Next Article in Journal
Physicochemical, Sensorial and Microbiological Characterization of PoroCheese, an Artisanal Mexican Cheese Made from Raw Milk
Previous Article in Journal
Cognitive Function and Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Polyphenols in a Young Population: Is There a Relationship?
Previous Article in Special Issue
HPTLC-PCA Complementary to HRMS-PCA in the Case Study of Arbutus unedo Antioxidant Phenolic Profiling
Open AccessArticle

The Honey Volatile Code: A Collective Study and Extended Version

Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100508
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 14 October 2019 / Published: 17 October 2019
Background: The present study comprises the second part of a new theory related to honey authentication based on the implementation of the honey code and the use of chemometrics. Methods: One hundred and fifty-one honey samples of seven different botanical origins (chestnut, citrus, clover, eucalyptus, fir, pine, and thyme) and from five different countries (Egypt, Greece, Morocco, Portugal, and Spain) were subjected to analysis of mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Results: Results showed that 94 volatile compounds were identified and then semi-quantified. The most dominant classes of compounds were acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, phenolic volatiles, terpenoids, norisoprenoids, and hydrocarbons. The application of classification and dimension reduction statistical techniques to semi-quantified data of volatiles showed that honey samples could be distinguished effectively according to both botanical origin and the honey code (p < 0.05), with the use of hexanoic acid ethyl ester, heptanoic acid ethyl ester, octanoic acid ethyl ester, nonanoic acid ethyl ester, decanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid ethyl ester, tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, octanal, nonanal, decanal, lilac aldehyde C (isomer III), lilac aldehyde D (isomer IV), benzeneacetaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, 2-hydroxyisophorone, geranyl acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 1-(2-furanyl)-ethanone, octanol, decanol, nonanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 5-methyl-2-phenyl-hexenal, benzeneacetonitrile, nonane, and 5-methyl-4-nonene. Conclusions: New amendments in honey authentication and data handling procedures based on hierarchical classification strategies (HCSs) are exhaustively documented in the present study, supporting and flourishing the state of the art. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey variety; honey code; HS-SPME/GC-MS; data handling; data bank; chemometrics honey variety; honey code; HS-SPME/GC-MS; data handling; data bank; chemometrics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Karabagias, I.K.; Karabagias, V.K.; Badeka, A.V. The Honey Volatile Code: A Collective Study and Extended Version. Foods 2019, 8, 508.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop