplitude of the applied ultrasound. Sonicated lees at an amplitude of 90% enlarged the concentration of neutral polysaccharides in the wine and reduced its astringency, which was evaluated chemically. Furthermore, this treatment enhanced the concentration of some volatile compounds in the wine, mainly acetates, esters and terpenes with floral and fruity aromatic notes. This trend was also found for some fused alcohols, contributing to the aromatic complexity of wines, as well as for 2-phenylethanol, an alcohol with a rose-like aroma, and also for C6-alcohols with a green-herbaceous aroma. The results indicate that ultrasonication is a promising tool to increase the benefits of ageing on lees on the quality of red sparkling base wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Innovations in the Production of Sparkling Wines)
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20 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Validation of High-Pressure Homogenization Process to Pasteurize Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa) Beverages: Sensorial and Quality Characteristics during Cold Storage
by Wilson V. Vasquez-Rojas, Sara Parralejo-Sanz, Diana Martin, Tiziana Fornari and M. Pilar Cano
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010022 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and the stability of the quality properties of Brazil nut beverages were studied. E. coli was used as target microorganism to validate the HPH process (pressures from 50 to 180 MPa [...] Read more.
The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and the stability of the quality properties of Brazil nut beverages were studied. E. coli was used as target microorganism to validate the HPH process (pressures from 50 to 180 MPa and inlet temperatures (Ti) from 25 to 75 °C). Cold storage (5 °C) for 21 days was conducted to establish the shelf-life of BN beverages, in terms of their microbiological, physical, physicochemical, and sensorial stability. HPH-treated samples were compared to pasteurized BN beverages (63 °C for 20 min). The combination of Ti and the pressure of the HPH process (50 to 150 MPa/75 °C and 180 MPa/25 °C) had a significant effect on E. coli inactivation (8.2 log CFU/mL). During storage at 5 °C, the growth of mesophilic aerobes in processed BN beverages was controlled by the HPH process. Oxidative stability (TBAR assay) and physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, and °Brix) were evaluated during cold storage, showing good stability. Additionally, HPH-treated beverages showed a reduction in their particle size and the formation of more stable protein aggregates, which favored the beverages’ whiteness (color). The HPH process could be an alternative to pasteurization to obtain Brazil nut beverages with an acceptable microbiological shelf life (≥21 days at 5 °C) and high-quality characteristics without the use of any additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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25 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Lachancea thermotolerans, an Innovative Alternative for Sour Beer Production
by Vanesa Postigo, Sergio Esteban and Teresa Arroyo
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010020 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4128
Abstract
The interest in and growth of craft beer has led to an intense search for new beers and styles. The revival of traditional styles has sometimes been hampered by the use of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, studies on alternative yeasts [...] Read more.
The interest in and growth of craft beer has led to an intense search for new beers and styles. The revival of traditional styles has sometimes been hampered by the use of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, studies on alternative yeasts for the production of this style of beer have increased. In this work and together with previous studies carried out with yeasts isolated from Madrid agriculture (from grapes, must, wine, vineyards and wineries), the capacity of 10 yeast strains, belonging to the genus Lachancea thermotolerans, for the production of sour beer has been determined. For this purpose, different fermentation scale-ups (100 mL, 1 L and 100 L) have been performed and their fermentation capacity, aroma compound production (33 volatile compounds by GC), organoleptic profile (trained tasting panel and consumers), melatonin production (HPLC) and antioxidant capacity have been studied. Beer fermented with yeast strain CLI 1232 showed a balanced acidity with a fruity aromatic profile and honey notes. On the other hand, the beer fermented with strain 1-8B also showed a balanced acidity, but less fruity and citric flavour than CLI 1232 strain. Finally, the yeast strain selected by the consumers (CLI 1232) was used for beer production at industrial scale and the market launch of a sour beer. Full article
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22 pages, 1404 KiB  
Review
Diet Diversification and Priming with Kunu: An Indigenous Probiotic Cereal-Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage in Nigeria
by Johnson K. Ndukwe, Claret Chiugo Aduba, Kingsley Tochukwu Ughamba, Kenechi Onyejiaka Chukwu, Chijioke Nwoye Eze, Ogueri Nwaiwu and Helen Onyeaka
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010014 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8528
Abstract
Kunu is a fermented non-alcoholic beverage consumed all over Nigeria. The drink is served as an alternative to alcohol due to its perceived extreme nourishing and therapeutic properties. Varieties of this beverage are determined mostly by the type of grain, the supplements, sensory [...] Read more.
Kunu is a fermented non-alcoholic beverage consumed all over Nigeria. The drink is served as an alternative to alcohol due to its perceived extreme nourishing and therapeutic properties. Varieties of this beverage are determined mostly by the type of grain, the supplements, sensory additives used, and the process employed during its production. Dietary quality is paramount in nutritional well-being and a key factor in human overall health development. The nutritional quality of grains utilised for Kunu production makes the drink more appealing to a large growing population when compared to some other drinks. Some use Kunu drink as an infant weaning drink, thus serving as a priming beverage for infants due to its rich probiotic and nutritional properties. However, this beverage’s short shelf-life has limited its production scale. This review therefore elaborates succinctly on the diverse therapeutic nutritional properties of the Kunu beverage and the effect of additives and fermentation on the microbial dynamics during Kunu production, as well as the prospect of Kunu in diet diversification and priming for weaning infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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23 pages, 1360 KiB  
Article
Single and Interactive Effects of Unmalted Cereals, Hops, and Yeasts on Quality of White-Inspired Craft Beers
by Antonietta Baiano, Anna Fiore, Barbara la Gatta, Maria Tufariello, Carmela Gerardi, Michele Savino and Francesco Grieco
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010009 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
White beers owe their name to their straw yellow colour deriving from the use of unmalted wheat, which also supplies a relatively high protein content causing haze formation. This study aimed to develop white-inspired craft beers made with combinations of three mixtures of [...] Read more.
White beers owe their name to their straw yellow colour deriving from the use of unmalted wheat, which also supplies a relatively high protein content causing haze formation. This study aimed to develop white-inspired craft beers made with combinations of three mixtures of barley malt/unmalted wheat (alternatively durum-var. Dauno III, soft-var. Risciola, or emmer-var. Padre Pio), two hop varieties (Cascade or Columbus), and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (Belgian yeast and a high-ester producing yeast); and assess the single and interactive effects of these ingredients on physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the beers. According to the graphical representation of the results for the Principal Component Analysis, most of the samples appear overlapped since they had similar characteristics, but it was possible to highlight two clusters of beers different from the others: those produced with (a) Risciola wheat and Columbus hop and (b) Dauno III wheat, Cascade hop, and the Belgian yeast. The beers of these clusters obtained the highest scores for their overall quality that, in turn, was positively correlated with concentrations of citric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, and epicatechin; alcohol %, colour, amount and persistence of foam, intensity of fruity flavour, and body. Full article
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23 pages, 2075 KiB  
Review
The Role of Emergent Processing Technologies in Beer Production
by Gonçalo Carvalho, Ana Catarina Leite, Rita Leal and Ricardo Pereira
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010007 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 10105
Abstract
The brewing industry is regarded as a fiercely competitive and insatiable sector of activity, driven by the significant technological improvements observed in recent years and the most recent consumer trends pointing to a sharp demand for sensory enhanced beers. Some emergent and sustainable [...] Read more.
The brewing industry is regarded as a fiercely competitive and insatiable sector of activity, driven by the significant technological improvements observed in recent years and the most recent consumer trends pointing to a sharp demand for sensory enhanced beers. Some emergent and sustainable technologies regarding food processing such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound (US), thermosonication (TS), high-pressure processing (HPP), and ohmic heating (OH) have shown the potential to contribute to the development of currently employed brewing methodologies by both enhancing the quality of beer and contributing to processing efficiency with a promise of being more environmentally friendly. Some of these technologies have not yet found their way into the industrial brewing process but already show potential to be embedded in continuous thermal and non-thermal unit operations such as pasteurization, boiling and sterilization, resulting in beer with improved organoleptic properties. This review article aims to explore the potential of different advanced processing technologies for industrial application in several key stages of brewing, with particular emphasis on continuous beer production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation of Beverages by Continuous Pasteurization Technologies)
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17 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
Climate Effect on Morphological Traits and Polyphenolic Composition of Red Wine Grapes of Vitis vinifera
by Maria Inês Rouxinol, Maria Rosário Martins, Vanda Salgueiro, Maria João Costa, João Mota Barroso and Ana Elisa Rato
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010008 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Wine quality is determined by the development of grape maturation, which is highly dependent on climate variations. Extreme weather events are becoming more common, which will affect the productivity and quality of grapes and wine. Grape development depends on many factors, including weather, [...] Read more.
Wine quality is determined by the development of grape maturation, which is highly dependent on climate variations. Extreme weather events are becoming more common, which will affect the productivity and quality of grapes and wine. Grape development depends on many factors, including weather, and extreme events will influence berry size, skin thickness and the development of some key compounds, such as phenolics. In this work, the ripening evolution and phenolic content of Vitis vinifera extracts from a vineyard in Alentejo (Portugal) were evaluated in two distinct climatic years. During this period, the influence of climatic conditions on grape ripening, and thereby on red wine quality, was assessed. The results demonstrate differences in polyphenol compounds between years and the importance of monitoring their content during maturation. The reduction of berry size, apparently due to lower pluviosity and higher temperatures, resulted in a higher content of polyphenolic compounds related to grape quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Wine)
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18 pages, 2229 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Compounds in Different Coffee Beverages for Quality and Sustainability Assessment
by Laura Gobbi, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina Antonia Prencipe and Giuliana Vinci
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010003 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3884
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, mainly due to its organoleptic, and psychoactive properties. Coffee brewing techniques involve the use of different extraction/infusion conditions (i.e., time, temperature, pressure, water/powder ratio, etc.), which can influence the quality of the final [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, mainly due to its organoleptic, and psychoactive properties. Coffee brewing techniques involve the use of different extraction/infusion conditions (i.e., time, temperature, pressure, water/powder ratio, etc.), which can influence the quality of the final product. The study aimed to analyze the effect of four brewing coffee techniques (industrial espresso machine, Moka machine, pod machine, and capsule machine), which are the most used coffee brewing methods in Italy, on the quality and safety of the coffee brews, taking into account the profile of biogenic amines (BAs), total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and anti-radical activity (DPPH and ABTS assay). Eight coffee powders and brewed beverages from two different brands belonging to the 100% Arabica variety (country of origin Brazil) were analysed. The brewing techniques all resulted in a reduction of both BA content (27–30%), TPC (55–60%), TFC (50–55%), and anti-radical assays (45–50%) in coffee beverages compared to ground coffee samples. The study also showed that Moka is the method that yields the highest TPC (2.71–3.52 mg GAE/g coffee powder) and TFC (8.50–8.60 mg RUT/g coffee powder) content and highest anti-radical capacity in coffee beverages. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed a difference between coffee powder and infusions and coffee infusions obtained by different extraction techniques. Moreover, an analysis of the environmental impacts related to the different coffee preparation methods examined was conducted. This was performed by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology through SimaPro v.9.2.2. software. Full article
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14 pages, 2213 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Determination of Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Assessing Wine Quality
by Ainhoa Navarro-Abril, Javier Saurina and Sònia Sentellas
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040069 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) and free amino acids (AAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds occurring in a wide range of foodstuffs, found in increased amount in different fermented foods, seafood, and wines. This study deals with the development of an analytical method based on liquid [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) and free amino acids (AAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds occurring in a wide range of foodstuffs, found in increased amount in different fermented foods, seafood, and wines. This study deals with the development of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride for the determination of BAs and AAs in musts, wines, and sparkling wines. The resulting compositional profiles have been exploited as potential descriptors of quality and other oenological issues using chemometric methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial analysis of least squares-discriminants (PLS-DA). Proline is the most abundant compound, and other remarkable species are lysine, ethanolamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Fermented samples (wines and sparkling wines) are much richer in both BAs and free AAs than the initial musts. Significant differences have also been noticed in the quality, as the best products display, in general, lower levels. The dissimilarities in the content of the analytes between the two grape varieties studied (pinot noir and xarel·lo) and those dealing with quality aspects have made it possible to establish a tree to classify the samples based on these two features with excellent classification rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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16 pages, 3934 KiB  
Article
Impact of Two Commercial S. cerevisiae Strains on the Aroma Profiles of Different Regional Musts
by Francesca Patrignani, Gabriella Siesto, Davide Gottardi, Ileana Vigentini, Annita Toffanin, Vasileios Englezos, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Francesco Grieco, Rosalba Lanciotti, Barbara Speranza, Antonio Bevilacqua and Patrizia Romano
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040059 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more [...] Read more.
The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more reliable results, comparative fermentations on interlaboratory scale of five different regional red grape musts were carried out by five different research units (RUs). For this purpose, the two S. cerevisiae strains were inoculated separately at the same level and under the same operating conditions. The wines were analyzed by means of SPME-GC/MS. Quali-quantitative multivariate approaches (two-way joining, MANOVA and PCA) were used to explain the contribution of strain, must, and their interaction to the final wine volatile fingerprinting. Our results showed that the five wines analyzed for volatile compounds, although characterized by a specific aromatic profile, were mainly affected by the grape used, in interaction with the inoculated Saccharomyces strain. In particular, the AWRI796 strain generally exerted a greater influence on the aromatic component resulting in a higher level of alcohols and esters. This study highlighted that the variable strain could have a different weight, with some musts experiencing a different trend depending on the strain (i.e., Negroamaro or Magliocco musts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Wine Production: From Vine to Wine)
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17 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
DLLμE/GC-MS as a Powerful Analytical Approach to Establish the Volatilomic Composition of Different Whiskeys
by Rosa Perestrelo, Michael Caldeira, Freddy Rodrigues, Jorge A. M. Pereira and José S. Câmara
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030053 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2856
Abstract
The volatilomic fingerprint of nine different whiskeys was established using a rapid and sensitive analytical approach based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLμE) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The influence of the extractor [...] Read more.
The volatilomic fingerprint of nine different whiskeys was established using a rapid and sensitive analytical approach based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLμE) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The influence of the extractor solvent on the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds (VOCs) was evaluated by DLLμE/GC-MS. The highest amounts of VOCs were obtained using 5 mL of sample, dichloromethane as the extractor solvent, and acetone as the disperser solvent. The proposed method showed no matrix effect, good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.993) in the assessed concentration range, recovery (ranging from 70 to 99%, precision (RSD ≤ 15%) and sensitivity (low limits of detection and quantification). A total of 37 VOCs belonging to different biosynthetic pathways including alcohols, esters, acids, carbonyl compounds, furanic compounds and volatile phenols were identified and quantified using DLLμE/GC-MS and DLLμE/GC-FID, respectively. Alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol, propan-1-ol), esters (ethyl decanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate), and acids (decanoic acid, octanoic acid, hexanoic acid) were the most abundant chemical families. The multivariate statistical analysis allowed for the discrimination of whiskeys based on their volatilomic fingerprint, namely octanoic acid, 2-furfural, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, acetic acid, ethyl dodecanoate, butan-1-ol, and ethyl decanoate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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13 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Spontaneous Fermentation and Non-Saccharomyces Sequential Fermentation in Verdicchio Wine at Winery Scale
by Laura Canonico, Alice Agarbati, Francesca Comitini and Maurizio Ciani
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030049 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2906
Abstract
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in sequential fermentation is a suitable biotechnological process to provide specific oenological characteristics and to increase the complexity of wines. In this work, selected strains of Lachancea thermotolerans and Starmerella bombicola were used in sequential fermentations with [...] Read more.
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in sequential fermentation is a suitable biotechnological process to provide specific oenological characteristics and to increase the complexity of wines. In this work, selected strains of Lachancea thermotolerans and Starmerella bombicola were used in sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with spontaneous and pure S. cerevisiae fermentation trials in Verdicchio grape juice. Torulaspora delbrueckii together with the other two non-Saccharomyces strains (L. thermotolerans, S. bombicola) in multi-sequential fermentations was also evaluated. Wines, obtained under winery vinification conditions, were evaluated for their analytical and sensorial profile. The results indicated that each fermentation gave peculiar analytical and aromatic features of the final wine. L. thermotolerans trials are characterized by an increase of total acidity, higher alcohols and monoterpenes as well as citric and herbal notes. S. bombicola trials showed a general significantly high concentration of phenylethyl acetate and hexyl acetate and a softness sensation while multi-sequential fermentations showed a balanced profile. Spontaneous fermentation was characterized by the production of acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), citrus and herbal notes, and tannicity. The overall results indicate that multi-starter fermentations could be a promising tool tailored to the desired features of different Verdicchio wine styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Wine Production: From Vine to Wine)
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19 pages, 675 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Consuming Amino Acids L-Arginine, L-Citrulline (and Their Combination) as a Beverage or Powder, on Athletic and Physical Performance: A Systematic Review
by Siphamandla Nyawose, Rowena Naidoo, Nenad Naumovski and Andrew J. McKune
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030048 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 34303
Abstract
Consumption of amino acids L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-citrulline (L-Cit) are purported to increase nitric oxide (NO) production and improve physical performance. Clinical trials have shown relatively more favorable outcomes than not after supplementing with L-Cit and combined L-Arg and L-Cit. However, in most [...] Read more.
Consumption of amino acids L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-citrulline (L-Cit) are purported to increase nitric oxide (NO) production and improve physical performance. Clinical trials have shown relatively more favorable outcomes than not after supplementing with L-Cit and combined L-Arg and L-Cit. However, in most studies, other active ingredients such as malate were included in the supplement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of consuming standalone L-Arg, L-Cit, and their combination (in the form of powder or beverage) on blood NO level and physical performance markers. A systematic review was undertaken following PRISMA 2020 guidelines (PROSPERO: CRD42021287530). Four electronic databases (PubMed, Ebscohost, Science Direct, and Google scholar) were used. An acute dose of 0.075 g/kg of L-Arg or 6 g L-Arg had no significant increase in NO biomarkers and physical performance markers (p > 0.05). Consumption of 2.4 to 6 g/day of L-Cit over 7 to 16 days significantly increased NO level and physical performance markers (p < 0.05). Combined L-Arg and L-Cit supplementation significantly increased circulating NO, improved performance, and reduced feelings of exertion (p < 0.05). Standalone L-Cit and combined L-Arg with L-Cit consumed over several days effectively increases circulating NO and improves physical performance and feelings of exertion in recreationally active and well-trained athletes. Full article
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17 pages, 656 KiB  
Review
Chemical Composition of Kombucha
by Peyton Bishop, Eric R. Pitts, Drew Budner and Katherine A. Thompson-Witrick
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030045 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 14167
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented sweetened tea with a mixed fermenting culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. While the history of kombucha is not completely clear, it is now available around the world and has shown an increase in availability and demand in [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented sweetened tea with a mixed fermenting culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. While the history of kombucha is not completely clear, it is now available around the world and has shown an increase in availability and demand in the United States market. The proponents of kombucha consumption tout the varied health benefits it can provide. The final kombucha flavor and composition is a function of both the initial tea used and the fermentation process. While the ascribed benefits are varied and numerous, the number of direct studies has been limited. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of the chemical composition and the potential health effects both positive and negative reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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12 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Bottle’s Price and Label Reported Information on the Perception of the Minerality Attribute in White Wines
by Elvira Zaldívar Santamaría, David Molina Dagá and Antonio Tomás Palacios García
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030042 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
The use of the descriptor “minerality” in a wine has increased in the last few years. This term is frequently used to describe wines closely associated with their terroir. This concept represents the complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced, [...] Read more.
The use of the descriptor “minerality” in a wine has increased in the last few years. This term is frequently used to describe wines closely associated with their terroir. This concept represents the complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced, including factors such as the soil, topography and climate. In addition, the term “minerality” is frequently used to increase the price of the bottle. However, little is known regarding how this complex concept is perceived by consumers and whether they use this extrinsic information related to the term “minerality” in the purchasing process. The aim of this study is to understand how the term “minerality” could influence consumers when they purchase wine when this descriptor is included as an extrinsic characteristic on the label and in the price of the bottle. For this purpose, the so-called CATA (check-all-that-apply) methodology was used with a panel of 25 judges in order to define the attributes that a “mineral” wine should contain in order to be chosen and if the information displayed on the label and the price could influence consumers in that process. This technique is a dynamic sensory evaluation in which participants select the terms they consider apply at each moment from a list of attributes and deselect them when they no longer apply. The judges blindly tasted two different white wines in eight different glasses displayed with different label information related or not with terms associated with the minerality concept. In a second round, judges tried six glasses presented with the only information of the bottle’s price. In both tasting sessions, the used list of descriptors contained 44 terms, 16 of which were related to the attribute of minerality, 13 were considered antonyms of such a descriptor and 15 referred to extrinsic aspects. The results showed that consumers were not directly influenced by the label reported information or the bottle´s price when they described a wine as mineral. Finally, the statistical evaluation conducted by the CATA analysis divided the list of 44 used terms by their range of importance when a wine is described as mineral. The terms were divided into those that help to classify a wine as mineral and those that are antagonistic to this concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Statistics for Beverages)
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14 pages, 1067 KiB  
Review
Metabolomics of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Fermented Beverages
by Daniel J. Ellis, Edward D. Kerr, Gerhard Schenk and Benjamin L. Schulz
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030041 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4918
Abstract
Fermented beverages have been consumed for millennia and today support a global industry producing diverse products. Saccharomyces yeasts currently dominate the fermented beverage industry, but consumer demands for alternative products with a variety of sensory profiles and actual or perceived health benefits are [...] Read more.
Fermented beverages have been consumed for millennia and today support a global industry producing diverse products. Saccharomyces yeasts currently dominate the fermented beverage industry, but consumer demands for alternative products with a variety of sensory profiles and actual or perceived health benefits are driving the diversification and use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The diversity of flavours, aromas, and other sensory characteristics that can be obtained by using non-Saccharomyces yeasts in fermentation is, in large part, due to the diverse secondary metabolites they produce compared to conventional Saccharomyces yeast. Here, we review the use of metabolomic analyses of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to explore their impact on the sensory characteristics of fermented beverages. We highlight several key species currently used in the industry, including Brettanomyces, Torulaspora, Lachancea, and Saccharomycodes, and emphasize the future potential for the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of diverse fermented beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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18 pages, 664 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory and Antithrombotic Properties of Bioactives from Orange, Sanguine and Clementine Juices and from Their Remaining By-Products
by Alexandros Tsoupras
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030039 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3424
Abstract
The anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C and of phenolic compounds of citrus fruits are well established. However, the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic potential of both vitamin C and of the more amphiphilic and lipophilic components of citrus fruits needs further attention. [...] Read more.
The anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C and of phenolic compounds of citrus fruits are well established. However, the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic potential of both vitamin C and of the more amphiphilic and lipophilic components of citrus fruits needs further attention. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties of vitamin C and of freshly squeezed juices and their lipid bioactives from the Navalina and Sanguine orange varieties and the Clementine variety of mandarins, as well as from their remaining by-products, were evaluated against the inflammatory and thrombotic pathways of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin in platelets, as well as against PAF-biosynthesis in leukocytes. The non-oxidized juices of these citrus fruits and a vitamin C supplement showed stronger anti-PAF and antithrombin effects than their oxidized versions through their general anti-oxidant effect in platelets. The total lipids (TLs) and the HPLC-derived fractions of phenolic compounds and of polar lipid bioactives from both juices and their peels’ by-products showed a more specific stronger inhibitory effect against the inflammatory and thrombotic pathways of PAF and thrombin in platelets, while these bioactives strongly inhibited also the specific enzyme activities of the main biosynthetic enzymes of PAF in leukocytes. The stronger bioactivity of the dietary bioactives found in the juices of these citrus fruits against specific biochemical pathways of inflammation and thrombosis seems to act with synergy with the anti-oxidant potential of their vitamin C content, which further supports the notion that these juices are functional foods with anti-inflammatory protective health benefits. In addition, the presence of these dietary bioactive phenolic compounds and polar lipid bioactives in the remaining peels’ wastes further enhance the valorization of such food industry by-products as potential sources of anti-inflammatory bioactives to be used as ingredients for novel functional products. Full article
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22 pages, 5368 KiB  
Review
Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Fruit Juice and Fruit Fermented Beverages and Their Consumer Acceptance
by Teresa Pinto, Alice Vilela and Fernanda Cosme
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020033 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 15091
Abstract
Recent social, economic, and technological evolutions have impacted consumption habits. The new consumer is more rational, more connected and demanding with products, more concerned with the management of the family budget, with the health, origin, and sustainability of food. The food industry over [...] Read more.
Recent social, economic, and technological evolutions have impacted consumption habits. The new consumer is more rational, more connected and demanding with products, more concerned with the management of the family budget, with the health, origin, and sustainability of food. The food industry over the last few years has shown remarkable technological and scientific evolution, with an impact on the development and innovation of new products using non-thermal processing. Non-thermal processing technologies involve methods by which fruit juices receive microbiological inactivation and enzymatic denaturation with or without the direct application of low heat, thereby lessening the adverse effects on the nutritional, bioactive, and flavor compounds of the treated fruit juices, extending their shelf-life. The recognition of the nutritional and protective values of fruit juices and fermented fruit beverages is evident and is attributed to the presence of different bioactive compounds, protecting against chronic and metabolic diseases. Fermentation maintains the fruit's safety, nutrition, and shelf life and the development of new products. This review aims to summarize the chemical and sensory characteristics of fruit juices and fermented fruit drinks, the fermentation process, its benefits, and its effects. Full article
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8 pages, 1877 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Different Bentonites and Their Properties as a Protein-Fining Agent in Wine
by Stephan Sommer, Stella J. Sommer and Monica Gutierrez
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020031 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
Bentonite is a natural clay that is used in different industries as a desiccant, ion-exchange material, or additive to remove impurities. For example, marketed as healing clay and as protein-fining agent in wine, bentonite is expected to adsorb specific compounds while having no [...] Read more.
Bentonite is a natural clay that is used in different industries as a desiccant, ion-exchange material, or additive to remove impurities. For example, marketed as healing clay and as protein-fining agent in wine, bentonite is expected to adsorb specific compounds while having no negative effects on the quality of the product in which it is used. In this study, 34 commercially available bentonites for different applications were selected and analyzed for their elemental composition, extraction of heavy metals, swelling behavior, and protein removal rate under conditions relevant to wine. The results indicate that bentonites can have a very variable composition that does not correlate with the intended use. The extraction of heavy metals is not directly related to the raw material and depends on swelling behavior and surface area of the clay. Interestingly, there is a similar degree of variability in swelling behavior among wine bentonites as there is for healing clays. This correlates with the protein removal rate but also with the extraction of iron, a transition metal that is known for its catalytic activity for oxidation reactions. Even though the protein removal rate is much higher than for other clays, bentonites that are marketed for wine show an extraction behavior that can have a negative effect on the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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20 pages, 1745 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Savvatiano (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Composition
by Dimitrios Evangelos Miliordos, Alexandros Kanapitsas, Despina Lola, Elli Goulioti, Nikolaos Kontoudakis, Georgios Leventis, Myrto Tsiknia and Yorgos Kotseridis
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020029 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3508
Abstract
Nitrogen nutrition is one of the most effective cultural practices in vineyards. The vine nitrogen status influences the berries’ quality characteristics and the produced wines. The current study investigated the effect of traditional nitrogen fertilization in the form of ammonium sulfate compared to [...] Read more.
Nitrogen nutrition is one of the most effective cultural practices in vineyards. The vine nitrogen status influences the berries’ quality characteristics and the produced wines. The current study investigated the effect of traditional nitrogen fertilization in the form of ammonium sulfate compared to nitrogen fertilization coupled with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the agronomic characteristics of grapes and the produced wines of the white variety Savvatiano from a productive vineyard in the Attiki region. Must and wine quality was evaluated by a chemical analysis and sensorial evaluation by trained panelists. The different forms of nitrogen fertilizers did not significantly affect the aroma and sensory profile in contrast to unfertilized grapevines. In addition, the applied fertilization increased some important aroma compounds in the wine, compared to no fertilization. The significance of this work is to add information about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the wine volatile composition of the Greek white grapevine Savvatiano. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Wine)
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12 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Retronasal Flavor Alterations in Smoke-Affected Wines and the Efficacy of Various Inter-Stimulus Rinse Protocols in Clearing Smoke-Related Attributes
by Jenna A. Fryer and Elizabeth Tomasino
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020023 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3088
Abstract
Wildfires produce smoke, which can then encounter wine grapes, causing the fruit to absorb smoke-related volatile organic compounds. These compounds impact the sensorial profiles of the resulting wines, introducing an uncharacteristic smokey flavor and ashy finish. Since these off-flavor attributes are observed to [...] Read more.
Wildfires produce smoke, which can then encounter wine grapes, causing the fruit to absorb smoke-related volatile organic compounds. These compounds impact the sensorial profiles of the resulting wines, introducing an uncharacteristic smokey flavor and ashy finish. Since these off-flavor attributes are observed to have longer-lasting perception, a proper inter-stimulus protocol is necessary to ensure an accurate sensory analysis. Previous work has indicated that a 1 g/L pectin rinse with 120 s of separation is effective for clearing the smoke flavor to mitigate potential carryover effects. The purpose of this work was to determine if there was a more efficient rinsing protocol to lessen the time taken between samples. By using wines with various levels of smoke exposure (high, moderate, and none), the efficacy of four different rinse systems were evaluated with a fixed-time-point evaluation system. These results indicate that a 4 g/L glucose solution is more efficient than pectin, requiring only 90 s of separation to clear smoke flavor perception. Additionally, this work identified appropriate references for the retronasal attributes associated with smoke taint in wine. These results can be used to guide a sensory analysis of wildfire-affected wines to ensure effective and accurate results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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11 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Quality and Commercial Value of Gyokuro-Styled Green Tea Grown in Australia
by James Krahe and Michelle A. Krahe
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020022 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3471
Abstract
Gyokuro is a style of Japanese green tea produced by employing agricultural shading in the weeks before harvest. This method results in a tea product with different organoleptic and chemical properties than common Japanese green tea. In an effort to yield the highest [...] Read more.
Gyokuro is a style of Japanese green tea produced by employing agricultural shading in the weeks before harvest. This method results in a tea product with different organoleptic and chemical properties than common Japanese green tea. In an effort to yield the highest quality and commercially valuable green tea product, the present study explores the influence of shading treatments and the duration of shading on the natural biochemistry of the green tea plant. This study applied shading treatments at light intensity conditions of 40%, 16%, 10% and 1% of available ambient light and the application of a red-colored shade cloth of 60% opacity. The Quality Index Tool was used to measure the quality and commercial value of the green tea, using individual target constituents (theanine, caffeine and the catechins) quantified from HPLC analysis. This study shows that very high levels of total visible spectrum light shading (~99%) is required to achieve improvements in quality and commercial value. Specifically, this improvement is a direct result of changes in the mood- modifying bioactive metabolites theanine and caffeine. This study concludes that in green tea growing regions with more hours of sunlight per year, such as on the Central Coast of Australia, more intense shading will achieve products with improved quality and commercial value, which has more potential to be marketed as a functional ingredient. Full article
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11 pages, 1162 KiB  
Review
Galacto-Oligosaccharide (GOS) Synthesis during Enzymatic Lactose-Free Milk Production: State of the Art and Emerging Opportunities
by Katia Liburdi and Marco Esti
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020021 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5771
Abstract
Much attention has recently been paid to β-Galactosidases (β-D-galactoside galactohidrolase; EC 3.2.1.23), commonly known as lactases, due to the lactose intolerance of the human population and the importance of dairy products in the human diet. This enzyme, produced by microorganisms, [...] Read more.
Much attention has recently been paid to β-Galactosidases (β-D-galactoside galactohidrolase; EC 3.2.1.23), commonly known as lactases, due to the lactose intolerance of the human population and the importance of dairy products in the human diet. This enzyme, produced by microorganisms, is being used in the dairy industry for hydrolyzing the lactose found in milk to produce lactose-free milk (LFM). Conventionally, β-galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of lactose to produce glucose and galactose in LFM; however, they can also catalyze transgalactosylation reactions that produce a wide range of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), which are functional prebiotic molecules that confer health benefits to human health. In this field, different works aims to identify novel microbial sources of β-galactosidase for removing lactose from milk with the relative GOS production. Lactase extracted from thermophilic microorganisms seems to be more suitable for the transgalactosylation process at relatively high temperatures, as it inhibits microbial contamination. Different immobilization methods, such as adsorption, covalent attachment, chemical aggregation, entrapment and micro-encapsulation, have been used to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with immobilized β-galactosidases. In this mini-review, particular emphasis has been given to the immobilization techniques and bioreactor configurations developed for GOS synthesis in milk, in order to provide a more detailed overview of the biocatalytic production of milk oligosaccharides at industrial level. Full article
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19 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Reproducibility of Fruit Spirit Distillation Processes
by Daniel Heller and Daniel Einfalt
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020020 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4692
Abstract
Fruit spirit distillations processes are based on physical principles of heat and mass transfer. These principles are decisive for the separation of desired and undesired aroma compounds, which affect the quality of the distilled product. It is mandatory to control heat and mass [...] Read more.
Fruit spirit distillations processes are based on physical principles of heat and mass transfer. These principles are decisive for the separation of desired and undesired aroma compounds, which affect the quality of the distilled product. It is mandatory to control heat and mass transfer parameters to be able to perform fruit spirit distillation processes in a reproducible manner and to achieve equal products with similar volatile compound compositions repeatedly. Up to now, only limited information is available on the magnitude of reproducibility errors since fruit spirit distillation columns are typically not equipped with a suitable control or monitoring technique. We upgraded a batch distillation column with digitized instrumentation and a control technique to be able to control crucial parameters such as thermal energy inputs and reflux rates. This study aimed to identify whether control over two distillation parameters has the potential to enable us to perform distillation processes repeatedly. This study analyzed the magnitude of reproducibility errors for (i) six monitored distillation process parameters and (ii) 13 quantified volatile compounds in the product between duplicated distillation runs performed with equal setups. A total of eight different distillations were performed in duplicate (n = 16), while the six distillation parameters were monitored and logged every ten seconds. The produced distillates were equally subsampled into 20 fractions and each fraction analyzed for 13 volatile compound concentrations. Based on a dataset of 28,600 monitored duplicate distillation process data points, this study showed that process parameters can indeed be replicated with a median relative standard deviation (RSD) of <0.1% to 7% when two crucial process parameters are controlled. The comparison of 1540 volatile compound concentrations in the product fractions showed a reproducibility error with an average median RSD of 9 ± 8%. This illustrated that by gaining control over thermal energy input and reflux rates, the reproducibility of fruit spirit distillation processes and their associated products can largely be met. It is advisable to equip distillation columns with a suitable control technique to be able to reproduce the performance of fruit spirit distillations. Full article
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11 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pulsed Electric Field Pre-Treatment on the Isoflavone Profile of Soymilk
by Mariana Morales-de la Peña, Jorge Welti-Chanes and Olga Martín-Belloso
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020019 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) were evaluated as extraction-aiding technology during soymilk manufacturing to improve its isoflavone profile. Low-intensity PEFs were applied at different processing conditions in two stages of the soymilk extraction process, hydrated soybeans (HSB) and soybean slurry (SBS), [...] Read more.
In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) were evaluated as extraction-aiding technology during soymilk manufacturing to improve its isoflavone profile. Low-intensity PEFs were applied at different processing conditions in two stages of the soymilk extraction process, hydrated soybeans (HSB) and soybean slurry (SBS), with the soymilk extracted from the conventional process as control (CSM). Overall, resultant soymilk samples from PEF-HSB and PEF-SBS presented lower concentrations of glucosides isoflavones and greater aglycone content than those in CSM. In contrast to genistin (Gin) and daidzin (Din), which decreased around 18.5–52.6% and 10.9–54.6%, respectively, an increase in genistein (Ge, 12.3–64.4%) and daidzein (Da, 9–55.8%) was observed. The total isoflavone content (TIC) of most soymilk samples prepared from PEF-HSB was lower than that of the CSM. Conversely, when PEF-SBS was used, the TIC of resultant soymilk was not significantly affected or slightly decreased. However, PEF treated HSB at 10 kVcm−1/100 pulses and SBS at 6 kVcm−1/10 pulses led to a significant augment in TIC, of up to 109 ± 2.39 and 110 ± 1.26 μg/g, respectively, in the extracted soymilk samples. These results indicated that low-intensity PEF is a potential technology that could be implemented during soymilk manufacturing processing to modify the isoflavone profile and content of soymilk, mainly increasing its aglycone concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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12 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Green and Black Tea Infusion Parameters on Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity by ABTS and DPPH Assays
by Giuliana Vinci, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina Antonia Prencipe and Margherita Tiradritti
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020018 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7971
Abstract
Tea contains about 230 chemical bioactive compounds, of which polyphenols represent the most considerable fraction (30% of total dry weight). These compounds have relevant nutritional and pharmacological effects on human health, exerting antioxidant activities against oxidative stress-induced damage. The industrial processes applied in [...] Read more.
Tea contains about 230 chemical bioactive compounds, of which polyphenols represent the most considerable fraction (30% of total dry weight). These compounds have relevant nutritional and pharmacological effects on human health, exerting antioxidant activities against oxidative stress-induced damage. The industrial processes applied in tea production can lead to qualitative and quantitative changes in the phenolic content and composition and in antioxidant properties, thus influencing their potential biological activities. Meanwhile, the procedure for tea preparation may influence the quantity of the extracted phenolic compounds. In this study, the effects of different infusion parameters, such as the water type used for infusion (tap water, distilled water, and natural mineral water), time (3, 5, and 10 min), temperature (T = 80 °C and 100 °C), and pH (ranged between 3 and 9) were considered. The optimal infusion variables resulting from the study were obtained by extracting phenolic compounds at T = 100 °C for 10 min, both for green (916.12–1169.81 mg GAE/g) and black (932.03–1126.62 mg GAE/g) bagged tea samples, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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12 pages, 1198 KiB  
Review
Nutraceutical and Functional Properties of Camelids’ Milk
by Silvia Vincenzetti, Natalina Cammertoni, Roberta Rapaccetti, Giuseppe Santini, Yulia Klimanova, Jing-Jing Zhang and Paolo Polidori
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010012 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5262
Abstract
In most areas of the world, camelids are considered exotic animals, living only in zoological gardens. Additionally, considering the original lands where they were previously bred with specific economic and social aims, today it is possible to detect a reduction in their total [...] Read more.
In most areas of the world, camelids are considered exotic animals, living only in zoological gardens. Additionally, considering the original lands where they were previously bred with specific economic and social aims, today it is possible to detect a reduction in their total numbers. Typically bred as working animals for goods transportation in desert regions, and as a source of meat and milk, in recent years, camels have been dismissed due to the construction of new roads for motor vehicles, the migration of nomadic populations from deserts to urban zones, and the choice of some autochthonous bovine breeds as sources of meat and milk. The decline in camelids heads seems irreversible. Camels should be considered a valid source of food in marginal areas; the peculiar quality parameters of their milk, showing the proper characteristics for the use of this milk in human nutrition, can justify the choice for breeding them, rather than considering camels only as objects of amusement. Full article
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19 pages, 2899 KiB  
Article
Strontium Isotope Systematics of Tenerife Wines (Canary Islands): Tracing Provenance in Ocean Island Terroir
by Beverley C. Coldwell, Nemesio M. Pérez, Maria Cordero Vaca, Matthew J. Pankhurst, Pedro A. Hernández, Gladys V. Melián Rodriguez, Eleazar Padrón, María Asensio-Ramos, Sara Ribeiro and José Francisco Santos
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010009 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
The production of fraudulent goods remains widespread and economically damaging. The high value of the wine industry makes it particularly vulnerable, and a number of geochemical methods have been developed to ensure traceability and identification of origin. Here, strontium (Sr) isotope data on [...] Read more.
The production of fraudulent goods remains widespread and economically damaging. The high value of the wine industry makes it particularly vulnerable, and a number of geochemical methods have been developed to ensure traceability and identification of origin. Here, strontium (Sr) isotope data on wines from five defined regions in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) show that the young volcanic geology imparts a clearly identifiable low 87Sr/86Sr signature (<0.7072). These values discriminate Tenerife wines from mainland Spanish and continental European produce, as these are much more radiogenic in general. However, unlike continental wine regions, wines from Tenerife show small but ubiquitous enrichments in 87Sr/86Sr above what is expected in the soils. Bentonite addition has not affected the 87Sr/86Sr signatures, with white wines at lower Sr concentrations than red wines in all regions. A number of natural contributions to the terroir are evaluated in relation to Tenerife’s unique combination of geology and geography. Atmospheric precipitation (rainfall) is likely a dominant influence on Sr isotope systematics in northern Denominación de Origen regions, and evaporation may play a role in buffering signatures in southern regions. Other natural additions of 87Sr are not precluded at a local scale, given the large range in climatic conditions of island terroir and known input of mineral dust from Africa. Despite natural explanations affecting the overall small shift observed, there are clear outliers with considerably higher 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentration. This confirms the utility of Sr isotope systematics for oceanic-island viticulture and demonstrates the use of young volcanic soils for tracing natural inputs that may be masked in other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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12 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Musts, Wines, and Sparkling Wines Based on Their Elemental Composition Determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS
by Biel Granell, Anaïs Izquierdo-Llopart, Àngels Sahuquillo, José F. López-Sánchez and Javier Saurina
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010003 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3851
Abstract
Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to [...] Read more.
Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to determine their elemental composition. The resulting data has been used to characterize these products according to oenological features and product qualities. For this purpose, box plot diagrams, bar charts, and principal components analysis (PCA) have been used. The study of the behavior of each given species has pointed out the relevance of some elements as markers or descriptors of winemaking processes. Among others, Cu and K are abundant in musts and their concentrations progressively decrease through the cava production process. S levels suddenly increase at the base wine step (and further decay) due to the addition of sulfites as preserving agents. Finally, concentrations of Na, Ca, Fe, and Mg increase from the first fermentation due to the addition of clarifying agents such as bentonite. PCA has been applied to try to extract solid and global conclusions on trends and chemical markers within the groups of samples more easily and efficiently than more conventional approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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20 pages, 830 KiB  
Article
Effect of Production Technique on Pilsner-Style Non-Alcoholic Beer (NAB) Chemistry and Flavor
by Nils Rettberg, Scott Lafontaine, Christian Schubert, Johanna Dennenlöhr, Laura Knoke, Patrícia Diniz Fischer, Johannes Fuchs and Sarah Thörner
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010004 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5732
Abstract
The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, [...] Read more.
The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, NABs produced by restricted fermentations were the most worty, thick, and sweet, whereas NABs that were physically dealcoholized had the lowest taste/aroma intensities and were the sourest, most thin, and least sweet. Interestingly, the method of dealcoholization had a minor impact on the flavor profile. The use of maltose intolerant yeast as well as the implementation of combined treatments, such as blending dealcoholized beer with beer containing alcohol, were the techniques found to produce NABs with more harmonious and multifaceted chemical and flavor profiles. NABs with increased hop aroma volatiles were the most harmonious, particularly highlighted by the NA IPA reference. Even though dry-hopped character might be atypical for pilsner-style beer, dry-hopping appears as a simple application to produce NABs with more harmonious flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Non-Alcoholic Beverages Section)
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21 pages, 905 KiB  
Review
Beer and Allergens
by Frank Vriesekoop
Beverages 2021, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7040079 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 9796
Abstract
Food allergies are an important global health concern, with many countries following the World Health Organisation’s guidelines with regards to due labelling of foods and, as such, providing forewarning about the presence of potential allergens to potential consumers. While for some produce, the [...] Read more.
Food allergies are an important global health concern, with many countries following the World Health Organisation’s guidelines with regards to due labelling of foods and, as such, providing forewarning about the presence of potential allergens to potential consumers. While for some produce, the link to specific allergens might be very clear to most consumers, this is not the case for all produce. People with specific food-related allergies usually know what to look out for, but occasionally, unexpected allergens are present in trusted produce. Beer is known to most to contain barley, which will contain gluten-like proteins that can cause allergic reactions in some people. Similarly, beer might contain sulphites and other potential allergens traditionally associated with beers. This review aims to examine a wide range of allergens that have entered the beer production process in recent years. As a result, examples of beers that contain one or more of the 14 EU-UK listed allergens are described, different allergen regulations in different countries are emphasised and their impact explained, and a number of case studies involving allergic reactions following exposure to and the ingestion of beer are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Malting, Brewing and Beer)
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12 pages, 2399 KiB  
Article
A Fast, Straightforward and Inexpensive Method for the Authentication of Baijiu Spirit Samples by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
by Rachel L. Burns, Raegan Alexander, Liliya Snaychuk, John C. Edwards, Neil Fitzgerald, Pei Gao, Donghui Quan, Chris Douvris, Trey Vaughan and Derek D. Bussan
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030065 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4540
Abstract
The Chinese spirit baijiu is currently the world’s bestselling spirit, with more than ten billion liters sold in 2018. This is a figure that puts its sales higher than whiskey, vodka, gin, and tequila combined. The multitude of baijiu varieties available in the [...] Read more.
The Chinese spirit baijiu is currently the world’s bestselling spirit, with more than ten billion liters sold in 2018. This is a figure that puts its sales higher than whiskey, vodka, gin, and tequila combined. The multitude of baijiu varieties available in the market differ in several ways ranging from aging to the traditional artisanship involved in producing the final spirit to several other features, including the rarity of the bottle. A result of these differences is a wide distribution of prices for the various baijiu products. Consequently, a single bottle of baijiu can cost anywhere from a few dollars, up to thousands of US dollars. The price differences among the various baijiu spirits necessitate the existence of reliable scientific methods that can efficiently differentiate and authenticate the qualities of baijiu spirits. In addition, the existence of such methods facilitates the prevention of counterfeit sales of the final product. Considering this, we introduce an analytical chemistry method that distinguishes amongst different baijiu spirits based on fluorescence spectroscopy. Its attributes include the low cost and convenience that allows analysis either before or while the spirit is in the market. Our work herein focuses on the analysis of thirty different varieties of baijiu spirits from six different distilleries from East Asia and North America by fluorescence emission spectroscopy, which is associated to the price of the product. For the analysis, we employed a HORIBA FLUOROLOG 3 (HORIBA—Jobin Yvon) spectrometer. Major advantages of this method include the low cost, as no consumables except a quartz reusable cuvette are required, the minimal waste, and finally the quick processing of data. Full article
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17 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
Integrated Green Process for the Extraction of Red Grape Pomace Antioxidant Polyphenols Using Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment and β-Cyclodextrin
by Aggeliki Alibante, Achillia Lakka, Eleni Bozinou, Arhontoula Chatzilazarou, Stavros Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030059 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4333
Abstract
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, the present investigation had as objective the development of an alternative, green extraction process for polyphenols, through integration of ultrasonication as a pretreatment stage, and subsequent extraction with aqueous β-cyclodextrin. Polyphenol recovery from red grape pomace (RGP) was shown to be significantly enhanced by ultrasonication pretreatment, and the use of β-cyclodextrin effectively boosted the aqueous extraction. Under optimized conditions, established by response surface methodology, the maximum yield in total polyphenols was 57.47 mg GAE g−1 dm, at 80 °C, requiring a barrier of 10.95 kJ mol−1. The extract produced was significantly enriched in catechin and quercetin, compared to the aqueous extract, exhibiting also increased antiradical activity. These findings highlighted the value of the process developed for targeted recovery of certain polyphenols and the preparation of task-specific extracts. Full article
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16 pages, 1963 KiB  
Review
Characterization of Dadih: Traditional Fermented Buffalo Milk of Minangkabau
by Marcellus Arnold, Yolanda Victoria Rajagukguk and Anna Gramza-Michałowska
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030060 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7975
Abstract
Dadih or dadiah is traditional fermented buffalo milk of Minangkabau, which occurs spontaneously. Dadih is commonly served as ampiang dadih, or other dishes. The microbiota found in dadih are dominated by lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts are also found. The lactic acid [...] Read more.
Dadih or dadiah is traditional fermented buffalo milk of Minangkabau, which occurs spontaneously. Dadih is commonly served as ampiang dadih, or other dishes. The microbiota found in dadih are dominated by lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts are also found. The lactic acid bacteria provide functional value, such as antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as being the source of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an anti-stress agent and folate. Nevertheless, many challenges were observed in dadih production, including the limitation of buffalo milk production due to decreasing populations of buffalo in the last two decades, unstandardized dadih production due to the spontaneous fermentation in natural bamboo tubes, and safety problems as no heat treatment is applied in the production of dadih. These problems impede the development of dadih production, thus is it important to improve buffalo cultivation through artificial insemination programs, using different types of milk and pasteurization processes in dadih production, and incubator development to accelerate the fermentation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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15 pages, 1056 KiB  
Review
Kefir as a Functional Beverage Gaining Momentum towards Its Health Promoting Attributes
by Vassilios Ganatsios, Poonam Nigam, Stavros Plessas and Antonia Terpou
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030048 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 10917
Abstract
The consumption of fermented foods posing health-promoting attributes is a rising global trend. In this manner, fermented dairy products represent a significant subcategory of functional foods with established positive health benefits. Likewise, kefir—a fermented milk product manufactured from kefir grains—has been reported by [...] Read more.
The consumption of fermented foods posing health-promoting attributes is a rising global trend. In this manner, fermented dairy products represent a significant subcategory of functional foods with established positive health benefits. Likewise, kefir—a fermented milk product manufactured from kefir grains—has been reported by many studies to be a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion. Existing research data link regular kefir consumption with a wide range of health-promoting attributes, and more recent findings support the link between kefir’s probiotic strains and its bio-functional metabolites in the enhancement of the immune system, providing significant antiviral effects. Although it has been consumed for thousands of years, kefir has recently gained popularity in relation to novel biotechnological applications, with different fermentation substrates being tested as non-dairy functional beverages. The present review focuses on the microbiological composition of kefir and highlights novel applications associated with its fermentation capacity. Future prospects relating to kefir’s capacity for disease prevention are also addressed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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15 pages, 533 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review of Methods Used for Food Pairing with Coffee, Tea, Wine, and Beer
by Christina J. Birke Rune, Morten Münchow and Federico J. A. Perez-Cueto
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020040 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6463
Abstract
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, [...] Read more.
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, wine, and beer; secondarily, to identify the basis of the selection criteria; and lastly, the method used to evaluate those pairings. The search was performed in three databases: Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Criteria for inclusion were studies with an experimental design, a descriptive analysis (DA), and/or hedonic consumer analysis of beverage and food pairing. The outcome had to be measured on a hedonic Likert scale, a line scale, a just about right (JAR), or a modified JAR scale or other relevant scale measurement method for the given attribute. A total of 24 studies were included in this review—the majority aimed at finding good food and beverage pairings. Most pairings were based on suggestions from experts on popular/common, similar origin, or quality of beverages and foods. The outcomes were measured in several different scales, precluding a direct comparison. The 24 articles used in this review did not provide a so-called “golden standard” of the pairing method. Only three articles provided a more scientifically based approach to investigate why a food and beverage pairing is perceived as a good match, using aromatic similarity, the primary taste, and the sensation of koku as their experimental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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14 pages, 1083 KiB  
Review
Beer Polyphenols—Bitterness, Astringency, and Off-Flavors
by Kristina Habschied, Iztok Jože Košir, Vinko Krstanović, Goran Kumrić and Krešimir Mastanjević
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020038 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 11314
Abstract
The acceptance of beer among consumers is most influenced by the taste and aroma. Polyphenols are widely responsible for both. Whereas polyphenols do not always result in a positive flavor and taste, they can surely impart certain off-flavors, which will be mentioned in [...] Read more.
The acceptance of beer among consumers is most influenced by the taste and aroma. Polyphenols are widely responsible for both. Whereas polyphenols do not always result in a positive flavor and taste, they can surely impart certain off-flavors, which will be mentioned in this paper. However, the aftertaste is an important component of the beer-tasting experience and acceptance. The aftertaste, including astringency, may largely influence consumers’ consumption preference and behavior. Bitterness is one of the main, desirable characteristics of beer, but to an untrained consumer, it can often be mistaken with astringency. This review aims to describe the differences between these two properties. Both attributes derive from the same beer components, polyphenols from barley and hop, but there is a distinctive difference between them. To understand the complexity of bitterness and astringency, polyphenols behavior, characteristics, and stability during the brewing process are also described in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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21 pages, 2679 KiB  
Article
Self-Rated Aversion to Taste Qualities and the PROP Taster Phenotype Associate with Alcoholic Beverage Intake and Preference
by Gary J. Pickering and Margaret K. Thibodeau
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020037 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4317
Abstract
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared [...] Read more.
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared to PROP non-tasters, this question has not been specifically asked to them. Therefore, we examined consumers’ self-reported aversion towards specific sensory attributes (bitter, hot/burn, dry, sour, sweet, carbonation) for four alcoholic beverage types (white wine, red wine, beer, spirits) using a convenience sample of U.S. wine consumers (n = 925). Participants rated 18 statements describing different combinations of sensory attributes and alcoholic beverages on a 5-point Likert scale (e.g., Beer tastes too bitter for me). Individuals who tended to agree more strongly with the statements (i.e., they were more averse; p(F) < 0.05) tended to (i) consume less of all beverage types, (ii) consume a higher proportion of white wine (p(r) < 0.05), and (iii) were more likely to be female or PROP super-tasters. The results suggest that self-reported aversion to specific sensory attributes is associated with not only lower overall intake of alcoholic beverages, but also a shift in the relative proportions of beverage type consumed; a key finding for studies investigating how taste perception impacts alcohol consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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18 pages, 484 KiB  
Review
The Impact Packaging Type Has on the Flavor of Wine
by Katherine A. Thompson-Witrick, Eric R. Pitts, John L. Nemenyi and Drew Budner
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020036 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 12557
Abstract
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share [...] Read more.
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share and environmental impacts of each category are discussed. Special attention is paid to the reported impact on packaged wine flavor and aroma for each packaging type. Finally, the potential impacts on consumer preference are discussed. While glass is still the dominant packaging material within the wine industry and by consumer demand, economic and environmental concerns are driving the industry and consumers to investigate and adopt alternative packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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30 pages, 706 KiB  
Review
Nutraceuticals as Potential Targets for the Development of a Functional Beverage for Improving Sleep Quality
by Amanda Bulman, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Wolfgang Marx, Andrew J. McKune, Rati Jani and Nenad Naumovski
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020033 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8405
Abstract
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that [...] Read more.
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that has seen an increase in demand in recent years are beverages that promote relaxation and sleep. Sleep is an essential biological process, with optimal sleep being defined as one of adequate duration, quality and timing. It is regulated by a number of neurotransmitters which are, in turn, regulated by dietary intake of essential bioactive compounds. This narrative review aimed to evaluate the latest evidence of the sleep promoting properties of a selection of bioactive compounds (such as L-theanine and L-tryptophan) for the development of a functional beverage to improve sleep quality; and the effectiveness of traditional sleep promoting beverages (such as milk and chamomile). Overall, the bioactive compounds identified in this review, play essential roles in the synthesis and regulation of important neurotransmitters involved in the sleep-wake cycle. There is also significant potential for their inclusion in a number of functional beverages as the main ingredient on their own or in combination. Future studies should consider dosage; interactions with the beverage matrix, medications and other nutraceuticals; bioavailability during storage and following ingestion; as well as the sensory profile of the developed beverages, among others, when determining their effectiveness in a functional beverage to improve sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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