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Bioactive Constituents in Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Their Effect on the Risk of Depression—A Comparative Constituent Analysis Study

1,2,3,*, 4 and 1,2,3
1
Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
2
School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
3
Quality Use of Medicines Network, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
4
School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon 852, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040079
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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PDF [223 KB, uploaded 1 November 2018]

Abstract

Coffee, a popular beverage throughout the world, has been shown to have numerous beneficial health effects, including reducing the risk of developing depression. This effect has only been shown with the consumption of caffeinated coffee and not decaffeinated coffee or caffeine alone and one of many hypotheses attributes this to the loss of key constituents during the decaffeination process. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any of the key bioactive coffee constituents with known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are lost during the decaffeination process. The analysis of nine caffeinated and nine decaffeinated samples of various brands and batches of commonly consumed coffee in Australia using HPLC analysis found that, with the exception of caffeine, there were no significant differences in the quantity of other key bioactive coffee constituents in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. These results suggest that there may be an alternative explanation for the observed inverse correlation between caffeinated coffee consumption and the risk of developing depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; caffeine; caffeic acid; chlorogenic acid; ferulic acid; pyrogallic acid; trigonelline; decaffeination; depression coffee; caffeine; caffeic acid; chlorogenic acid; ferulic acid; pyrogallic acid; trigonelline; decaffeination; depression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hall, S.; Yuen, J.W.; Grant, G.D. Bioactive Constituents in Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Their Effect on the Risk of Depression—A Comparative Constituent Analysis Study. Beverages 2018, 4, 79.

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