Next Article in Journal
The Effect of the Addition of Apulian black Chickpea Flour on the Nutritional and Qualitative Properties of Durum Wheat-Based Bakery Products
Next Article in Special Issue
In-Depth Qualitative Analysis of Lime Essential Oils Using the Off-Line Combination of Normal Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
Previous Article in Journal
Formation of Food Grade Microemulsion with Rice Glycosphingolipids to Enhance the Oral Absorption of Coenzyme Q10
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tracing the Geographical Origin of Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy
Open AccessReview

Microwave-Based Technique for Fast and Reliable Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Food, with a Special Focus on Hydrocarbon Contaminants

Department of Agri-Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100503
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection Methods for Food Fraud and Food Contaminants)
Due to food complexity and the low amount at which contaminants are usually present in food, their analytical determination can be particularly challenging. Conventional sample preparation methods making use of large solvent volumes and involving intensive sample manipulation can lead to sample contamination or losses of analytes. To overcome the disadvantages of conventional sample preparation, many researchers put their efforts toward the development of rapid and environmental-friendly methods, minimizing solvent consumption. In this context, microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) has obtained, over the last years, increasing attention from analytical chemists and it has been successfully utilized for the extraction of various contaminants from different foods. In the first part of this review, an updated overview of the microwave-based extraction technique used for rapid and efficient extraction of organic contaminants from food is given. The principle of the technique, a description of available instrumentation, optimization of parameters affecting the extraction yield, as well as integrated techniques for further purification/enrichment prior to the analytical determination, are illustrated. In the second part of the review, the latest applications concerning the use of microwave energy for the determination of hydrocarbon contaminants—namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH)—are reported and critically overviewed and future trends are delineated. View Full-Text
Keywords: food contaminants; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH); microwave-assisted extraction (MAE); microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) food contaminants; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH); microwave-assisted extraction (MAE); microwave-assisted saponification (MAS)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Moret, S.; Conchione, C.; Srbinovska, A.; Lucci, P. Microwave-Based Technique for Fast and Reliable Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Food, with a Special Focus on Hydrocarbon Contaminants. Foods 2019, 8, 503.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop