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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Cognitive Function and Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Polyphenols in a Young Population: Is There a Relationship?
Foods 2019, 8(10), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100507 (registering DOI) - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
Scientific evidence has shown the relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and their polyphenols with the prevention or treatment of diseases. The aim of this review was to find out whether the same relationship exists between fruits and vegetables and cognitive function, [...] Read more.
Scientific evidence has shown the relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and their polyphenols with the prevention or treatment of diseases. The aim of this review was to find out whether the same relationship exists between fruits and vegetables and cognitive function, especially memory, in a young population. The mechanisms by which polyphenols of fruits and vegetables can exert cognitive benefits were also evaluated. These compounds act to improve neuronal plasticity through the protein CREB (Camp Response Element Binding) in the hippocampus, modulating pathways of signaling and transcription factors (ERK/Akt). In the same way, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the maintenance, survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons. All these effects are produced by an increase of cerebral blood flow and an increase of the blood’s nitric oxide levels and oxygenation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Novel Ingredients Based on Grapefruit Freeze-Dried Formulations: Nutritional and Bioactive Value
Foods 2019, 8(10), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100506 (registering DOI) - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
Grapefruit is a fruit with interesting nutritional value and functional properties, but a short life. Freeze-drying (FD) is a valuable technique as it produces high-quality dehydrated products. This study is aimed to obtain new food ingredients based on freeze-dried grapefruit formulated with high [...] Read more.
Grapefruit is a fruit with interesting nutritional value and functional properties, but a short life. Freeze-drying (FD) is a valuable technique as it produces high-quality dehydrated products. This study is aimed to obtain new food ingredients based on freeze-dried grapefruit formulated with high molecular weight solutes (gum arabic and bamboo fiber) in three different proportions (F1, F2, and F3). To improve the FD, a mild microwave drying pre-treatment was applied. Influence of the water content and the presence of high molecular weight solutes on freeze-drying kinetics was tested by Midilli-Kucuk and Page models. The best FD kinetic model fit on grapefruit powders were Midilli-Kucuk for F2 and F3, and Page for F1, and the adequate freeze-drying times for F1, F2, and F3 were 24, 16, and 18 h, respectively. Final samples were evaluated for nutritional and antioxidant capacity. Gum arabic and bamboo fiber present a protector effect, which results in a significant antioxidant capacity due to the protection of flavonoids and antioxidant vitamins. These novel food ingredients could be of great interest for the food industry in order to develop foods with improved antioxidant capacity as well as enriched in natural fibers and/or micronutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Foods and Nutritional Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pulsed Electric Field-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration and Edible Coating on the Recovery of Anthocyanins from In Vitro Digested Berries
Foods 2019, 8(10), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100505 (registering DOI) - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
Berry fruits, such as strawberries and blueberries, are rich sources of anthocyanins. Several studies have been made on the impact of non-thermal treatments on safety, shelf-life and nutritional characteristics of such products, but the effects of these processes on anthocyanin stability during digestion [...] Read more.
Berry fruits, such as strawberries and blueberries, are rich sources of anthocyanins. Several studies have been made on the impact of non-thermal treatments on safety, shelf-life and nutritional characteristics of such products, but the effects of these processes on anthocyanin stability during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract are still not completely clear. The aim of this study was to assess the recovery of anthocyanins after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of (1) strawberry samples, pre-treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) at 100 or 200 V·cm−1, prior to osmotic dehydration (OD), and (2) blueberry samples coated with chitosan and procyanidin. After digestion, a significantly higher content of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside was quantified by LC-MS/MS in processed strawberry and blueberry samples, compared with the controls. The highest recovery of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was detected in digested strawberry samples osmotically dehydrated with trehalose. The recovery of malvidin-3-O-glucoside was highest in digested blueberries coated with chitosan and stored for 14 days, compared with untreated samples or samples coated with chitosan and procyanidin. Our study shows the potential of mild PEF treatments combined with OD, or the use of edible coating, to obtain shelf-stable products without substantially affecting the composition or the stability of anthocyanins during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Addition of Apulian black Chickpea Flour on the Nutritional and Qualitative Properties of Durum Wheat-Based Bakery Products
Foods 2019, 8(10), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100504 (registering DOI) - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 96
Abstract
Historically cultivated in Apulia (Southern Italy), Apulian black chickpeas are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. This type of chickpea is being replaced by modern cultivars and is at risk of genetic erosion; therefore, it is important to explore its potential for [...] Read more.
Historically cultivated in Apulia (Southern Italy), Apulian black chickpeas are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. This type of chickpea is being replaced by modern cultivars and is at risk of genetic erosion; therefore, it is important to explore its potential for new food applications. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of the addition of Apulian black chickpea wholemeal flour on the nutritional and qualitative properties of durum wheat-based bakery products; namely bread, “focaccia” (an Italian traditional bakery product similar to pizza), and pizza crust. Composite meals were prepared by mixing Apulian black chickpea wholemeal flour with re-milled semolina at 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, and 40:60. The rheological properties, evaluated by farinograph, alveograph, and rheofermentograph, showed a progressive worsening of the bread-making attitude when increasing amounts of chickpea flour were added. The end-products expanded less during baking, and were harder and darker than the corresponding conventional products, as assessed both instrumentally and by sensory analysis. However, these negative features were balanced by higher contents of fibre, proteins, and bioactive compounds, as well as higher antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microwave-Based Technique for Fast and Reliable Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Food, with a Special Focus on Hydrocarbon Contaminants
Foods 2019, 8(10), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100503 (registering DOI) - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 76
Abstract
Due to food complexity and the low amount at which contaminants are usually present in food, their analytical determination can be particularly challenging. Conventional sample preparation methods making use of large solvent volumes and involving intensive sample manipulation can lead to sample contamination [...] Read more.
Due to food complexity and the low amount at which contaminants are usually present in food, their analytical determination can be particularly challenging. Conventional sample preparation methods making use of large solvent volumes and involving intensive sample manipulation can lead to sample contamination or losses of analytes. To overcome the disadvantages of conventional sample preparation, many researchers put their efforts toward the development of rapid and environmental-friendly methods, minimizing solvent consumption. In this context, microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) has obtained, over the last years, increasing attention from analytical chemists and it has been successfully utilized for the extraction of various contaminants from different foods. In the first part of this review, an updated overview of the microwave-based extraction technique used for rapid and efficient extraction of organic contaminants from food is given. The principle of the technique, a description of available instrumentation, optimization of parameters affecting the extraction yield, as well as integrated techniques for further purification/enrichment prior to the analytical determination, are illustrated. In the second part of the review, the latest applications concerning the use of microwave energy for the determination of hydrocarbon contaminants—namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH)—are reported and critically overviewed and future trends are delineated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection Methods for Food Fraud and Food Contaminants)
Open AccessArticle
Formation of Food Grade Microemulsion with Rice Glycosphingolipids to Enhance the Oral Absorption of Coenzyme Q10
Foods 2019, 8(10), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100502 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 149
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the possible use of rice glycosphingolipids (RGSLs) as an emulsifier to form food grade microemulsions (mean particle size, 10–20 nm) and improve the absorption of CoQ10 with a poor solubility property by prepared emulsion. Because [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine the possible use of rice glycosphingolipids (RGSLs) as an emulsifier to form food grade microemulsions (mean particle size, 10–20 nm) and improve the absorption of CoQ10 with a poor solubility property by prepared emulsion. Because RGSLs could act as an auxiliary emulsifying agent, its addition to the surfactant/oil mixture decreased the emulsion’s particle size. This suggests that RGSLs exist between the water and oil phases to decrease oil droplet size via reduced interfacial tension. CoQ10-loaded microemulsion was also successfully prepared with RGSLs and powdered after freeze-drying with a cryoprotectant. CoQ10’s solubility in freeze-dried particles was dramatically improved compared to that of CoQ10 powder. Moreover, oral absorption of CoQ10 was significantly enhanced when administered via CoQ10-loaded microemulsion. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve for the microemulsion improved up to seven-fold compared to CoQ10 powder. The use of RGSLs could, therefore, be an effective processing technique for improving CoQ10’s solubility and absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Effects of the Alcalase-Hydrolysates of Caseinate, and of Fish and Bovine Gelatins on the Acidification and Textural Features of Set-Style Skimmed Yogurt-Type Products
Foods 2019, 8(10), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100501 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Commercial caseinate and two gelatins from bovine and fish skin were hydrolyzed by alcalase, and used at 2 g/kg in skimmed bovine milk that was then fermented with a commercial direct vat set starter, to clarify different effects of these hydrolysates on acidification [...] Read more.
Commercial caseinate and two gelatins from bovine and fish skin were hydrolyzed by alcalase, and used at 2 g/kg in skimmed bovine milk that was then fermented with a commercial direct vat set starter, to clarify different effects of these hydrolysates on acidification and textural attributes of set-style yogurt samples. Compared with the fermentation of the yogurt sample without hydrolysate addition, the two gelatin hydrolysates in the yogurt samples endowed lower titratable acidity but higher pH values and thus delayed yogurt fermentation, while the caseinate hydrolysate showed an effect opposite to the two gelatin hydrolysates. The two gelatin hydrolysates induced worse quality attributes for the resultant yogurt samples, including higher syneresis extent, smaller hysteresis loop areas, and lower values in these textural indices like hardness, adhesiveness, apparent viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli. However, the caseinate hydrolysate led to improved quality attributes. Moreover, bovine gelatin hydrolysate always had a greater negative effect than fish gelatin hydrolysate on yogurt acidification and texture. It is concluded that these gelatin hydrolysates could confer the yogurt with intended bio-activities of gelatin hydrolysates but negatively impact yogurt acidification and texture, while the caseinate hydrolysate might be helpful for yogurt processing by shortening fermentation time and improving yogurt texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Composition of Popularly Consumed African and Caribbean Foods in The UK
Foods 2019, 8(10), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100500 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 116
Abstract
(1) Background: Traditional foods are important in the diets of Black Africans and Caribbeans and, more widely, influence UK food culture. However, little is known about the nutritional status of these ethnic groups and the nutrient composition of their traditional foods. The aim [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Traditional foods are important in the diets of Black Africans and Caribbeans and, more widely, influence UK food culture. However, little is known about the nutritional status of these ethnic groups and the nutrient composition of their traditional foods. The aim was to identify and analyse African and Caribbean dishes, snacks and beverages popularly consumed in the UK for energy, macronutrients and micronutrients. (2) Methods: Various approaches including focus group discussions and 24-h dietary recalls were used to identify traditional dishes, snacks, and beverages. Defined criteria were used to prioritise and prepare 33 composite samples for nutrient analysis in a UK accredited laboratory. Quality assurance procedures and data verification were undertaken to ensure inclusion in the UK nutrient database. (3) Results: Energy content ranged from 60 kcal in Malta drink to 619 kcal in the shito sauce. Sucrose levels did not exceed the UK recommendation for adults and children. Most of the dishes contained negligible levels of trans fatty acid. The most abundant minerals were Na, K, Ca, Cu, Mn and Se whereas Mg, P, Fe and Zn were present in small amounts. (4) Conclusion: There was wide variation in the energy, macro- and micronutrients composition of the foods analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Effects of Traditional Foods)
Open AccessArticle
The Role of an Acidic Peptide in Controlling the Oxidation Process of Walnut Oil
Foods 2019, 8(10), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100499 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 104
Abstract
Here, the mechanism of action of an antioxidant peptide rich in acidic amino acid residues in controlling lipid oxidation is discussed. Firstly, in the presence of this peptide, the fluorescence intensity of lipid peroxide in samples of walnut oil was very low, indicating [...] Read more.
Here, the mechanism of action of an antioxidant peptide rich in acidic amino acid residues in controlling lipid oxidation is discussed. Firstly, in the presence of this peptide, the fluorescence intensity of lipid peroxide in samples of walnut oil was very low, indicating that the peptide prevented the formation of lipid peroxides. Secondly, the production of lipid-derived radicals of oil was reduced by 23% following addition of the anti-oxidative peptide. Thirdly, Raman shifts of the lipid with the anti-oxidative peptide showed that acidic amino acid residues of the peptide were involved in delaying lipid oxidation. Finally, seven peptide inhibitors were synthesized with variations to the amino acid sequence of the original peptide, and Glu–Asp was proven to enhance the peptide’s superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and decrease the formation of linoleic acid peroxides. Our findings emphasize the potential value of acidic amino acid residues in protecting unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Studies of Fermented Korean Chung-Yang Hot Pepper Phenolics as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Relevant to Hypertension and Diabetes
Foods 2019, 8(10), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100498 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 190
Abstract
This study was investigated to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. The fermented pepper water extract (FP) showed significantly higher [...] Read more.
This study was investigated to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. The fermented pepper water extract (FP) showed significantly higher total phenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition effect, metal chelating activity and ACE inhibition activity compared to the non-fermented raw pepper water extract (RP) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the FP showed lower α-amylase and higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, but the RP showed similar levels of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Taken together, these results suggested that fermented pepper extract using water should be expected to have potentially inhibitory effects against both hyperglycemia and hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Disinfection Efficacy of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Combined with Chemical Treatments on Fresh Fruits at the Industrial Scale
Foods 2019, 8(10), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100497 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) combined with fumaric acid (FA) and calcium oxide (CaO) treatment on the microbial disinfection of fresh fruits including apple, mandarin, and tomato at the industrial scale. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) combined with fumaric acid (FA) and calcium oxide (CaO) treatment on the microbial disinfection of fresh fruits including apple, mandarin, and tomato at the industrial scale. The combined treatments can significantly (p < 0.05) reduce the population of natural microbiota from the fruit surfaces and the treated samples showed good sensory qualities during refrigeration storage. In addition, decontamination of inoculated foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) was carried out in the laboratory, and the combined treatments resulted in a reduction ranging from 2.85 to 5.35 log CFU/fruit, CaO followed by SAEW+FA treatment that resulted in significantly higher reduction than for SAEW+FA treatment. The technology developed by this study has been used in a fresh fruit industry and has greatly improved the quality of the products. These findings suggest that the synergistic properties of the combination of SAEW, FA, and CaO could be used in the fresh fruit industry as an effective sanitizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety of Fresh and Minimally Processed Produce)
Open AccessArticle
Rice-Buckwheat Gluten-Free Pasta: Effect of Processing Parameters on Quality Characteristics and Optimization of Extrusion-Cooking Process
Foods 2019, 8(10), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100496 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
A new type of gluten-free pasta has been developed based on a rice-buckwheat mixture. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of process parameters of moisture content (30, 33, and 36%), barrel temperature (80, 100, and 120 °C), and screw [...] Read more.
A new type of gluten-free pasta has been developed based on a rice-buckwheat mixture. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of process parameters of moisture content (30, 33, and 36%), barrel temperature (80, 100, and 120 °C), and screw speed (60, 80, and 100 rpm) on cooking and textural properties of rice-buckwheat pasta produced by a single-screw extrusion-cooker. The process uses response surface methodology based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. Results showed that with regard to this rice-buckwheat pasta, raising moisture content of the raw materials increased cooking loss and stickiness, but decreased firmness, while increasing barrel temperature reduced cooking loss and stickiness, but increased hardness and firmness. Screw speed increase also affected positively hardness and firmness of the obtained products. Thus, optimal conditions (moisture content 30%, barrel temperature 120 °C, and screw speed 80 rpm) were established to produce good quality rice-buckwheat pasta. At this optimum, the pasta showed a compact and homogeneous inside microstructure. Furthermore, the pasta products exhibited low cooking loss (less than 6%), good hardness and firmness, with low stickiness and acceptable scores for all sensory attributes and for overall quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessReview
Bioactive Candy: Effects of Licorice on the Cardiovascular System
Foods 2019, 8(10), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100495 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is [...] Read more.
Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is successively converted to 3β-monoglucuronyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (3MGA) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in the intestines. Despite many reported health benefits, 3MGA and GA inhibit the 11-β-hydrogenase type II enzyme (11β-HSD2) oxidizing cortisol to cortisone. Through activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, high cortisol levels induce a mild form of apparent mineralocorticoid excess in the kidney and increase systemic vascular resistance. Continuous inhibition of 11β-HSD2 related to excess licorice consumption will create a state of hypernatremia, hypokalemia and increased fluid volume, which can cause serious life-threatening complications especially in patients already suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Two recent meta-analyses of 18 and 26 studies investigating the correlation between licorice intake and blood pressure revealed statistically significant increases both in systolic (5.45 mmHg) and in diastolic blood pressure (3.19/1.74 mmHg). This review summarizes and evaluates current literature about the acute and chronic effects of licorice ingestion on the cardiovascular system with special focus on blood pressure. Starting from the molecular actions of licorice (metabolites) inside the cells, it describes how licorice intake is affecting the human body and shows the boundaries between the health benefits of licorice and possible harmful effects. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Biochemical and Nutritional Changes during Food Processing and Storage
Foods 2019, 8(10), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100494 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Domestic food processing goes a long way back in time, for example, heat for cooking was used 1 [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Edible Leafy Vegetables from West Africa (Guinea-Bissau): Consumption, Trade and Food Potential
Foods 2019, 8(10), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100493 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 119
Abstract
Wild Edible Plants are common in the diet of rural communities of sub-Saharan Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, wild plant resources are widely used in human diet, but very few studies have addressed them. The aim of this study is to reveal: (1) [...] Read more.
Wild Edible Plants are common in the diet of rural communities of sub-Saharan Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, wild plant resources are widely used in human diet, but very few studies have addressed them. The aim of this study is to reveal: (1) the wild and semi-cultivated leafy vegetables consumed in Guinea-Bissau; and (2) the nutritional composition of those plants traded at the largest country market in Bissau. Our results revealed that 24 native or naturalized species with edible leaves are currently consumed by Guinea-Bissau population. Five of them were found at the market: dried leaves of Adansonia digitata, Bombax costatum and Sesamum radiatum, and fresh leaves and shoots of Amaranthus hybridus and Hibiscus sabdariffa. The analysis of the nutritional properties revealed that leaves contain a significant amount of protein (10.1–21.0 g/100 g, dry basis), high values of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as of phenolic compounds (13.1–40.3 mg GAE/g) and a considerable antioxidant capacity (DPPH 111.5–681.9 mg Eq Trolox). Although price and availability vary among the leafy vegetables analyzed, these traditional foods appear to be a good dietary component that can contribute to food security in Guinea-Bissau and in other West African countries, as these species are widely distributed in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Food Additives: From Source to Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Liberation and Micellarization of Carotenoids from Different Smoothies after Thermal and Ultrasound Treatments
Foods 2019, 8(10), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100492 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
The consumption of a varied diet rich in fruit and vegetables helps prevent and treat certain chronic diseases. The development of smoothies based on derivatives from fruit and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds can help increase the consumption of these foods, and therefore, [...] Read more.
The consumption of a varied diet rich in fruit and vegetables helps prevent and treat certain chronic diseases. The development of smoothies based on derivatives from fruit and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds can help increase the consumption of these foods, and therefore, contribute to the prevention of various health problems. However, during the processing of the fruit and vegetable smoothies, these properties may change. The elaboration of smoothies is based on fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids: Carrot juice-papaya-mango (smoothie A) and carrot juice-pumpkin-mango (smoothie B). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the application of different thermal technologies (mild and intensive heat treatment) and non-conventional technologies (ultrasound) on carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein and β-cryptoxantin) and determine the physiochemical parameters of derivatives from fruit and vegetable smoothies. In addition, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids is also evaluated through a process of in vitro simulated digestion. With regard to the bioaccessibility of the fruit and vegetable smoothies analyzed, a positive effect of temperature on liberation and micellarization was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Alcohol Sweetspot Phenomena in Reduced Alcohol Red Wines
Foods 2019, 8(10), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100491 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Warmer growing seasons, variations to grape ripening dynamics, and stylistic changes have contributed to increased wine alcohol levels, which can negatively impact sensory properties. As a consequence, winemakers have sought technological innovations to produce reduced alcohol wine (RAW). The sensory methodology used by [...] Read more.
Warmer growing seasons, variations to grape ripening dynamics, and stylistic changes have contributed to increased wine alcohol levels, which can negatively impact sensory properties. As a consequence, winemakers have sought technological innovations to produce reduced alcohol wine (RAW). The sensory methodology used by industry to optimize the ethanol content of RAW is known as ‘alcohol sweetspotting’. However, to date, there is no scientific evidence to support the alcohol sweetspot phenomenon, and the sensory methodology used for alcohol sweetspotting has not been validated. In this study, different methods of presenting wine samples (i.e., ordered vs. randomized, and linear vs. circular) were employed to determine to what extent presentation order influences the outcome of alcohol sweetspotting trials. Two different approaches to statistical analysis of sensory data, i.e., chi-square goodness of fit vs. one proportion tests, were also evaluated. Statistical analyses confirmed alcohol sweetspots were apparent in some sweetspot determination trials, but outcomes were not reproducible in replicate determinations (either by panel or by individual panelists). Analysis of data using the one proportion test improved the likelihood of identifying statistically significant differences between RAWs, but variation in individuals’ sensitivity to differences in sensory properties following ethanol removal prevented validation of the alcohol sweetspot phenomenon based on the wines studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
Review on Natural Preservatives for Extending Fish Shelf Life
Foods 2019, 8(10), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100490 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Fish is extremely perishable as a result of rapid microbial growth naturally present in fish or from contamination. Synthetic preservatives are widely used in fish storage to extend shelf life and maintain quality and safety. However, consumer preferences for natural preservatives and concerns [...] Read more.
Fish is extremely perishable as a result of rapid microbial growth naturally present in fish or from contamination. Synthetic preservatives are widely used in fish storage to extend shelf life and maintain quality and safety. However, consumer preferences for natural preservatives and concerns about the safety of synthetic preservatives have prompted the food industry to search natural preservatives. Natural preservatives from microorganisms, plants, and animals have been shown potential in replacing the chemical antimicrobials. Bacteriocins and organic acids from bacteria showed good antimicrobial activities against spoilage bacteria. Plant-derived antimicrobials could prolong fish shelf life and decrease lipid oxidation. Animal-derived antimicrobials also have good antimicrobial activities; however, their allergen risk should be paid attention. Moreover, some algae and mushroom species can also provide a potential source of new natural preservatives. Obviously, the natural preservatives could perform better in fish storage by combining with other hurdles such as non-thermal sterilization processing, modified atmosphere packaging, edible films and coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation: Challenges and Efforts for the Future)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the Spoilage Microbiota of Hake Fillets Packaged Under a Modified Atmosphere (MAP) Rich in CO2 (50% CO2/50% N2) and Stored at Different Temperatures
Foods 2019, 8(10), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100489 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 200
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize the spoilage microbiota of hake fillets stored under modified atmospheres (MAP) (50% CO2/50% N2) at different temperatures using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and to compare the results with those obtained [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize the spoilage microbiota of hake fillets stored under modified atmospheres (MAP) (50% CO2/50% N2) at different temperatures using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and to compare the results with those obtained using traditional microbiology techniques. The results obtained indicate that, as expected, higher storage temperatures lead to shorter shelf-lives (the time of sensory rejection by panelists). Thus, the shelf-life decreased from six days to two days for Batch A when the storage temperature increased from 1 to 7 °C, and from five to two days—when the same increase in storage temperature was compared—for Batch B. In all cases, the trimethylamine (TMA) levels measured at the time of sensory rejection of hake fillets exceeded the recommended threshold of 5 mg/100 g. Photobacterium and Psychrobacter were the most abundant genera at the time of spoilage in all but one of the samples analyzed: Thus, Photobacterium represented between 19% and 46%, and Psychrobacter between 27% and 38% of the total microbiota. They were followed by Moritella, Carnobacterium, Shewanella, and Vibrio, whose relative order varied depending on the sample/batch analyzed. These results highlight the relevance of Photobacterium as a spoiler of hake stored in atmospheres rich in CO2. Further research will be required to elucidate if other microorganisms, such as Psychrobacter, Moritella, or Carnobacterium, also contribute to spoilage of hake when stored under MAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Shelf-Life Extension of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Product Involvement on Panels’ Vocabulary Generation, Attribute Identification, and Sample Configurations in Beer
Foods 2019, 8(10), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100488 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two semi-trained panels with different degrees of self-reported beer involvement in terms of beer consumption pattern. The two panels were beer non-drinkers (indicating willingness to taste beer) and craft-style beer drinkers. Eleven [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two semi-trained panels with different degrees of self-reported beer involvement in terms of beer consumption pattern. The two panels were beer non-drinkers (indicating willingness to taste beer) and craft-style beer drinkers. Eleven modified beer samples were evaluated during three separate tasks by both panels. The tasks were (1) a vocabulary generation on a sample level, (2) an attribute identification task with a list of attributes to choose from, and (3) a descriptive analysis. The performance of the two panels was evaluated and compared using three parameters, as follows: Descriptive similarity, attribute knowledge similarity, and perceptual similarity. The results showed that the craft-style beer drinkers generated the most precise vocabulary and correctly identified more attributes, compared to the beer non-drinkers. Furthermore, the sample sensory spaces generated by the two panels were different before the training period, but were perceptually similar post training. To conclude, the beer consumption pattern influenced all aspects of panel performance before training, with the craft-style panel performing better than the non-drinkers panel. However, the panels’ performance became more similar after a short period of training sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Mineral Composition of Three Wild Leafy Species: A Comparison Between Microgreens and Baby Greens
Foods 2019, 8(10), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100487 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Wild plants may play an important role in human nutrition and health and, among them, many are the leafy species. We hypothesized that the wild greens could be profitably grown as microgreens and baby greens, specialty products whose market is increasing. We compared [...] Read more.
Wild plants may play an important role in human nutrition and health and, among them, many are the leafy species. We hypothesized that the wild greens could be profitably grown as microgreens and baby greens, specialty products whose market is increasing. We compared three wild leafy species (Sanguisorba minor Scop., Sinapis arvensis L., and Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg.) harvested at the microgreen and baby green stages. Seedlings were grown hydroponically in a half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled climatic conditions. At harvest, the yield was assessed, and chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic index, nitrate, and mineral elements were measured in the two types of product. The potential contribution to human mineral intake was calculated, and the possible risk due to the presence of metals potentially detrimental for health was estimated. Results showed that micro/baby greens of the studied wild plants achieved competitive yields and could contribute to the dietary intake of macroelements, microelements, and non-nutrient bioactive compounds. On the other hand, the wild greens showed high amounts of nitrate and traces of some metals potentially detrimental for health, suggesting the need for caution in the use of wild species for producing microgreens and baby leaves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Absolute Contents of Compounds Affecting the Taste and Nutritional Properties of the Flesh of Three Plum Species Throughout Development
Foods 2019, 8(10), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100486 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The characteristics of plum fruits of three different species were investigated throughout their development (including over-ripening). The content of primary and secondary metabolites was expressed as amount per gram DW (dry weight) and per fruit in order to obtain information about the balance [...] Read more.
The characteristics of plum fruits of three different species were investigated throughout their development (including over-ripening). The content of primary and secondary metabolites was expressed as amount per gram DW (dry weight) and per fruit in order to obtain information about the balance between their synthesis and dissimilation at different stages of fruit development. In all the plums, during the first stages of development, glucose was the most abundant sugar, whereas sucrose increased during ripening. There was no decrease in malate content per fruit before the commercial harvesting time of any of the plums, whereas a decrease was observed during over-ripening. In general, both the total phenol content and the contents of individual phenols in the flesh expressed on gram DW decreased throughout development, whereas their content per fruit increased, indicating that these decreases were due to a dilution effect arising from the expansion of the flesh. During the development of the flesh, the increase in the contents of the investigated metabolites per fruit shows that there was no net dissimilation of malate up to commercial harvest and of phenols throughout fruit development. Good correlations between the content of phenols to antioxidant activity were found. Shiro flesh, during the last part of fruit development, had lower total carbohydrate and polyphenol contents, lower antioxidant activities, and a higher malate content than the flesh of the other two genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Probiotic Properties and DNA Protection Activity of Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from A Honey-Based Kefir Beverage
Foods 2019, 8(10), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100485 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The probiotic characteristics of three acid-tolerant microbial strains, viz., Lactobacillus satsumensis LPBF1, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LPBF2 and Saccharomyes cerevisiae LPBF3, isolated from a honey-based kefir functional beverage, were studied following the requirements established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation/World Health [...] Read more.
The probiotic characteristics of three acid-tolerant microbial strains, viz., Lactobacillus satsumensis LPBF1, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LPBF2 and Saccharomyes cerevisiae LPBF3, isolated from a honey-based kefir functional beverage, were studied following the requirements established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), including host-associated stress resistance, epithelium adhesion ability, and antimicrobial activity. The three microbial strains tolerated different pH values (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 7.0) and bile salt concentrations (0.3% and 0.6%), and survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice, which are conditions imposed by the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, they showed high percentages of hydrophobicity, auto aggregation and anti-pathogenic against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with no hemolytic activity. The protective capacity of human DNA through microbial treatment was investigated by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay. The three selected strains showed DNA protection effect against damage caused by hydroxyl radical (H2O2). However, when the S. cerevisiae treatment was applied, the most effective DNA protection index was observed, which can be associated to its high production of extracellular antioxidants as reveled by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate (DPPH) method. These results indicated that the three selected microbial strains could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in food products. As well-adapted microbial cells, the selected strains can be used for production of non-dairy functional beverages, especially for vegans and/or vegetarians and lactose intolerants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Terminology for Snack Foods and Their Texture by Consumers in Four Languages: A Qualitative Study
Foods 2019, 8(10), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100484 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 221
Abstract
The choice of food products is affected by the combination of food properties, consumer motives, emotions, and context, especially in cross-cultural studies. The designs of cross-cultural studies involve several limitations such as conceptual perception and linguistic and cultural differences in response style. These [...] Read more.
The choice of food products is affected by the combination of food properties, consumer motives, emotions, and context, especially in cross-cultural studies. The designs of cross-cultural studies involve several limitations such as conceptual perception and linguistic and cultural differences in response style. These factors confine the validity and generalizability of such study models. In this study, we have combined linguistic and contextual perception together to generate consumer texture terminologies. Four focus groups discussions were conducted with consumers from nine different countries in English, Hindi, Mandarin, and Spanish. Vocabularies for sixteen texture terms were generated. Consumers provided a single consensus term that they typically use to describe contextual sensory perception. The results show that consumers use several terms to describe texture, and terms are very specific to product and related perception. The English translation of words like “snack”, “texture”, and other sensory texture terms are meaningless for non-English speaking cultures. Researchers are encouraged to validate (test) the structure of cross-cultural study models before application. Practical application: The findings of this study present a model which can be utilized to conduct cross-cultural research studies. The results can contribute to generate accurate consumer responses, acceptance, preference, and addressing consumers concerns. Food industries could leverage these by using our methodology in product development, finding consumer insights, effective communication, and products testing in international settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Milk Emulsions: Structure and Stability
Foods 2019, 8(10), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100483 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The main aim of this research is to investigate the characteristics of milk and milk proteins as natural emulsifiers. It is still largely unclear how the two main fractions of the milk proteins behave as emulsifier in highly concentrated emulsions. The surface-active effect [...] Read more.
The main aim of this research is to investigate the characteristics of milk and milk proteins as natural emulsifiers. It is still largely unclear how the two main fractions of the milk proteins behave as emulsifier in highly concentrated emulsions. The surface-active effect of these is determined experimentally for emulsions with a high oil content (φ > 0.7), in this case fully refined rapeseed oil. Recent publications have not yet sufficiently investigated how proteins from native milk behave in emulsions in which a jamming transition is observed. In addition, scientific measurements comparing fresh milk emulsions and emulsions of dried milk protein powders based on rheological and thermal properties are pending and unexamined. The emulsions, prepared with a rotor-stator disperser, are investigated by their particle size and analysed by microscopy, characterised by their rheological properties. The behaviour under shear is directly observed by rheo-optical methods, which enables the direct observation of the dynamic behaviour of the oil droplets undergoing a size selective jamming transition. For a better understanding of the contributions of the different emulsifying proteins, oil-in-water emulsions have been prepared by using whey protein isolates and sodium casinates. Their different role (and function) on the interface activity can be assigned to the droplet sizes and mechanical behaviour during increasing shear deformation. In addition, solid (gelled) emulsions are prepared by heating. It is shown that the cysteine-containing whey proteins are mainly responsible for the sol–gel transition in the continuous water phase and the formation of soft solids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Overall Nutritional and Sensory Profile of Different Species of Australian Wattle Seeds (Acacia spp.): Potential Food Sources in the Arid Semi-Arid Regions
Foods 2019, 8(10), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100482 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Wattle seed (Acacia spp.) is a well-known staple food within indigenous communities in Australia. A detailed investigation of the overall nutritional and sensory profile of four abundant and underutilized Acacia species—A. coriacea, A. cowleana, A. retinodes and A. sophorae [...] Read more.
Wattle seed (Acacia spp.) is a well-known staple food within indigenous communities in Australia. A detailed investigation of the overall nutritional and sensory profile of four abundant and underutilized Acacia species—A. coriacea, A. cowleana, A. retinodes and A. sophorae—were performed. Additionally, molecular weight of protein extracts from the wattle seeds (WS) was determined. The seeds are rich in protein (23–27%) and dietary fibre (33–41%). Relatively high fat content was found in A. cowleana (19.3%), A. sophorae (14.8%) and A. retinodes (16.4%) with oleic acid being the predominant fatty acid. The seeds contained high amounts of essential amino acids (histidine, lysine, valine, isoleucine and leucine). A. coriacea is rich in iron (43 mg/kg), potassium (10 g/kg) and magnesium (1.7 g/kg). Pentose (xylose/arabinose), glucose, galactose and galacturonic acids were the major sugars found in the four species. Raw seeds from A. sophorae, A. retinodes and A. coriacea have the highest protein molecular weight, between 50–90 kDa, 80 kDa and 50–55 kDa, respectively. There was variation in the sensory profile of the WS species. This study showed that the four WS species have good nutritional value and could be included in human diet or used in food formulations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Risk Management of Dairy Product Losses as a Tool to Improve the Environment and Food Rescue
Foods 2019, 8(10), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100481 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
“Food loss”, defined as food produced for human consumption, which for various reasons leaves the supply chain, can be assigned to a group of new risks. Irrational use of food constitutes a risk to the environment. Moreover, food losses represent a missed opportunity [...] Read more.
“Food loss”, defined as food produced for human consumption, which for various reasons leaves the supply chain, can be assigned to a group of new risks. Irrational use of food constitutes a risk to the environment. Moreover, food losses represent a missed opportunity to improve global food security. The aim of this study was to develop a risk management model for dairy product losses using the example of ripening cheese. The necessary data to develop the model were derived from a survey that was conducted in five dairies located in Poland. Total losses for nine products amounted to 1.1% of the average annual production, which accounted for more than 5635 t per annum. The studies that were conducted allowed the identification of three management methods of food loss in dairies: reprocessing, hand over for feed, and disposal. The level of risk was defined as “high” with two suggested courses of action: prevention and tolerance. Risks must be prevented by eliminating any errors that may result in a product of inadequate quality. Another solution is to redistribute or sell products at a reduced price, which despite their reduced quality, are nevertheless suitable for consumption. To some extent, this risk must be tolerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
High-Throughput 16S rRNA Sequencing to Assess Potentially Active Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens: A Case Example in Ready-to-Eat Food
Foods 2019, 8(10), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100480 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Technologies to detect the entire bacterial diversity spectra and foodborne pathogens in food represent a fundamental advantage in the control of foodborne illness. Here, we applied high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of amplicons obtained by PCR and RT-PCR from extracted DNA and RNA targeting [...] Read more.
Technologies to detect the entire bacterial diversity spectra and foodborne pathogens in food represent a fundamental advantage in the control of foodborne illness. Here, we applied high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of amplicons obtained by PCR and RT-PCR from extracted DNA and RNA targeting the entire bacterial community and the active bacterial fraction present in some of the most consumed and distributed ready-to-eat (RTE) salad brands in Europe. Customer demands for RTE food are increasing worldwide along with the number of associated foodborne illness and outbreaks. The total aerobic bacterial count in the analyzed samples was in the range of 2–4 × 106 CFU/g (SD ± 1.54 × 106). Culture validated methods did not detect Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and other fecal coliforms. 16S rRNA gene Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were congruent with these culture-based results and confirmed that these and other well-known foodborne bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria, were not detected. However, the fine-resolution of the NGS method unveiled the presence of the opportunistic pathogens Aeromonas hydrophyla and Rahnella aquatilis (relative frequency of 1.33–7.33%) that were metabolically active in addition to non-pathogenic, active members of Yersinia spp. (relative frequency of 0.0015–0.003%). The common ail and foxA marker genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected by qPCR. Finally, our NGS data identified to non-pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. as the most abundant and metabolically active bacteria in the analyzed RTE salads (53–75% of bacterial abundance). Our data demonstrate the power of sequencing, in parallel, both 16S rRNA and rDNA to identify and discriminate those potentially and metabolically active bacteria and pathogens to provide a more complete view that facilitates the control of foodborne diseases, although further work should be conducted to determine the sensitivity of this method for targeting bacteria Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food-Grade Gelatin Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and Preliminary Application for Stabilizing Pickering Emulsions
Foods 2019, 8(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100479 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 111
Abstract
In this paper, the food-grade gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method and using genipin as a cross-linker. The GNPs with narrow size distribution and good dispersion could be obtained only at pH 12. The effect of the genipin dosage [...] Read more.
In this paper, the food-grade gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method and using genipin as a cross-linker. The GNPs with narrow size distribution and good dispersion could be obtained only at pH 12. The effect of the genipin dosage (8–12 wt%) on the GNPs was systematically investigated. The results showed that the cross-linking degree of the GNPs increased with the increasing dosage of genipin, thus leading to a more obvious cross-linking morphology observed from scanning electron microscope (SEM). The obtained GNPs showed a good dispersibility with a size range of 386–438 nm. However, the GNPs cross-linked by 8 wt% genipin dosage revealed a relatively higher size because of the aggregation induced by hydrogen bond. The 10 wt% group had good thermal stability and storage stability. The optical microscopy results showed that the Pickering emulsions (30–50 vol% internal phase) stabilized by the GNPs had good uniformity and stability, even after 30 days of storage time, suggesting that the stable GNPs had great potential in food-grade Pickering emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Steeping Water Change during Malting on the Multi-Toxin Content in Malt
Foods 2019, 8(10), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100478 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 138
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of steeping water change and Fusarium graminearum contamination level on different multi-toxin types and concentrations in barley malt. Malt samples were subjected to two micromalting regimes—steeping water change and the other with no [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of steeping water change and Fusarium graminearum contamination level on different multi-toxin types and concentrations in barley malt. Malt samples were subjected to two micromalting regimes—steeping water change and the other with no steeping water change. Malt was contaminated with different F. graminearum contamination levels (0%, 10%, and 20%). The results indicate that malt with higher F. graminearum contamination levels ensured higher concentrations of toxins. Higher fungal metabolite concentrations were determined in samples exposed to freshly-changed steeping water, especially zearalenone and its derivates whose values were three to four times higher than in samples with no water change. Zearalenone-4-sulfate showed four (in 10% contamination) and even thirty times (in 20% contamination) higher concentrations than in samples with no water change. Water change during malting resulted in higher levels of multi-toxins in the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops)
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