Special Issue "The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Charalampos Proestos
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15771 Athens, Greece
Interests: antioxidants; bioactive compounds; essential oils; plant extracts; food chemistry; food analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature has always been, and still is, a source of foods and ingredients that are beneficial to human health. Nowadays, plant extracts are increasingly becoming important additives in the food industry due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that delay the development of off-flavors and improve the shelf life and color stability of food products. Due to their natural origin, they are excellent candidates to replace synthetic compounds, which are generally considered to have toxicological and carcinogenic effects. The efficient extraction of these compounds from their natural sources, along with the determination of their activity in the commercialized products, have been great challenges for researchers and food chain contributors to develop products with positive effects on human health. The objective of this Special Issue is to highlight the existing evidence regarding the various potential benefits of the consumption of plant extracts and plant extract-based products, with emphasis on in vivo works and epidemiological studies, the application of plant extracts to improve shelf-life, the nutritional and health-related properties of foods, and the extraction techniques that can be used to obtain bioactive compounds from plant extracts.

Prof. Charalampos Proestos
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • bioactive compounds
  • human health
  • extraction techniques
  • in vivo studies
  • in vitro studies
  • epidemiological studies

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Bud-Derivatives, a Novel Source of Polyphenols and How Different Extraction Processes Affect Their Composition
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101343 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
The use of herbal food supplements, as a concentrate form of vegetable extracts, increased so much over the past years to count them among the relevant sources of dietetic polyphenols. Bud-derivatives are a category of botanicals perceived as a “new entry” in this [...] Read more.
The use of herbal food supplements, as a concentrate form of vegetable extracts, increased so much over the past years to count them among the relevant sources of dietetic polyphenols. Bud-derivatives are a category of botanicals perceived as a “new entry” in this sector since they are still poorly studied. Due to the lack of a manufacturing process specification, very different products can be found on the market in terms of their polyphenolic profile depending on the experimental conditions of manufacturing. In this research two different manufacturing processes, using two different protocols, and eight species (Carpinus betulus L., Cornus mas L., Ficus carica L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Larix decidua Mill., Pinus montana Mill., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Tilia tomentosa Moench), commonly used to produce bud-derivatives, have been considered as a case study. An untargeted spectroscopic fingerprint of the extracts, coupled to chemometrics, provide to be a useful tool to identify these botanicals. The targeted phytochemical fingerprint by HPLC provided a screening of the main bud-derivatives polyphenolic classes highlighting a high variability depending on both method and protocol used. Nevertheless, ultrasonic extraction proved to be less sensitive to the different extraction protocols than conventional maceration regarding the extract polyphenolic profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant, and Inhibitory Activities of Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib and Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Sm.
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091222 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
Kadsura spp. in the Schisandraceae family are woody vine plants, which produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant activities. Despite their valuable food applications, Kadsura spp. are only able to grow naturally in the forest, and reproduction handled by [...] Read more.
Kadsura spp. in the Schisandraceae family are woody vine plants, which produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant activities. Despite their valuable food applications, Kadsura spp. are only able to grow naturally in the forest, and reproduction handled by botanists is still in progress with a very low growth rate. Subsequently, Kadsura spp. were listed as endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 2011. Two different Kadsura spp., including Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib, are mostly found in northern Thailand. These rare, wild fruits are unrecognizable to outsiders, and there have only been limited investigations into its biological properties. This study, therefore, aimed to comparatively investigate the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against the key enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and Alzheimer’s disease (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1)) in different fruit parts (exocarp, mesocarp (edible part), seed, and core) of Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib. The results suggested that Kadsura spp. extracts were rich in flavonol (quercetin), flavanone (naringenin), anthocyanidins (cyanidin and delphinidin), and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (kuromanin), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside (ideain), cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (keracyanin), and cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside (cyanin)). These flavonoids were found to be responsible for the high antioxidant activities and key enzyme inhibitions detected in Kadsura spp. extracts. The findings of the present study can support further development of Kadsura spp. as a potential source of phenolics and anti-oxidative agents with health benefits against diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Besides, exocarp and the core of Kadsura spp. exhibited higher phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and key enzyme inhibitory activities compared to the mesocarp and seeds, respectively. This information can promote the use of fruit parts other than the edible mesocarp for future food applications using Kadsura spp. rather than these being wasted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Viscozyme®-Treated Jujube Fruit
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081033 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba, commonly called jujube, has long been consumed for its health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of dietary supplementation of enzymatically hydrolyzed jujube against lung inflammation in mice. The macerated flesh [...] Read more.
The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba, commonly called jujube, has long been consumed for its health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of dietary supplementation of enzymatically hydrolyzed jujube against lung inflammation in mice. The macerated flesh of jujube was extracted with aqueous ethanol before and after Viscozyme treatment. The extract of enzyme-treated jujube, called herein hydrolyzed jujube extract (HJE), contained higher levels of quercetin, total phenolics, and flavonoids, and exhibited more effective radical-scavenging abilities in comparison to non-hydrolyzed jujube extract (NHJE). HJE treatment decreased production of inflammation-associated molecules, including nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated Raw 264.7 or differentiated THP-1 cells. HJE treatment also reduced expression of nuclear factor-κB and its downstream proteins in A549 human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, oral supplementation of 1.5 g of HJE per kg of body weight (BW) attenuated histological lung damage, decreased plasma cytokines, and inhibited expression of inflammatory proteins and oxidative stress mediators in the lungs of mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene at 50 mg/kg BW. Expression levels of antioxidant and cytoprotective factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1, were increased in lung and liver tissues from mice treated with HJE, compared to mice fed NHJE. These findings indicate that dietary HJE can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting cytokine release from macrophages and promoting antioxidant defenses in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of High Concentration of Bioactive Compounds Fragments from Euphorbia hirta L. Extract and Their Effect on Diabetes Mellitus
Foods 2020, 9(7), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070881 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study was performed to spray-dry the high concentration of bioactive compounds from Euphorbia hirta L. extracts that have antidiabetic activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four different extracts (crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract [...] Read more.
The present study was performed to spray-dry the high concentration of bioactive compounds from Euphorbia hirta L. extracts that have antidiabetic activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four different extracts (crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract) from the dried powder of Euphorbia hirta L. were determined using a spectrophotometer. After that, the fragment containing a high number of bioactive compounds underwent spray-dried microencapsulation to produce powder which had antidiabetic potential. The total phenolic content values of the crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract were 194.55 ± 0.82, 51.85 ± 3.12, 81.56 ± 1.72 and 214.21 ± 2.53 mg/g extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extracts showed total flavonoids 40.56 ± 7.27, 29.49 ± 1.66, 64.99 ± 2.60 and 91.69 ± 1.67 mg/g extract, as rutin equivalents. Ethyl acetate extract was mixed with 20% maltodextrin in a ratio of 1:10 to spray-dry microencapsulation. The results revealed that the moisture content, bulk density, color characteristic, solubility and hygroscopicity of the samples were 4.9567 ± 0.00577%, 0.3715 ± 0.01286 g/mL, 3.7367 ± 0.1424 Hue, 95.83 ± 1.44% and 9.9890 ± 1.4538 g H2O/100 g, respectively. The spray powder was inhibited 51.19% α-amylase at 10 mg/mL and reduced 51% in fast blood glucose (FBG) after 4 h treatment. Furthermore, the administration of spray powder for 15 days significantly lowered the fast blood glucose level in streptozotocin-diabetic mice by 23.32%, whereas, acarbose—a standard antidiabetic drug—and distilled water reduced the fast blood glucose level by 30.87% and 16.89%. Our results show that obtained Euphorbia hirta L. powder has potential antidiabetic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Antiproliferative Potential of Sideritis raeseri subps. raeseri Essential Oil
Foods 2020, 9(7), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070860 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Sideritis raeseri subps. raeseri essential oil (EO) against common food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and evaluate its antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The EO was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Sideritis raeseri subps. raeseri essential oil (EO) against common food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and evaluate its antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The EO was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents identified were geranyl-p-cymene (25.08%), geranyl-γ-terpinene (15.17%), and geranyl-linalool (14.04%). Initially, its activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas fragi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger was screened by the disk diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), non-inhibitory concentration (NIC), and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) values were determined. Growth inhibition of all microorganisms tested was documented, although it was significantly lower compared to gentamycin, ciproxin, and voriconazole, which were used as positive controls. In a next step, its direct antioxidant properties were examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and the IC50 values were determined. The potential cytoprotective activity of the oil against H2O2–induced oxidative stress and DNA damage was studied in human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells using the comet assay. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the oil was evaluated against a panel of cancer cell lines including A375, Caco2, PC3, and DU145 and the non-cancerous HaCaT cell line using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, and the EC50 values were determined. The oil demonstrated weak radical scavenging activity, noteworthy cytoprotective activity against H2O2–induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in HaCaT cells, and antiproliferative activity against all cell lines tested, being more sensitive against the in vitro model of skin melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Rice Bran Phenolic Extracts
Foods 2020, 9(6), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060829 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be linked to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary polyphenols have been demonstrated to contain potent bioactivity against specific inflammatory pathways. Rice bran (RB), a by-product generated [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be linked to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary polyphenols have been demonstrated to contain potent bioactivity against specific inflammatory pathways. Rice bran (RB), a by-product generated during the rice milling process, is normally used in animal feed or discarded due to its rancidity. However, RB is known to be abundant in bioactive polyphenols including phenolic acids. This study investigates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of RB phenolic extracts (25, 50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) on RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation such as malondialdehyde (MDA), intracellular reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-12, p70 (IL-12p70), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were measured in vitro. Treatment with RB extracts significantly decreased the production of MDA, intracellular reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12p70, and IFN-γ) when compared to the control. It is proposed that RB phenolic extracts, via their metal chelating properties and free radical scavenging activity, target pathways of oxidative stress and inflammation resulting in the alleviation of vascular inflammatory mediators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lemon Grass Essential Oil does not Modulate Cancer Cells Multidrug Resistance by Citral—Its Dominant and Strongly Antimicrobial Compound
Foods 2020, 9(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050585 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
With strong antimicrobial properties, citral has been repeatedly reported to be the dominant component of lemongrass essential oil. Here, we report on a comparison of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of citral and lemongrass essential oil. The lemongrass essential oil was prepared by [...] Read more.
With strong antimicrobial properties, citral has been repeatedly reported to be the dominant component of lemongrass essential oil. Here, we report on a comparison of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of citral and lemongrass essential oil. The lemongrass essential oil was prepared by the vacuum distillation of fresh Cymbopogon leaves, with a yield of 0.5% (w/w). Citral content was measured by gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and determined to be 63%. Antimicrobial activity was tested by the broth dilution method, showing strong activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. Citral was up to 100 times more active than the lemongrass essential oil. Similarly, both citral and essential oils inhibited bacterial communication and adhesion during P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilm formation; however, the biofilm prevention activity of citral was significantly higher. Both the essential oil and citral disrupted the maturated P. aeruginosa biofilm with the IC50 7.3 ± 0.4 and 0.1 ± 0.01 mL/L, respectively. Although it may seem that the citral is the main biologically active compound of lemongrass essential oil and the accompanying components have instead antagonistic effects, we determined that the lemongrass essential oil-sensitized methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and doxorubicin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells and that this activity was not caused by citral. A 1 mL/L dose of oil-sensitized MRSA to methicillin up to 9.6 times and a dose of 10 µL/L-sensitized ovarian carcinoma to doxorubicin up to 1.8 times. The mode of multidrug resistance modulation could be due to P-glycoprotein efflux pump inhibition. Therefore, the natural mixture of compounds present in the lemongrass essential oil provides beneficial effects and its direct use may be preferred to its use as a template for citral isolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Determination of Andrographolide and Related Compounds in Andrographis paniculata Extracts and Biological Evaluation of Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Foods 2019, 8(12), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120683 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extraction, isolation and characterization of Andrographis paniculata (A.p.) products were developed. Three natural diterpenes compounds were obtained and one was used for chemical modifications. Evaluation of their inhibition of TNFα induced NFκB transcriptional activity. A rapid analytical method for the determination [...] Read more.
Extraction, isolation and characterization of Andrographis paniculata (A.p.) products were developed. Three natural diterpenes compounds were obtained and one was used for chemical modifications. Evaluation of their inhibition of TNFα induced NFκB transcriptional activity. A rapid analytical method for the determination and quantitation of three diterpenoid lactones (andrographolide 1, didehydroandrographolide 2, neoandrographiside 3) found in A. paniculata extracts was investigated. After some optimizations on column type and injection solvent, the separation was achieved in 9 min on a monolithic Chromolith Performance RP18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 2 µm), with a gradient solvent system of water and methanol, UV detection at 220 nm and ELSD detection. The method was proved to be suitable for the quantitation of these three diterpenes in four different commercial Andrographis dietary supplements. The anti-inflammatory activities of a mixture of known composition have been evaluated showing differences in activity depending on the relative ratio of various diterpenes and also a possible synergic activity for some of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Studies of Fermented Korean Chung-Yang Hot Pepper Phenolics as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Relevant to Hypertension and Diabetes
Foods 2019, 8(10), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100498 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
This study was investigated to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. The fermented pepper water extract (FP) showed significantly higher [...] Read more.
This study was investigated to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition effect, and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of hot pepper water extracts both before and after their fermentation. The fermented pepper water extract (FP) showed significantly higher total phenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition effect, metal chelating activity and ACE inhibition activity compared to the non-fermented raw pepper water extract (RP) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the FP showed lower α-amylase and higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, but the RP showed similar levels of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Taken together, these results suggested that fermented pepper extract using water should be expected to have potentially inhibitory effects against both hyperglycemia and hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Phenolic Acids of Plant Origin—A Review on Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro (O/W Emulsion Systems) Along with Their in Vivo Health Biochemical Properties
Foods 2020, 9(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040534 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nature has generously offered a wide range of herbs (e.g., thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, basil) rich in many polyphenols and other phenolic compounds with strong antioxidant and biochemical properties. This paper focuses on several natural occurring phenolic acids (caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, [...] Read more.
Nature has generously offered a wide range of herbs (e.g., thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, basil) rich in many polyphenols and other phenolic compounds with strong antioxidant and biochemical properties. This paper focuses on several natural occurring phenolic acids (caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) and first gives an overview of their most common natural plant sources. A summary of the recently reported antioxidant activities of the phenolic acids in o/w emulsions is also provided as an in vitro lipid-based model system. Exploring the interfacial activity of phenolic acids could help to further elucidate their potential health properties against oxidative stress conditions of biological membranes (such as lipoproteins). Finally, this review reports on the latest literature evidence concerning specific biochemical properties of the examined phenolic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Berberis Plants—Drifting from Farm to Food Applications, Phytotherapy, and Phytopharmacology
Foods 2019, 8(10), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100522 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The genus Berberis includes about 500 different species and commonly grown in Europe, the United States, South Asia, and some northern areas of Iran and Pakistan. Leaves and fruits can be prepared as food flavorings, juices, and teas. Phytochemical analysis of these species [...] Read more.
The genus Berberis includes about 500 different species and commonly grown in Europe, the United States, South Asia, and some northern areas of Iran and Pakistan. Leaves and fruits can be prepared as food flavorings, juices, and teas. Phytochemical analysis of these species has reported alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds and oleanolic acid, among others. Moreover, p-cymene, limonene and ocimene as major compounds in essential oils were found by gas chromatography. Berberis is an important group of the plants having enormous potential in the food and pharmaceutical industry, since they possess several properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activities. Here we would like to review the biological properties of the phytoconstituents of this genus. We emphasize the cultivation control in order to obtain the main bioactive compounds, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in order to apply them for food preservation and for treating several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes or Alzheimer. However, further study is needed to confirm the biological efficacy as well as, the toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Targeting Gut Microbiota for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus by Dietary Natural Products
Foods 2019, 8(10), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100440 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is one of the biggest public health concerns worldwide, which includes type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus, and other rare forms of diabetes mellitus. Accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota is closely associated with the [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the biggest public health concerns worldwide, which includes type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus, and other rare forms of diabetes mellitus. Accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota is closely associated with the initiation and progression of diabetes mellitus. In addition, various dietary natural products and their bioactive components have exhibited anti-diabetic activity by modulating intestinal microbiota. This review addresses the relationship between gut microbiota and diabetes mellitus, and discusses the effects of natural products on diabetes mellitus and its complications by modulating gut microbiota, with special attention paid to the mechanisms of action. It is hoped that this review paper can be helpful for better understanding of the relationships among natural products, gut microbiota, and diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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