Next Issue
Volume 8, November
Previous Issue
Volume 8, September

Table of Contents

Foods, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2019) – 97 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Carotenoids and flavonoids in kale and pea exposed to narrow-banded UVB, produced by innovative [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Berberis Plants—Drifting from Farm to Food Applications, Phytotherapy, and Phytopharmacology
Foods 2019, 8(10), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100522 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
The genus Berberis includes about 500 different species and commonly grown in Europe, the United States, South Asia, and some northern areas of Iran and Pakistan. Leaves and fruits can be prepared as food flavorings, juices, and teas. Phytochemical analysis of these species [...] Read more.
The genus Berberis includes about 500 different species and commonly grown in Europe, the United States, South Asia, and some northern areas of Iran and Pakistan. Leaves and fruits can be prepared as food flavorings, juices, and teas. Phytochemical analysis of these species has reported alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds and oleanolic acid, among others. Moreover, p-cymene, limonene and ocimene as major compounds in essential oils were found by gas chromatography. Berberis is an important group of the plants having enormous potential in the food and pharmaceutical industry, since they possess several properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activities. Here we would like to review the biological properties of the phytoconstituents of this genus. We emphasize the cultivation control in order to obtain the main bioactive compounds, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in order to apply them for food preservation and for treating several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes or Alzheimer. However, further study is needed to confirm the biological efficacy as well as, the toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Extracellular Heme Proteins Influence Bovine Myosatellite Cell Proliferation and the Color of Cell-Based Meat
Foods 2019, 8(10), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100521 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
Skeletal muscle-tissue engineering can be applied to produce cell-based meat for human consumption, but growth parameters need to be optimized for efficient production and similarity to traditional meat. The addition of heme proteins to plant-based meat alternatives was recently shown to increase meat-like [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle-tissue engineering can be applied to produce cell-based meat for human consumption, but growth parameters need to be optimized for efficient production and similarity to traditional meat. The addition of heme proteins to plant-based meat alternatives was recently shown to increase meat-like flavor and natural color. To evaluate whether heme proteins also have a positive effect on cell-based meat production, bovine muscle satellite cells (BSCs) were grown in the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) or myoglobin (Mb) for up to nine days in a fibrin hydrogel along 3D-printed anchor-point constructs to generate bioartificial muscles (BAMs). The influence of heme proteins on cell proliferation, tissue development, and tissue color was analyzed. We found that the proliferation and metabolic activity of BSCs was significantly increased when Mb was added, while Hb had no, or a slightly negative, effect. Hb and, in particular, Mb application led to a very similar color of BAMs compared to cooked beef, which was not noticeable in groups without added heme proteins. Taken together, these results indicate a potential benefit of adding Mb to cell culture media for increased proliferation and adding Mb or Hb for the coloration of cell-based meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Optimization of Plasma-Activated Water Treatments to Inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) on Shell Eggs
Foods 2019, 8(10), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100520 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Egg is a regularly consumed food item. Currently, chlorinated water washing is the most common practice used to disinfect eggs, but this process has a negative environmental impact. A new physical technique, plasma-activated water (PAW), has been demonstrated to possess effective antibacterial activities [...] Read more.
Egg is a regularly consumed food item. Currently, chlorinated water washing is the most common practice used to disinfect eggs, but this process has a negative environmental impact. A new physical technique, plasma-activated water (PAW), has been demonstrated to possess effective antibacterial activities without long-term chemical residue. In this study, air PAW was used to inactivate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on shell eggs. Different combinations of activation parameters, including water sources (reverse osmotic (RO) water, tap water), power (40 W, 50 W, 60 W) and activation time (10 min, 20 min, 30 min), were evaluated. The oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) and pH values of each combination were measured, and their antibacterial activity was tested in a bacterial suspension. Higher antibacterial activities, higher ORP values, and lower pH values were obtained with higher power, longer activation time, and lower water hardness. The antibacterial activities of PAW decreased rapidly by increasing the storage time both at room and refrigeration temperatures. Afterwards, RO water was pre-activated for 20 min at 60 W, and then the eggs inoculated with S. enteritidis were placed into PAW for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, or 120 s with a plasma on-site treatment in the water. More than a 4 log reduction was obtained with 60-s and 120-s treatments. The results showed that the freshness indexes of the eggs treated with PAW were similar to those of the untreated controls and better than those of the eggs treated with commercial processes. In addition, observation under a scanning electron microscope also showed less surface damage of the cuticle on the PAW-treated eggs than on the commercially treated eggs. The results of this study indicate that PAW could be an effective antibacterial agent with less damage to the freshness of shell eggs than commercial methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microstructural, Textural, Sensory Properties and Quality of Wheat–Yam Composite Flour Noodles
Foods 2019, 8(10), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100519 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Herein, feasibility of supplementing wheat flour with Chinese yam powder (CYP) for noodle preparation was assessed. After supplementation with CYP, the alterations in chemical, texture, cooking, rheological, and microstructure attributes of noodles were observed. Due to higher protein and lower gluten, 20% of [...] Read more.
Herein, feasibility of supplementing wheat flour with Chinese yam powder (CYP) for noodle preparation was assessed. After supplementation with CYP, the alterations in chemical, texture, cooking, rheological, and microstructure attributes of noodles were observed. Due to higher protein and lower gluten, 20% of CYP promoted the stable network of gluten and starch particles. However, the excessive addition reduced the flexibility and the chewiness. The adverse changes were observed at 40% substitution level in texture profile analysis (TPA) and rheological parameters due to disrupted gluten–protein network which accelerated the exposure of starch particles. The CYP incorporation up to 20% showed better mouthfeel but further addition lowered the total sensory scores. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the modifications in noodles microstructure as CYP addition affected starch granule structure. In general, 30% substitution significantly improved the textural and rheological properties of noodles, indicating the potential of Chinese yam powder for industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Properties of Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Current Trends in the Realm of Baking: When Indulgent Consumers Demand Healthy Sustainable Foods
Foods 2019, 8(10), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100518 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 843
Abstract
The term “baked goods” encompasses multiple food products made from flour (typically wheat flour) [...] Full article
Open AccessCommunication
The Effect of High Pressure Processing on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity, Phytochemicals and Proximate Composition of Irish Potato Cultivars
Foods 2019, 8(10), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100517 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, proximate composition, and phytochemicals were determined in four common Irish potato cultivars following a high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 3 min. PPO activity was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in all HPP treated samples, while [...] Read more.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, proximate composition, and phytochemicals were determined in four common Irish potato cultivars following a high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 3 min. PPO activity was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in all HPP treated samples, while the overall proximate composition was not affected. The total phenolic content was significantly higher in the HPP treated samples. Chlorogenic acid levels significantly decreased with simultaneous increase of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid levels upon HPP treatment. No significant changes were observed in rutin and ferulic acid levels, although their levels varied, depending on the potato cultivars, while the levels of cytotoxic glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) remained unaltered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Food and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Melanoidins from Chinese Distilled Spent Grain: Content, Preliminary Structure, Antioxidant, and ACE-Inhibitory Activities In Vitro
Foods 2019, 8(10), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100516 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Distilled spent grain (DSG), as the major by-product of baijiu making, contains melanoidins generated via the Maillard reaction. In this study, four melanoidin fractions (RF1‒RF4) were isolated successively from dried DSG (DDSG) using sodium hydroxide solution and water as extractants, and the content, [...] Read more.
Distilled spent grain (DSG), as the major by-product of baijiu making, contains melanoidins generated via the Maillard reaction. In this study, four melanoidin fractions (RF1‒RF4) were isolated successively from dried DSG (DDSG) using sodium hydroxide solution and water as extractants, and the content, preliminary structure, and ACE-inhibitory activities in vitro of melanoidins were first investigated. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The results indicated that the total content of melanoidins was 268.60 mg/g DDSG dry weight (dw) using a model system of glucose and serine as standard, and RF4 showed the highest content of melanoidins (174.30 mg/g DDSG dw). Functional groups like C=O, N‒H, C‒N, O‒H, C‒H, C‒O, C-C, and ‒C‒CO‒C‒ were present in the structure of melanoidins from RF4, as determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) assay. The highest antioxidant activities, as assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assays, and the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (95.92% at 2 mg RF4/mL) were also exhibited by RF4. The RF4 was further fractionated by ultrafiltration based on molecular weight (MW). The more than 100 kDa melanoidins (RF4-6) exhibited the highest yield and antioxidant activity. The 3‒10 kDa melanoidins (RF4-2) were more efficient in ACE-inhibitory activity. Our study could raise awareness of the DDSG as a value-added resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Allergenic Potential of the Edible Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor)
Foods 2019, 8(10), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100515 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
The edible yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), contains an extremely diverse panel of soluble proteins, including proteins with structural functions such as muscle proteins, as well as proteins involved in metabolic functions such as enzymes. Most of these proteins display a more [...] Read more.
The edible yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), contains an extremely diverse panel of soluble proteins, including proteins with structural functions such as muscle proteins, as well as proteins involved in metabolic functions such as enzymes. Most of these proteins display a more or less pronounced allergenic character toward previously sensitized people, especially people allergic to shrimps and other shellfish. A mass spectrometry approach following the separation of a mealworm protein, extracted by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, allowed us to identify up to 106 distinct protein fractions including molecules with structural and functional functions, susceptible to developing an allergenic potential due to the possibility of immunoglobulin E-binding cross-reactions with their counterparts occurring in shellfish. In this respect, most of the sera from people allergic to shrimps reacted with the mealworm protein extract in Western blot experiments. Moreover, the potential mealworm allergens triggered the in vitro degranulation of rat leukemic basophils transfected with the human high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), upon sensitization by the IgE-containing sera from people allergic to shrimps and other shellfish foods. Owing to the large repertoire of IgE-binding cross-reacting allergens the yellow mealworm shares with other phylogenetically-related groups of arthropods, it would seem prudent to inform the consumers, especially those allergic to shellfish, by appropriate labeling on edible mealworm packages about the potential risk of developing an allergic reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Validation of a HILIC UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Amino Acid Profiling in Triticum Species Wheat Flours
Foods 2019, 8(10), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100514 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) [...] Read more.
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) in wheat flour samples after acid hydrolysis with 6 M HCl in the presence of 4% (v/v) thioglycolic acid as a reducing agent. The developed method proved to be a fast and reliable tool for acquiring information on the AA profile of cereal flours. The method has been applied and tested in 10 flour samples of spelt, emmer, and common wheat flours of organic or conventional cultivation and with different extraction rates (70%, 90%, and 100%). All the aforementioned allowed us to study and evaluate the variation of the AA profile among the studied flours, in relation to other quality characteristics, such as protein content, wet gluten, and gluten index. Significant differences were observed in the AA profiles of the studied flours. Moreover, AA profiles exhibited significant interactions with quality characteristics that proved to be affected based mainly on the type of grain. A statistical and multivariate analysis of the AA profiles and quality characteristics has been performed, as to identify potential interactions between protein content, amino acids, and quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Narrow-Leafed Lupin Main Allergen β-Conglutin (Lup an 1) Detection and Quantification Assessment in Natural and Processed Foods
Foods 2019, 8(10), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100513 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of lupin allergy as a consequence to the functional characteristics of a growing number of sweet lupin-derived foods consumption makes the imperious necessity to develop analytical tools for the detection of allergen proteins in foodstuffs. The current study developed a [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of lupin allergy as a consequence to the functional characteristics of a growing number of sweet lupin-derived foods consumption makes the imperious necessity to develop analytical tools for the detection of allergen proteins in foodstuffs. The current study developed a new highly specific, sensitive and accurate ELISA method to detect, identify and quantify the lupin main allergen β-conglutin (Lup an 1) protein in natural and processed food. The implementation of accurate standards made with recombinant conglutin β1, and an anti-Lup an 1 antibody made from a synthetic peptide commonly shared among β-conglutin isoforms from sweet lupin species was able to detect up to 8.1250 ± 0.1701 ng (0.0406 ± 0.0009 ppm) of Lup an 1. This identified even lupin traces present in food samples which might elicit allergic reactions in sensitized consumers, such as β-conglutin proteins detection and quantification in processed (roasted, fermented, boiled, cooked, pickled, toasted, pasteurized) food, while avoiding cross-reactivity (false positive) with other legumes as peanut, chickpea, lentils, faba bean, and cereals. This study demonstrated that this new ELISA method constitutes a highly sensitive and reliable molecular tool able to detect, identify and quantify Lup an 1. This contributes to a more efficient management of allergens by the food industry, the regulatory agencies and clinicians, thus helping to keep the health safety of the consumers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
“Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties:” A Special Issue
Foods 2019, 8(10), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100512 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 798
Abstract
The objective of the present editorial to critical synopsize articles that make up the Special Issue “Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties.” The published research papers are multidisciplinary studies which refer to some of the most important sub-topics of Cheese Science and [...] Read more.
The objective of the present editorial to critical synopsize articles that make up the Special Issue “Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties.” The published research papers are multidisciplinary studies which refer to some of the most important sub-topics of Cheese Science and Technology. They present the results of experimental studies and analyses that can be further exploited by academia and cheese producers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Metabolic Profiles of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) Muscle during Cold Storage as a Freshness Evaluation Tool Based on GC-MS Metabolomics
Foods 2019, 8(10), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100511 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
We applied metabolomics to the evaluation of yellowtail muscle as a new freshness evaluation method for fish meat. Metabolites from yellowtail ordinary and dark muscle (DM) stored at 0 °C and 5 °C were subjected to metabolomics for primary metabolites based on gas [...] Read more.
We applied metabolomics to the evaluation of yellowtail muscle as a new freshness evaluation method for fish meat. Metabolites from yellowtail ordinary and dark muscle (DM) stored at 0 °C and 5 °C were subjected to metabolomics for primary metabolites based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the annotated metabolites, we created statistically significant models for storage time prediction for all storage conditions by orthogonal partial least squares analysis, using storage time as the y-variable. DM is difficult to evaluate using the K value method, the predominant existing freshness evaluation method. However, in the proposed method, the metabolic component profiles of DM changed depending on storage time. Important metabolites determined from variables important for prediction (VIP) values included various metabolites, such as amino acids and sugars, in addition to nucleic-acid-related substances, especially inosine and hypoxanthine. Therefore, metabolomics, which comprehensively analyses different molecular species, has potential as a new freshness evaluation method that can objectively evaluate conditions of stored fish meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Bread for the Aging Population: The Effect of a Functional Wheat–Lentil Bread on the Immune Function of Aged Mice
Foods 2019, 8(10), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100510 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
A functional bread tailored for the needs of the aging population was baked by substituting 24% of wheat flour with red lentil flour and compared with wheat bread. Its nutritional profile was assessed by analysing proteins, amino acids, lipids, soluble and insoluble dietary [...] Read more.
A functional bread tailored for the needs of the aging population was baked by substituting 24% of wheat flour with red lentil flour and compared with wheat bread. Its nutritional profile was assessed by analysing proteins, amino acids, lipids, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, resistant starch, total polyphenols, lignans and the antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). The wheat–lentil bread had 30% more proteins than wheat bread (8.3%, as is), a more balanced amino acids composition, an almost double mineral (0.63%, as is) as well as total dietary fibre content (4.6%, as is), double the amount of polyphenols (939.1 mg GAE/100g on dry matter, d.m.), higher amounts and variety of lignans, and more than double the antioxidant capacity (71.6 µmoL/g d.m.). The in vivo effect of 60 days bread consumption on the immune response was studied by means of a murine model of elderly mice. Serum cytokines and intraepithelial lymphocyte immunophenotype from the mice intestine were analysed as markers of systemic and intestinal inflammatory status, respectively. Analysis of immune parameters in intraepithelial lymphocytes showed significant differences among the two types of bread indicating a positive effect of the wheat–lentil bread on the intestinal immune system, whereas both breads induced a reduction in serum IL-10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical, Sensorial and Microbiological Characterization of PoroCheese, an Artisanal Mexican Cheese Made from Raw Milk
Foods 2019, 8(10), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100509 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Poro cheese is a regional product originally from the area of Los Rios, Tabasco in Mexico. In the context of preserving the heritage of Poro cheese and protecting the specific characteristics that define its typicity through an origin designation, the present study was [...] Read more.
Poro cheese is a regional product originally from the area of Los Rios, Tabasco in Mexico. In the context of preserving the heritage of Poro cheese and protecting the specific characteristics that define its typicity through an origin designation, the present study was conducted to establish a general profile of Poro cheese by characterizing their physicochemical, textural, rheological, sensorial and microbiological characteristics. Differences in moisture, proteins, fats, NaCl, titrable acidity, pH, color texture and rheology amongst cheese factories were observed and ranges were established. Fifteen descriptors were generated to provide a descriptive analysis, eight of which were significantly different amongst the factories with no differences in the global acceptability of cheese. The favorite cheese had the highest scores for aroma attributes. Conventional and molecular methods were used to identify the main microorganisms, for which Lactobacillus plantarum, L. fermentum, L. farciminis and L. rhamnosus were the main microorganisms found in Porocheese. The obtained data constituted the parameters for characterizing Poro cheese, which will strongly help to support its origin appellation request process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Honey Volatile Code: A Collective Study and Extended Version
Foods 2019, 8(10), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100508 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
Background: The present study comprises the second part of a new theory related to honey authentication based on the implementation of the honey code and the use of chemometrics. Methods: One hundred and fifty-one honey samples of seven different botanical origins (chestnut, citrus, [...] Read more.
Background: The present study comprises the second part of a new theory related to honey authentication based on the implementation of the honey code and the use of chemometrics. Methods: One hundred and fifty-one honey samples of seven different botanical origins (chestnut, citrus, clover, eucalyptus, fir, pine, and thyme) and from five different countries (Egypt, Greece, Morocco, Portugal, and Spain) were subjected to analysis of mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Results: Results showed that 94 volatile compounds were identified and then semi-quantified. The most dominant classes of compounds were acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, phenolic volatiles, terpenoids, norisoprenoids, and hydrocarbons. The application of classification and dimension reduction statistical techniques to semi-quantified data of volatiles showed that honey samples could be distinguished effectively according to both botanical origin and the honey code (p < 0.05), with the use of hexanoic acid ethyl ester, heptanoic acid ethyl ester, octanoic acid ethyl ester, nonanoic acid ethyl ester, decanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid ethyl ester, tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, octanal, nonanal, decanal, lilac aldehyde C (isomer III), lilac aldehyde D (isomer IV), benzeneacetaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, 2-hydroxyisophorone, geranyl acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 1-(2-furanyl)-ethanone, octanol, decanol, nonanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 5-methyl-2-phenyl-hexenal, benzeneacetonitrile, nonane, and 5-methyl-4-nonene. Conclusions: New amendments in honey authentication and data handling procedures based on hierarchical classification strategies (HCSs) are exhaustively documented in the present study, supporting and flourishing the state of the art. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Cognitive Function and Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Polyphenols in a Young Population: Is There a Relationship?
Foods 2019, 8(10), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100507 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Scientific evidence has shown the relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and their polyphenols with the prevention or treatment of diseases. The aim of this review was to find out whether the same relationship exists between fruits and vegetables and cognitive function, [...] Read more.
Scientific evidence has shown the relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and their polyphenols with the prevention or treatment of diseases. The aim of this review was to find out whether the same relationship exists between fruits and vegetables and cognitive function, especially memory, in a young population. The mechanisms by which polyphenols of fruits and vegetables can exert cognitive benefits were also evaluated. These compounds act to improve neuronal plasticity through the protein CREB (Camp Response Element Binding) in the hippocampus, modulating pathways of signaling and transcription factors (ERK/Akt). In the same way, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the maintenance, survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons. All these effects are produced by an increase of cerebral blood flow and an increase of the blood’s nitric oxide levels and oxygenation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Novel Ingredients Based on Grapefruit Freeze-Dried Formulations: Nutritional and Bioactive Value
Foods 2019, 8(10), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100506 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
Grapefruit is a fruit with interesting nutritional value and functional properties, but a short life. Freeze-drying (FD) is a valuable technique as it produces high-quality dehydrated products. This study is aimed to obtain new food ingredients based on freeze-dried grapefruit formulated with high [...] Read more.
Grapefruit is a fruit with interesting nutritional value and functional properties, but a short life. Freeze-drying (FD) is a valuable technique as it produces high-quality dehydrated products. This study is aimed to obtain new food ingredients based on freeze-dried grapefruit formulated with high molecular weight solutes (gum arabic and bamboo fiber) in three different proportions (F1, F2, and F3). To improve the FD, a mild microwave drying pre-treatment was applied. Influence of the water content and the presence of high molecular weight solutes on freeze-drying kinetics was tested by Midilli-Kucuk and Page models. The best FD kinetic model fit on grapefruit powders were Midilli-Kucuk for F2 and F3, and Page for F1, and the adequate freeze-drying times for F1, F2, and F3 were 24, 16, and 18 h, respectively. Final samples were evaluated for nutritional and antioxidant capacity. Gum arabic and bamboo fiber present a protector effect, which results in a significant antioxidant capacity due to the protection of flavonoids and antioxidant vitamins. These novel food ingredients could be of great interest for the food industry in order to develop foods with improved antioxidant capacity as well as enriched in natural fibers and/or micronutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Foods and Nutritional Function)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pulsed Electric Field-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration and Edible Coating on the Recovery of Anthocyanins from In Vitro Digested Berries
Foods 2019, 8(10), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100505 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Berry fruits, such as strawberries and blueberries, are rich sources of anthocyanins. Several studies have been made on the impact of non-thermal treatments on safety, shelf-life and nutritional characteristics of such products, but the effects of these processes on anthocyanin stability during digestion [...] Read more.
Berry fruits, such as strawberries and blueberries, are rich sources of anthocyanins. Several studies have been made on the impact of non-thermal treatments on safety, shelf-life and nutritional characteristics of such products, but the effects of these processes on anthocyanin stability during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract are still not completely clear. The aim of this study was to assess the recovery of anthocyanins after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of (1) strawberry samples, pre-treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) at 100 or 200 V·cm−1, prior to osmotic dehydration (OD), and (2) blueberry samples coated with chitosan and procyanidin. After digestion, a significantly higher content of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside was quantified by LC-MS/MS in processed strawberry and blueberry samples, compared with the controls. The highest recovery of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was detected in digested strawberry samples osmotically dehydrated with trehalose. The recovery of malvidin-3-O-glucoside was highest in digested blueberries coated with chitosan and stored for 14 days, compared with untreated samples or samples coated with chitosan and procyanidin. Our study shows the potential of mild PEF treatments combined with OD, or the use of edible coating, to obtain shelf-stable products without substantially affecting the composition or the stability of anthocyanins during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Addition of Apulian black Chickpea Flour on the Nutritional and Qualitative Properties of Durum Wheat-Based Bakery Products
Foods 2019, 8(10), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100504 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Historically cultivated in Apulia (Southern Italy), Apulian black chickpeas are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. This type of chickpea is being replaced by modern cultivars and is at risk of genetic erosion; therefore, it is important to explore its potential for [...] Read more.
Historically cultivated in Apulia (Southern Italy), Apulian black chickpeas are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. This type of chickpea is being replaced by modern cultivars and is at risk of genetic erosion; therefore, it is important to explore its potential for new food applications. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of the addition of Apulian black chickpea wholemeal flour on the nutritional and qualitative properties of durum wheat-based bakery products; namely bread, “focaccia” (an Italian traditional bakery product similar to pizza), and pizza crust. Composite meals were prepared by mixing Apulian black chickpea wholemeal flour with re-milled semolina at 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, and 40:60. The rheological properties, evaluated by farinograph, alveograph, and rheofermentograph, showed a progressive worsening of the bread-making attitude when increasing amounts of chickpea flour were added. The end-products expanded less during baking, and were harder and darker than the corresponding conventional products, as assessed both instrumentally and by sensory analysis. However, these negative features were balanced by higher contents of fibre, proteins, and bioactive compounds, as well as higher antioxidant activity. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Microwave-Based Technique for Fast and Reliable Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Food, with a Special Focus on Hydrocarbon Contaminants
Foods 2019, 8(10), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100503 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
Due to food complexity and the low amount at which contaminants are usually present in food, their analytical determination can be particularly challenging. Conventional sample preparation methods making use of large solvent volumes and involving intensive sample manipulation can lead to sample contamination [...] Read more.
Due to food complexity and the low amount at which contaminants are usually present in food, their analytical determination can be particularly challenging. Conventional sample preparation methods making use of large solvent volumes and involving intensive sample manipulation can lead to sample contamination or losses of analytes. To overcome the disadvantages of conventional sample preparation, many researchers put their efforts toward the development of rapid and environmental-friendly methods, minimizing solvent consumption. In this context, microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) has obtained, over the last years, increasing attention from analytical chemists and it has been successfully utilized for the extraction of various contaminants from different foods. In the first part of this review, an updated overview of the microwave-based extraction technique used for rapid and efficient extraction of organic contaminants from food is given. The principle of the technique, a description of available instrumentation, optimization of parameters affecting the extraction yield, as well as integrated techniques for further purification/enrichment prior to the analytical determination, are illustrated. In the second part of the review, the latest applications concerning the use of microwave energy for the determination of hydrocarbon contaminants—namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH)—are reported and critically overviewed and future trends are delineated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection Methods for Food Fraud and Food Contaminants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Formation of Food Grade Microemulsion with Rice Glycosphingolipids to Enhance the Oral Absorption of Coenzyme Q10
Foods 2019, 8(10), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100502 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the possible use of rice glycosphingolipids (RGSLs) as an emulsifier to form food grade microemulsions (mean particle size, 10–20 nm) and improve the absorption of CoQ10 with a poor solubility property by prepared emulsion. Because [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine the possible use of rice glycosphingolipids (RGSLs) as an emulsifier to form food grade microemulsions (mean particle size, 10–20 nm) and improve the absorption of CoQ10 with a poor solubility property by prepared emulsion. Because RGSLs could act as an auxiliary emulsifying agent, its addition to the surfactant/oil mixture decreased the emulsion’s particle size. This suggests that RGSLs exist between the water and oil phases to decrease oil droplet size via reduced interfacial tension. CoQ10-loaded microemulsion was also successfully prepared with RGSLs and powdered after freeze-drying with a cryoprotectant. CoQ10’s solubility in freeze-dried particles was dramatically improved compared to that of CoQ10 powder. Moreover, oral absorption of CoQ10 was significantly enhanced when administered via CoQ10-loaded microemulsion. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve for the microemulsion improved up to seven-fold compared to CoQ10 powder. The use of RGSLs could, therefore, be an effective processing technique for improving CoQ10’s solubility and absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Effects of the Alcalase-Hydrolysates of Caseinate, and of Fish and Bovine Gelatins on the Acidification and Textural Features of Set-Style Skimmed Yogurt-Type Products
Foods 2019, 8(10), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100501 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Commercial caseinate and two gelatins from bovine and fish skin were hydrolyzed by alcalase, and used at 2 g/kg in skimmed bovine milk that was then fermented with a commercial direct vat set starter, to clarify different effects of these hydrolysates on acidification [...] Read more.
Commercial caseinate and two gelatins from bovine and fish skin were hydrolyzed by alcalase, and used at 2 g/kg in skimmed bovine milk that was then fermented with a commercial direct vat set starter, to clarify different effects of these hydrolysates on acidification and textural attributes of set-style yogurt samples. Compared with the fermentation of the yogurt sample without hydrolysate addition, the two gelatin hydrolysates in the yogurt samples endowed lower titratable acidity but higher pH values and thus delayed yogurt fermentation, while the caseinate hydrolysate showed an effect opposite to the two gelatin hydrolysates. The two gelatin hydrolysates induced worse quality attributes for the resultant yogurt samples, including higher syneresis extent, smaller hysteresis loop areas, and lower values in these textural indices like hardness, adhesiveness, apparent viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli. However, the caseinate hydrolysate led to improved quality attributes. Moreover, bovine gelatin hydrolysate always had a greater negative effect than fish gelatin hydrolysate on yogurt acidification and texture. It is concluded that these gelatin hydrolysates could confer the yogurt with intended bio-activities of gelatin hydrolysates but negatively impact yogurt acidification and texture, while the caseinate hydrolysate might be helpful for yogurt processing by shortening fermentation time and improving yogurt texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Composition of Popularly Consumed African and Caribbean Foods in The UK
Foods 2019, 8(10), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100500 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 792
Abstract
(1) Background: Traditional foods are important in the diets of Black Africans and Caribbeans and, more widely, influence UK food culture. However, little is known about the nutritional status of these ethnic groups and the nutrient composition of their traditional foods. The aim [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Traditional foods are important in the diets of Black Africans and Caribbeans and, more widely, influence UK food culture. However, little is known about the nutritional status of these ethnic groups and the nutrient composition of their traditional foods. The aim was to identify and analyse African and Caribbean dishes, snacks and beverages popularly consumed in the UK for energy, macronutrients and micronutrients. (2) Methods: Various approaches including focus group discussions and 24-h dietary recalls were used to identify traditional dishes, snacks, and beverages. Defined criteria were used to prioritise and prepare 33 composite samples for nutrient analysis in a UK accredited laboratory. Quality assurance procedures and data verification were undertaken to ensure inclusion in the UK nutrient database. (3) Results: Energy content ranged from 60 kcal in Malta drink to 619 kcal in the shito sauce. Sucrose levels did not exceed the UK recommendation for adults and children. Most of the dishes contained negligible levels of trans fatty acid. The most abundant minerals were Na, K, Ca, Cu, Mn and Se whereas Mg, P, Fe and Zn were present in small amounts. (4) Conclusion: There was wide variation in the energy, macro- and micronutrients composition of the foods analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Effects of Traditional Foods) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
The Role of an Acidic Peptide in Controlling the Oxidation Process of Walnut Oil
Foods 2019, 8(10), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100499 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Here, the mechanism of action of an antioxidant peptide rich in acidic amino acid residues in controlling lipid oxidation is discussed. Firstly, in the presence of this peptide, the fluorescence intensity of lipid peroxide in samples of walnut oil was very low, indicating [...] Read more.
Here, the mechanism of action of an antioxidant peptide rich in acidic amino acid residues in controlling lipid oxidation is discussed. Firstly, in the presence of this peptide, the fluorescence intensity of lipid peroxide in samples of walnut oil was very low, indicating that the peptide prevented the formation of lipid peroxides. Secondly, the production of lipid-derived radicals of oil was reduced by 23% following addition of the anti-oxidative peptide. Thirdly, Raman shifts of the lipid with the anti-oxidative peptide showed that acidic amino acid residues of the peptide were involved in delaying lipid oxidation. Finally, seven peptide inhibitors were synthesized with variations to the amino acid sequence of the original peptide, and Glu–Asp was proven to enhance the peptide’s superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and decrease the formation of linoleic acid peroxides. Our findings emphasize the potential value of acidic amino acid residues in protecting unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Studies of Fermented Korean Chung-Yang Hot Pepper Phenolics as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Relevant to Hypertension and Diabetes
Foods 2019, 8(10), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100498 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
This study was investigated to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. The fermented pepper water extract (FP) showed significantly higher [...] Read more.
This study was investigated to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. The fermented pepper water extract (FP) showed significantly higher total phenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition effect, metal chelating activity and ACE inhibition activity compared to the non-fermented raw pepper water extract (RP) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the FP showed lower α-amylase and higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, but the RP showed similar levels of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Taken together, these results suggested that fermented pepper extract using water should be expected to have potentially inhibitory effects against both hyperglycemia and hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Disinfection Efficacy of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Combined with Chemical Treatments on Fresh Fruits at the Industrial Scale
Foods 2019, 8(10), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100497 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) combined with fumaric acid (FA) and calcium oxide (CaO) treatment on the microbial disinfection of fresh fruits including apple, mandarin, and tomato at the industrial scale. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) combined with fumaric acid (FA) and calcium oxide (CaO) treatment on the microbial disinfection of fresh fruits including apple, mandarin, and tomato at the industrial scale. The combined treatments can significantly (p < 0.05) reduce the population of natural microbiota from the fruit surfaces and the treated samples showed good sensory qualities during refrigeration storage. In addition, decontamination of inoculated foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) was carried out in the laboratory, and the combined treatments resulted in a reduction ranging from 2.85 to 5.35 log CFU/fruit, CaO followed by SAEW+FA treatment that resulted in significantly higher reduction than for SAEW+FA treatment. The technology developed by this study has been used in a fresh fruit industry and has greatly improved the quality of the products. These findings suggest that the synergistic properties of the combination of SAEW, FA, and CaO could be used in the fresh fruit industry as an effective sanitizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety of Fresh and Minimally Processed Produce)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Rice-Buckwheat Gluten-Free Pasta: Effect of Processing Parameters on Quality Characteristics and Optimization of Extrusion-Cooking Process
Foods 2019, 8(10), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100496 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
A new type of gluten-free pasta has been developed based on a rice-buckwheat mixture. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of process parameters of moisture content (30, 33, and 36%), barrel temperature (80, 100, and 120 °C), and screw [...] Read more.
A new type of gluten-free pasta has been developed based on a rice-buckwheat mixture. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of process parameters of moisture content (30, 33, and 36%), barrel temperature (80, 100, and 120 °C), and screw speed (60, 80, and 100 rpm) on cooking and textural properties of rice-buckwheat pasta produced by a single-screw extrusion-cooker. The process uses response surface methodology based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. Results showed that with regard to this rice-buckwheat pasta, raising moisture content of the raw materials increased cooking loss and stickiness, but decreased firmness, while increasing barrel temperature reduced cooking loss and stickiness, but increased hardness and firmness. Screw speed increase also affected positively hardness and firmness of the obtained products. Thus, optimal conditions (moisture content 30%, barrel temperature 120 °C, and screw speed 80 rpm) were established to produce good quality rice-buckwheat pasta. At this optimum, the pasta showed a compact and homogeneous inside microstructure. Furthermore, the pasta products exhibited low cooking loss (less than 6%), good hardness and firmness, with low stickiness and acceptable scores for all sensory attributes and for overall quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Bioactive Candy: Effects of Licorice on the Cardiovascular System
Foods 2019, 8(10), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100495 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is [...] Read more.
Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is successively converted to 3β-monoglucuronyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (3MGA) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in the intestines. Despite many reported health benefits, 3MGA and GA inhibit the 11-β-hydrogenase type II enzyme (11β-HSD2) oxidizing cortisol to cortisone. Through activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, high cortisol levels induce a mild form of apparent mineralocorticoid excess in the kidney and increase systemic vascular resistance. Continuous inhibition of 11β-HSD2 related to excess licorice consumption will create a state of hypernatremia, hypokalemia and increased fluid volume, which can cause serious life-threatening complications especially in patients already suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Two recent meta-analyses of 18 and 26 studies investigating the correlation between licorice intake and blood pressure revealed statistically significant increases both in systolic (5.45 mmHg) and in diastolic blood pressure (3.19/1.74 mmHg). This review summarizes and evaluates current literature about the acute and chronic effects of licorice ingestion on the cardiovascular system with special focus on blood pressure. Starting from the molecular actions of licorice (metabolites) inside the cells, it describes how licorice intake is affecting the human body and shows the boundaries between the health benefits of licorice and possible harmful effects. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Biochemical and Nutritional Changes during Food Processing and Storage
Foods 2019, 8(10), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100494 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Domestic food processing goes a long way back in time, for example, heat for cooking was used 1 [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Edible Leafy Vegetables from West Africa (Guinea-Bissau): Consumption, Trade and Food Potential
Foods 2019, 8(10), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100493 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Wild Edible Plants are common in the diet of rural communities of sub-Saharan Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, wild plant resources are widely used in human diet, but very few studies have addressed them. The aim of this study is to reveal: (1) [...] Read more.
Wild Edible Plants are common in the diet of rural communities of sub-Saharan Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, wild plant resources are widely used in human diet, but very few studies have addressed them. The aim of this study is to reveal: (1) the wild and semi-cultivated leafy vegetables consumed in Guinea-Bissau; and (2) the nutritional composition of those plants traded at the largest country market in Bissau. Our results revealed that 24 native or naturalized species with edible leaves are currently consumed by Guinea-Bissau population. Five of them were found at the market: dried leaves of Adansonia digitata, Bombax costatum and Sesamum radiatum, and fresh leaves and shoots of Amaranthus hybridus and Hibiscus sabdariffa. The analysis of the nutritional properties revealed that leaves contain a significant amount of protein (10.1–21.0 g/100 g, dry basis), high values of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as of phenolic compounds (13.1–40.3 mg GAE/g) and a considerable antioxidant capacity (DPPH 111.5–681.9 mg Eq Trolox). Although price and availability vary among the leafy vegetables analyzed, these traditional foods appear to be a good dietary component that can contribute to food security in Guinea-Bissau and in other West African countries, as these species are widely distributed in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Food Additives: From Source to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop