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Open AccessReview

The Role of Wine in Modulating Inflammatory Processes: A Review

1
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
The Australian Wine Research Institute, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040088
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Abstract

Several epidemiological studies associated the consumption of wine with the reduction of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, as well as for diabetes. These conditions are characterized by inflammatory mechanisms in addition to other biological mechanisms. Acute and chronic inflammation is mediated by a plethora of biomarkers production and pathway activation. Since the health promoting properties of wine in different pathological conditions may include the reduction of inflammation, the aim of this paper was to collect and review the in vitro, in vivo, and human studies performed to evaluate the effects of wine on different models of inflammation. Although great variability in wine intake, period of consumption, and content of phenolic compounds was observed, data from both human and animal studies showed a positive modulation of inflammatory biomarkers (cytokines, coagulation parameters) and oxidative stress (mainly malondialdehyde) involved in cardiovascular function. In addition, some convincing evidence was obtained in different models suggesting a positive modulation of risk factors for gastric and intestinal inflammation. Contradictory results were obtained for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. To date, no significant paper has been published in the area of immune function. Integrating in vivo data and in vitro studies, the NF-κB pathway has been identified as a critical target for the protective properties of a moderate wine consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine; inflammation; in vitro methods; animal studies; human trials wine; inflammation; in vitro methods; animal studies; human trials
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Di Lorenzo, C.; Stockley, C.; Colombo, F.; Biella, S.; Orgiu, F.; Dell’Agli, M.; Restani, P. The Role of Wine in Modulating Inflammatory Processes: A Review. Beverages 2018, 4, 88.

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