Special Issue "Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Patrícia Rijo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CBIOS Lusófona's Research Center for Biosciences and Health Technologies, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: natural products chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Célia Faustino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
iMed.ULisboa – Research Institute for Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (ULisboa), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: colloidal systems; hydrocolloids; surface active agents; lipoamino acids; rheology; food chemistry; functional foods; nanoformulations
Dr. Maria Rosário Bronze
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (iBET), Apartado 127, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal
2. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: food; health prevention; quality; security; phytochemicals; bioacessibility; bioavailability; bioactivity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The food matrix is a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, antioxidants, aromas, pigments, minerals, water, and other metabolites. Instrumental analysis is essential for the accurate determination of components, residues, and contaminants in food products in order to ensure quality and safety requirements. In this Special Issue, we will publish innovative research and review papers on instrumental analytical techniques applied to the characterization of food composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes. Extraction methods (microextraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted processes, etc), spectroscopic techniques (ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption, atomic emission and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy), chromatography (gas chromatography, high performance and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and ion chromatography), mass spectrometry and hyphenated techniques, electroanalytical methods (potentiometry, voltammetry, polarography, coulometry, and conductometry), capillary electrophoresis, thermal analysis, molecular techniques, textural and rheological analysis, microscopy (confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and atomic force microscopy), miniaturization, automation, and multivariate analysis (flow injection analysis, microfluidics, chemosensors, and biosensors) are specifically welcome.

Prof. Patrícia Rijo
Prof. Célia Faustino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food products
  • Instrumental analysis
  • Spectroscopic techniques
  • Chromatography
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Hyphenated techniques
  • Electroanalytical methods
  • Capillary electrophoresis
  • Molecular techniques
  • Rheology

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Instrumentation for Routine Analysis of Acrylamide in French Fries: Assessing Limitations for Adoption
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092038 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
The purpose of this experimental review was to detect acrylamide in French fries using methods most adaptable to the food process industry for quality control assessment of products. French fries were prepared at different cook times using the same fryer oil over a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this experimental review was to detect acrylamide in French fries using methods most adaptable to the food process industry for quality control assessment of products. French fries were prepared at different cook times using the same fryer oil over a five-day period to assess the influence of oil degradation and monitor trends in acrylamide formation. Acrylamide detection was performed using LC-MS, GC-MS and FT-NIR. The low levels of acrylamide produced during frying, low molecular weight of the analyte, and complexity of the potato matrix make routine acrylamide measurement challenging in a well-outfitted analytical lab with trained personnel. The findings of this study are presented from the perspective of pros and cons of each acrylamide measurement method in enough detail for food processors to appraise the method that may work best for them based on their available instrumentation and extent of personnel training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Characterization of Kefir Produced in Household Conditions: Physicochemical and Nutritional Profile, and Storage Stability
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051057 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Kefir, a traditional fermented food, has numerous health benefits due to its unique chemical composition, which is reflected in its excellent nutritional value. Physicochemical and microbial composition of kefir obtained from fermented milk are influenced by the type of the milk, grain to [...] Read more.
Kefir, a traditional fermented food, has numerous health benefits due to its unique chemical composition, which is reflected in its excellent nutritional value. Physicochemical and microbial composition of kefir obtained from fermented milk are influenced by the type of the milk, grain to milk ratio, time and temperature of fermentation, and storage conditions. It is crucial that kefir characteristics are maintained during storage since continuous metabolic activities of residual kefir microbiota may occur. This study aimed to examine the nutritional profile of kefir produced in traditional in use conditions by fermentation of ultra-high temperature pasteurized (UHT) semi-skimmed cow milk using argentinean kefir grains and compare the stability and nutritional compliance of freshly made and refrigerated kefir. Results indicate that kefir produced under home use conditions maintains the expected characteristics with respect to the physicochemical parameters and composition, both after fermentation and after refrigerated storage. This work further contributes to the characterization of this food product that is so widely consumed around the world by focusing on kefir that was produced in a typical household setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Modelling and Classification of Apple Textural Attributes Using Sensory, Instrumental and Compositional Analyses
Foods 2021, 10(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020384 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
Textural characteristics of fruit are important for their quality, storability, and consumer acceptance. While texture can be evaluated instrumentally or sensorially, instrumental measurements are preferred if they can be reliably related to human perception. The objectives of this research were to validate instrumental [...] Read more.
Textural characteristics of fruit are important for their quality, storability, and consumer acceptance. While texture can be evaluated instrumentally or sensorially, instrumental measurements are preferred if they can be reliably related to human perception. The objectives of this research were to validate instrumental measurements with sensory determinations, develop a classification scheme to group apples by their textural characteristics, and create models to predict sensory attributes from instrumental and compositional analyses. The textural characteristics (crispness, hardness, juiciness, and skin toughness) of 12 apple cultivars were evaluated on new and established cultivars. Fruit was also evaluated using five instrumental measurements from TA.XTplus Texture Analyzer, and three compositional determinations. The experiment was repeated for analysis and validation purposes. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that 95.88% of the variation in the instrumental determinations could be explained by two components (PC 1 and PC 2); which were highly correlated with flesh firmness and skin strength, respectively. Four textural groups of apples were identified, and the accuracy of classification was established at 94.44% by using linear discriminant analysis. The predictive models that were developed between the sensory and instrumental-compositional data explained more than 85% of the variation in the data for hardness and crispness, while models for juiciness and skin toughness were more complex. The work should assist industry personnel to reduce time-consuming and costly sensory testing, yet have an appreciation of the textural traits as perceived by the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Quantitative and Confirmatory Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Cereal Grains and Legumes by Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2021, 10(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010078 - 03 Jan 2021
Viewed by 874
Abstract
For controlling pesticide residues in food and ensuring food safety, multiresidue methods that can monitor a wide range of pesticides in various types of foods are required for regulatory monitoring. In this study, to demonstrate the applicability of liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
For controlling pesticide residues in food and ensuring food safety, multiresidue methods that can monitor a wide range of pesticides in various types of foods are required for regulatory monitoring. In this study, to demonstrate the applicability of liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–QTOF-MS) for quantitative and confirmatory analysis of pesticide residues in cereal grains and legumes, the LC–QTOF-MS method using full-scan acquisition was validated for 151 pesticides in brown rice, soybeans, and peanuts at a spiked level of 0.01 mg/kg. With the exception of 5 out of 151 target pesticides, sufficiently high signal intensities were obtained at 0.005 μg/mL (corresponding to 0.01 mg/kg). Trueness was in the range 70–95%, with intra- and inter-day precisions below 16% and 24%, respectively, with the exception of 7 pesticides in brown rice, 10 pesticides in soybeans, and 9 pesticides in peanuts. No interfering peaks were observed near the retention times of the target pesticides. Furthermore, information on accurate fragment-ion masses obtained by a data-independent acquisition enabled unambiguous confirmation. The results suggest that the LC-QTOF-MS method is suitable for pesticide residues’ analysis of cereal grains and legumes, and can be utilized for regulatory routine analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Grape Pomace: A Potential Ingredient for the Human Diet
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121772 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
The industrial production of wine generates annually tons of waste that can and must be properly reused to reduce its polluting load ad increase the availability of passive ingredients to be used in human nutrition. Grape pomace, a by-product of winemaking, beyond being [...] Read more.
The industrial production of wine generates annually tons of waste that can and must be properly reused to reduce its polluting load ad increase the availability of passive ingredients to be used in human nutrition. Grape pomace, a by-product of winemaking, beyond being of nutritional value is a bioactive source with high potential value and benefits for human health. Having as main goal the preliminary perception of the potential use of this by-product, the aim of this study was the characterization of eight different grape pomaces. In this sense, ash content, relative ash, moisture, pH, microorganisms, metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and semi-metal (As) were reported. The parameter that limits the daily amount ingested of this product is its arsenic content, a non-essential element that belongs to the group of semi-metal. Considering the obtained results and in the light of the restrictions imposed through the legislation in regulations set by the European Commission, the inclusion of grape pomace in the industrial production of foodstuffs could be a step towards the future of human nutrition and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
Article
Analysis of Caffeine, Chlorogenic Acid, Trigonelline, and Volatile Compounds in Cold Brew Coffee Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Solid-Phase Microextraction—Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121746 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
This study investigated the non-volatile and volatile compounds in samples of cold brew (CB) coffee, coffee from a coffee shop (CS), ready-to-drink (RTD) coffee, and brewed coffee from a coffee maker (CM). The volatile compounds were identified using headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas [...] Read more.
This study investigated the non-volatile and volatile compounds in samples of cold brew (CB) coffee, coffee from a coffee shop (CS), ready-to-drink (RTD) coffee, and brewed coffee from a coffee maker (CM). The volatile compounds were identified using headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the samples were treated with high-performance liquid chromatography for the quantification of caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline. The results indicate that RTD coffee had the lowest amounts of non-volatile compounds. A total of 36 volatile compounds were semi-quantified; the contents of most volatile compounds in CS and Folgers samples were higher than those in CB and CM samples. The contents of 25 volatile compounds in the CM sample were higher than those in the CB sample. The consumer and instrumental data show that the bitterness intensity was correlated with pyrazines, pyrroles, and guaiacols, whereas the coffeeID intensity was correlated with phenols. Semi-quantification and principal component analysis results show that the extraction method and temperature could influence the volatile compound profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Simultaneous Quantitative Assessment of Ochratoxin A, Patulin, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, and Bisphenol A in Fruit Drinks Using HPLC with Diode Array-Fluorimetric Detection
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111633 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
The analysis of regulated contaminants in fruit drinks often requires suitable validated and rapid analytical methods for cost-effective food control, and is of considerable interest among the fruit beverage industry. This study demonstrated a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography approach for the [...] Read more.
The analysis of regulated contaminants in fruit drinks often requires suitable validated and rapid analytical methods for cost-effective food control, and is of considerable interest among the fruit beverage industry. This study demonstrated a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography approach for the simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and bisphenol A (BPA) in various fruit drinks. The separations were achieved using a C18 core-shell column with both photo-diode array and fluorimetric detections connected in series. A gradient system consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 1.2 mL min−1, thermostated at 35 °C, provided fast elution with run time <9 min. Sample pretreatment was optimised to enable extraction of all analytes from fruit drink matrices. The optimised method was validated. Correlation coefficients of R > 0.99 were achieved with detection limits of 0.5 ng mL−1 (OTA), 1.1 ng mL−1 (PAT), 7.9 ng mL−1 (HMF), and 1.0 ng mL−1 (BPA). Recoveries ranged from 82% to 99%. Good relative standard deviations for intraday retention times (≤3.54%) and peak area (≤3.5%) were achieved. The developed multi-contaminants analysis method was successfully applied to determine OTA, PAT, HMF, and BPA in various fruit drinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Differentiating Breast Myopathies through Color and Texture Analyses in Broiler
Foods 2020, 9(6), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060824 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Wooden breast (WB), white striping (WS) and spaghetti meat (SM) are breast myopathies of the Pectoralis major that greatly affect meat quality in broilers. To differentiate color and texture characteristics with instrumental methods, some of them applied for the first time in this [...] Read more.
Wooden breast (WB), white striping (WS) and spaghetti meat (SM) are breast myopathies of the Pectoralis major that greatly affect meat quality in broilers. To differentiate color and texture characteristics with instrumental methods, some of them applied for the first time in this species, 300 carcasses were randomly chosen from an abattoir from five different flocks from the same farm, at a rate of 60 carcasses from each flock. Twenty-four hours after slaughter, both side breasts were dissected, and yields calculated. Color was measured on the surface of the breast with a spectrocolorimeter and reflectance values obtained. Texture was measured on raw meat with a modified compression test that hinders the fiber from expanding transversally and a texture profile analysis (TPA) and also on cooked meat with a Warner–Bratzler shear and a TPA. Color differs between severity degrees, increasing redness (from −1.77 to −1.32 in WB) and, especially, yellowness (from 5.00 to 6.73 in WS) and chroma (from 5.75 to 7.22 in SM) with the severity of the myopathy. The subtraction R630 minus R580 was found to be a useful index to differentiate breast myopathies degrees. The modified compression test can be considered an effective tool to assess the hardness of different structures in each myopathy. Texture differences in the myopathies are better assessed in raw than in cooked meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
Article
Quantification of Morpholine in Peel and Pulp of Apples and Oranges by Gas Chromatography−Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2020, 9(6), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060746 - 05 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Morpholine salts of fatty acids have been used in wax coatings on the surfaces of fruit and vegetable commodities in China and the United States, etc. However, morpholine usage was prohibited in many other countries because of safety concerns. We optimized analytical methods [...] Read more.
Morpholine salts of fatty acids have been used in wax coatings on the surfaces of fruit and vegetable commodities in China and the United States, etc. However, morpholine usage was prohibited in many other countries because of safety concerns. We optimized analytical methods to determine morpholine in the peel and pulp of fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This morpholine analysis method was applied to real samples of apples, citrus fruits, and vegetables from Korea, China, and the U.S. The method was validated using apple and citrus fruit peels and pulp. The method detection limit (MDL) was 1.3–3.3 µg/kg. The recovery rates of morpholine were 88.6–107.2% over a fortified level of 10–400 µg/kg. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.4–9.4% and 1.5–2.8%, respectively. The morpholine concentrations were n.d. (not detected)–11.19 and n.d. (not detected)–12.82 µg/kg in apple and citrus peels, respectively. Morpholine was not detected in citrus or apple pulp samples or in vegetable samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Assessment of the Effect of Secondary Fixation on the Structure of Meat Products Prepared for Scanning Electron Microscopy
Foods 2020, 9(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040487 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
The aim of the research was to verify the necessity of secondary fixation with osmium tetroxide in various types of meat products and evaluation of structural changes of products using different fixation procedures. The material for the study consisted of 11 types of [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to verify the necessity of secondary fixation with osmium tetroxide in various types of meat products and evaluation of structural changes of products using different fixation procedures. The material for the study consisted of 11 types of meat products that were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with two different methods of chemical fixation. The first method included the usual processing of biological samples: glutaraldehyde primary fixation, the use of a buffer, secondary fixation by osmium tetroxide (OsO4), buffer, and dehydration using ethanol of increasing concentrations. The second method comprised the glutaraldehyde primary fixation and dehydration using the ethanol of increasing concentrations only. The results unambiguously suggest that the main difference between these methods is in fixation and visibility of fat. Our analysis principally suggests that fixation of the product with OsO4 allows the tracking of all components (fat droplets, muscle fibers, connective tissue) in meat products. At the same time, our results also support the possibility that the secondary fixation can be skipped during the analysis, where the main objection is an observation of lipid-free structures of the meat products (e.g., connection between muscle and starches or spices) or meat products with an insignificant amount of fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Changes in Metabolic Profiles of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) Muscle during Cold Storage as a Freshness Evaluation Tool Based on GC-MS Metabolomics
Foods 2019, 8(10), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100511 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
We applied metabolomics to the evaluation of yellowtail muscle as a new freshness evaluation method for fish meat. Metabolites from yellowtail ordinary and dark muscle (DM) stored at 0 °C and 5 °C were subjected to metabolomics for primary metabolites based on gas [...] Read more.
We applied metabolomics to the evaluation of yellowtail muscle as a new freshness evaluation method for fish meat. Metabolites from yellowtail ordinary and dark muscle (DM) stored at 0 °C and 5 °C were subjected to metabolomics for primary metabolites based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the annotated metabolites, we created statistically significant models for storage time prediction for all storage conditions by orthogonal partial least squares analysis, using storage time as the y-variable. DM is difficult to evaluate using the K value method, the predominant existing freshness evaluation method. However, in the proposed method, the metabolic component profiles of DM changed depending on storage time. Important metabolites determined from variables important for prediction (VIP) values included various metabolites, such as amino acids and sugars, in addition to nucleic-acid-related substances, especially inosine and hypoxanthine. Therefore, metabolomics, which comprehensively analyses different molecular species, has potential as a new freshness evaluation method that can objectively evaluate conditions of stored fish meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Identifying Freshness of Spinach Leaves Stored at Different Temperatures Using Hyperspectral Imaging
Foods 2019, 8(9), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090356 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Spinach is prone to spoilage in the course of preservation. Spinach leaves stored at different temperatures for different durations will have varying degrees of freshness. In order to monitor the freshness of spinach leaves during storage, a rapid and non-destructive method—hyperspectral imaging technology—was [...] Read more.
Spinach is prone to spoilage in the course of preservation. Spinach leaves stored at different temperatures for different durations will have varying degrees of freshness. In order to monitor the freshness of spinach leaves during storage, a rapid and non-destructive method—hyperspectral imaging technology—was applied in this study. Visible near-infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR) (380–1030 nm) and near-infrared reflectance (NIR) (874–1734 nm) hyperspectral imaging systems were used. Spinach leaves preserved at different temperatures with different durations (0, 3, 6, 9 days at 4 °C and 0, 1, 2 days at 20 °C) were studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted as a qualitative analysis method. The second-order derivative spectra were utilized to select effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme learning machine (ELM) were used to build models based on full spectra and effective wavelengths. All three models achieved good results, with accuracies above 92% for both Vis-NIR spectra and NIR spectra. ELM obtained the best results, with all accuracies reaching 100%. The overall results indicate the possibility of the freshness identification of spinach preserved at different temperatures for different durations using two kinds of hyperspectral imaging systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Review

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Review
Analytical Rheology of Honey: A State-of-the-Art Review
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081709 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Honey has been used as a nutraceutical product since ancient times due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Honey rheology influences its organoleptic properties and is relevant for processing and quality control. This review summarizes the rheological behaviour of honeys of different botanical [...] Read more.
Honey has been used as a nutraceutical product since ancient times due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Honey rheology influences its organoleptic properties and is relevant for processing and quality control. This review summarizes the rheological behaviour of honeys of different botanical source(s) and geographical locations that has been described in the literature, focusing on the relation between rheological parameters, honey composition (moisture, water activity, sugar content, presence of colloidal matter) and experimental conditions (temperature, time, stress, shear rate). Both liquid and crystallized honeys have been addressed. Firstly, the main mathematical models used to describe honey rheological behaviour are presented highlighting moisture and temperature effects. Then, rheological data from the literature regarding distinct honey types from different countries is analysed and results are compared. Although most honeys are Newtonian fluids, interesting shear-thinning and thixotropic as well as anti-thixotropic behaviour have been described for some types of honey. Rheological parameters have also been successfully applied to identify honey adulteration and to discriminate between different honey types. Several chemometric techniques have also been employed to obtain the complex relationships between honey physicochemical and rheological properties, including partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Review
Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Valuable Tool to Tackle Food Analysis: A Literature Review on Coffee, Dairies, Honey, Olive Oil and Wine
Foods 2021, 10(2), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020477 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Nowadays, food adulteration and authentication are topics of utmost importance for consumers, food producers, business operators and regulatory agencies. Therefore, there is an increasing search for rapid, robust and accurate analytical techniques to determine the authenticity and to detect adulteration and misrepresentation. Mid-infrared [...] Read more.
Nowadays, food adulteration and authentication are topics of utmost importance for consumers, food producers, business operators and regulatory agencies. Therefore, there is an increasing search for rapid, robust and accurate analytical techniques to determine the authenticity and to detect adulteration and misrepresentation. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR), often associated with chemometric techniques, offers a fast and accurate method to detect and predict food adulteration based on the fingerprint characteristics of the food matrix. In the first part of this review the basic concepts of infrared spectroscopy, sampling techniques, as well as an overview of chemometric tools are summarized. In the second part, recent applications of MIR spectroscopy to the analysis of foods such as coffee, dairy products, honey, olive oil and wine are discussed, covering a timespan from 2010 to mid-2020. The literature gathered in this article clearly reveals that the MIR spectroscopy associated with attenuated total reflection acquisition mode and different chemometric tools have been broadly applied to address quality, authenticity and adulteration issues. This technique has the advantages of being simple, fast and easy to use, non-destructive, environmentally friendly and, in the future, it can be applied in routine analyses and official food control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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