Like any other food/feed matrix, regardless of the employed analytical method, wine requires authentication strategies; a suitable qualitative and quantitative analysis represents the fingerprint which defines its identity. Until recently, fingerprinting approaches using liquid chromatography applications have been regarded as an effective tool for the assessment of wines employing polyphenol profiles. These profiles are of considerable importance for grapes and wines as they influence greatly the color, sensory, and nutritional quality of the final product. The authenticity and typicity characters are fundamental characteristics, which may be evaluated by the use of polyphenol fingerprinting techniques. Under these conditions, the evolution of polyphenols during the red wine elaboration and maturation processes shows a high importance at the level of the obtained fingerprints. Moreover, the environment factors (vintage, the area of origin, and variety) and the technological conditions significantly influence wine authenticity through the use of polyphenol profiles. Taking into account the complexity of the matter at hand, this review outlines the latest trends in the polyphenol fingerprinting of red wines in association with the transformations that occur during winemaking and storage.
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