Special Issue "Biochemical and Nutritional Changes during Food Processing and Storage"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Vibeke Orlien
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK-1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Interests: non-thermal technologies; food processing; protein modification; protein functionality; food product development; food chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Tomas Bolumar
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Guest Editor
Max Rubner Institute (Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food), Department of Safety and Quality of Meat; E.-C.-Baumann- Straße 20, 95326 Kulmbach, Germany
Interests: meat biochemistry and quality; meat processing and packaging; non-thermal food processing methods; emerging meat processing methods; high pressure processing (HPP); shockwave; pulsed electric fields(PEF); plant-based meats

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food processing by humans goes a long way back in time, e.g., heat for cooking was used 1.9 million years ago. However, now, meal preparation seems to be moving out of the home kitchen and pre-processed or processed/convenience food products are becoming a larger part of daily diet. In addition, consumers are progressively focusing on the impact of their food on health, and demand foods that have a high nutritional quality, aroma and natural flavor, similar to freshly-made products. Therefore, nutritional quality is concurrent with food safety, and sensory perception is becoming an increasingly-important factor in food choices. The human digestive tract disintegrates food in order for the nutrients to be released and be made available to the body. However, nutrients can undergo unwanted degradation upon processing and subsequent storage, negatively influencing the physiological effects. Different processing techniques will result in different food structures, thereby also affecting bioaccessibility and nutritional value. Hence, food scientists and industry have an increased interest in both conventional and innovative processing methods, which can provide products of good quality and of high nutritional value, along with a stable shelf life.

This Special Issue aims to shed some light on the latest knowledge about and developments within the effect of food processing and storage on changes of biochemical and nutritional compounds. Both, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Vibeke Orlien
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food processing
  • Process technology
  • Biochemical and nutritional changes
  • Food structure and nutritional properties
  • Food component bioaccessibility

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Biochemical and Nutritional Changes during Food Processing and Storage
Foods 2019, 8(10), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100494 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Domestic food processing goes a long way back in time, for example, heat for cooking was used 1 [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Packaging Methods on Protein Oxidation and Degradation of Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) During Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2019, 8(8), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080325 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of different packaging methods—namely, air packaging (AP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)—on the protein oxidation and degradation of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fillets during refrigerated storage. The carbonyl group, myofibril fragmentation index, free amino [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of different packaging methods—namely, air packaging (AP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)—on the protein oxidation and degradation of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fillets during refrigerated storage. The carbonyl group, myofibril fragmentation index, free amino acids, FTIR of myofibrillar proteins, and total protein SDS-PAGE were determined. The results showed that the protein oxidation degree of the fillets gradually increased as the storage time increased. The FTIR results indicated that the secondary structure transformed from an α-helix to an irregular curl. SDS-PAGE confirmed the degradation of the myosin heavy chain, and that myosin gradually occurred during refrigerated storage. Meanwhile, protein oxidation and degradation were highly correlated. Protein degradation was accelerated by protein oxidation in myofibrils, which included the increase of protein surface hydrophobicity and changes of the secondary structure. In fact, the protein oxidation and degradation of the grouper fillets were effectively inhibited by MAP and VP during refrigerated storage, and MAP (30% N2 and 70% CO2) had the best results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stabilization of Crystalline Carotenoids in Carrot Concentrate Powders: Effects of Drying Technology, Carrier Material, and Antioxidants
Foods 2019, 8(8), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080285 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Coloring concentrates of carotenoid-rich plant materials are currently used in the food industry to meet the consumer’s demand for natural substitutes for food colorants. The production of shelf-stable powders of such concentrates comes with particular challenges linked to the sensitivity of the active [...] Read more.
Coloring concentrates of carotenoid-rich plant materials are currently used in the food industry to meet the consumer’s demand for natural substitutes for food colorants. The production of shelf-stable powders of such concentrates comes with particular challenges linked to the sensitivity of the active component towards oxidation and the complexity of the composition and microstructure of such concentrates. In this study, different strategies for the stabilization of crystalline carotenoids as part of a natural carrot concentrate matrix during drying and storage were investigated. The evaluated approaches included spray- and freeze drying, the addition of functional additives, and oxygen free storage. Functional additives comprised carrier material (maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch) and antioxidants (mixed tocopherols, sodium ascorbate). Degradation and changes in the physical state of the carotenoid crystals were monitored during processing and storage. Carotenoid losses during processing were low (>5%) irrespective of the used technology and additives. During storage, samples stored in nitrogen showed the highest carotenoid retention (97–100%). The carotenoid retention in powders stored with air access varied between 12.3% ± 2.1% and 66.0% ± 5.4%, having been affected by the particle structure as well as the formulation components used. The comparative evaluation of the tested strategies allows a more targeted design of processing and formulation of functional carrot concentrate powders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pulsed Electric Field and Ohmic Heating Pretreatments on Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit and Vegetable Juices
Foods 2019, 8(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070247 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The objective of this work was to optimize pulsed electric field (PEF) or ohmic heating (OH) application for carrot and apple mashes treatment at different preheating temperatures (40, 60 or 80 °C). The effect of tissue disintegration on the properties of recovered juices [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to optimize pulsed electric field (PEF) or ohmic heating (OH) application for carrot and apple mashes treatment at different preheating temperatures (40, 60 or 80 °C). The effect of tissue disintegration on the properties of recovered juices was quantified, taking into account the colour change, the antioxidant activity and the enzyme activity of peroxidase (POD) in both carrot and apple juice and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in apple juice. Lower ΔE and an increase of the antioxidant activity were obtained for juice samples treated with temperature at 80 °C with or without PEF and OH pretreatment compared with those of untreated samples. The inactivation by 90% for POD and PPO was achieved when a temperature of 80 °C was applied for both carrot and apple mash. A better retention of plant secondary metabolites from carrot and apple mashes could be achieved by additional PEF or OH application. Obtained results are the basis for the development of targeted processing concepts considering the release, inactivation and retention of ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Chemical Structure and the Presence of Ascorbic Acid on Anthocyanins Stability and Spectral Properties in Purified Model Systems
Foods 2019, 8(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060207 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The loss of color pigment is an important quality factor of food products. This work aimed to systematically study, in purified model systems, the influence of anthocyanins’ structure (by increasing the size of the conjugated sugar) and the presence of ascorbic acid on [...] Read more.
The loss of color pigment is an important quality factor of food products. This work aimed to systematically study, in purified model systems, the influence of anthocyanins’ structure (by increasing the size of the conjugated sugar) and the presence of ascorbic acid on their stability and spectral properties during storage at two pH levels relevant to medium and high acid foods (6.5 and 4.5, respectively). Anthocyanins (cyanidin (Cy), cyanidin 3-O-β-glucoside (Cy3G) and cyanidin 3-O-β-rutinoside (Cy3R)) displayed first-order degradation rates, presenting higher stability in acidic medium and enhanced stability with increasing size of conjugated sugar. The addition of ascorbic acid resulted in significantly enhanced degradation. Changes in ultra violet visible (UV-VIS) spectral properties presented a decrease in typical color intensity and pointed towards formation of degradation products. Identification and kinetics of formation for cyanidin degradation products were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography system-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variations in Amino Acid and Protein Profiles in White versus Brown Teff (Eragrostis Tef) Seeds, and Effect of Extraction Methods on Protein Yields
Foods 2019, 8(6), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060202 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Data on variations in amino acid compositions and protein profiles among white and brown teff, a grain of growing interest, is either limited or contradicting at the moment. In this study, three white (Addis-W, Mekel-W and Debre-W) and three brown (Addis-B, Mekel-B and [...] Read more.
Data on variations in amino acid compositions and protein profiles among white and brown teff, a grain of growing interest, is either limited or contradicting at the moment. In this study, three white (Addis-W, Mekel-W and Debre-W) and three brown (Addis-B, Mekel-B and Debre-B) teff seed samples were used for whole flour amino acid analysis and protein fractionation with three different methods. White and brown seed types showed different physical changes during protein extraction. Brown teff displayed higher essential amino acid content than white with lysine present in high concentration in both seed types. Extraction with tert-butanol increased prolamin yields in teff compared to ethanol. The major protein fraction in teff was glutelin with white teff containing higher glutelin proportion than brown. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed clear genetic variability between white and brown teff seed types. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary
The Effect of Processing on Digestion of Legume Proteins
Foods 2019, 8(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060224 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The domestic processing methods, soaking, cooking (traditional, microwave, pressure), and baking and the industrial processing, autoclaving, baking, and extrusion are used to improve consumption of legumes. The growing awareness of both health and sustainability turns the focus on protein (bio)availability. This paper reports [...] Read more.
The domestic processing methods, soaking, cooking (traditional, microwave, pressure), and baking and the industrial processing, autoclaving, baking, and extrusion are used to improve consumption of legumes. The growing awareness of both health and sustainability turns the focus on protein (bio)availability. This paper reports the effect of these processing methods on the legume protein digestibility. Overall, the protein digestibility increases after processing by the different methods. However, since both the type of legume and the applied methods differ it cannot be concluded which specific method is best for the individual legume type. Full article
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