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Beverages 2018, 4(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040085

Mineral Composition through Soil-Wine System of Portuguese Vineyards and Its Potential for Wine Traceability

1
LEAF—Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
2
INIAV—Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, 2565-191 Dois Portos, Portugal
3
CEFEMA—Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
4
CEF—Forest Research Centre, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
5
ICAAM, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Abstract

The control of geographic origin is one of a highest priority issue regarding traceability and wine authenticity. The current study aimed to examine whether elemental composition can be used for the discrimination of wines according to geographical origin, taking into account the effects of soil, winemaking process, and year of production. The elemental composition of soils, grapes, musts, and wines from three DO (Designations of Origin) and for two vintage years was determined by using the ICP-MS semi-quantitative method, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. The elemental composition of soils varied according to geological formations, and for some elements, the variation due to soil provenance was also observed in musts and wines. Li, Mn, Sr and rare-earth elements (REE) allowed wine discrimination according to vineyard. Results evidenced the influence of winemaking processes and of vintage year on the wine’s elemental composition. The mineral composition pattern is transferred through the soil-wine system, and differences observed for soils are reflected in grape musts and wines, but not for all elements. Results suggest that winemaking processes and vintage year should be taken into account for the use of elemental composition as a tool for wine traceability. Therefore, understanding the evolution of mineral pattern composition from soil to wine, and how it is influenced by the climatic year, is indispensable for traceability purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: geographic origin; geological material; multi-element composition; rare earth elements; vinification geographic origin; geological material; multi-element composition; rare earth elements; vinification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Catarino, S.; Madeira, M.; Monteiro, F.; Caldeira, I.; Bruno de Sousa, R.; Curvelo-Garcia, A. Mineral Composition through Soil-Wine System of Portuguese Vineyards and Its Potential for Wine Traceability. Beverages 2018, 4, 85.

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