Special Issue "Current Strategies to Improve the Nutritional and Physical Quality of Baked Goods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mario Martinez Martinez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering and Physical Sciences. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
Interests: carbohydrate chemistry; high shear extrusion technology; starch digestion; food textural properties; fruit and vegetable by-products as nutritional improvers; plant-based meat analogs
Prof. Manuel Gomez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Technology Area, Department of Agroforestry Engineering, University of Valladolid, 50 Avda. Madrid, 34071 Palencia, Spain
Interests: gluten-free; sugar free; fat reduction; flour quality; fiber enrichment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The lifestyle of humans is rapidly changing, and, correspondingly, their needs and the current and future food market mega-trends. It is worth mentioning: 1) the preference for natural, simple and flexible diets that drive further expansion of plant-focused formulations, 2) the focus on food sustainability (food waste reduction), 3) and the interest in healthy eating as the basis for good health. The hectic routine and rapid urbanization in developed and developing regions, respectively, have shifted consumer’s preferences towards bread and baked foods, which, interestingly, are often high in sugars and are categorized as having a high glycemic index. Therefore, it is of major importance to address the technological challenges of manufacturing baked goods with high physical and sensory quality that result in positive metabolic responses. This Special Issue seeks to provide a fundamental understanding and novel strategies to improve the nutritional properties of baked goods, including a decrease in starch bioaccesibility, sugar reduction, increase in fiber and/or protein content, mineral fortification and the improvement of phytochemical bioactivity, among others. This Special Issue will also cover studies on the physical and sensory improvements of baked goods that may provide a mechanistic understanding to minimize the loss of quality after the incorporation of nutritional-improving ingredients, such as edible by-products, proteins or fibers. Last, but not least, studies focused on the reduction of additives (clean label) or fat and on the use of sourdough to improve the sensory properties of baked goods will also be welcome.

Dr. Mario Martinez Martinez
Prof. Manuel Gomez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cereal and pulse flours
  • Starch digestion and glycemic response in baked goods
  • Dietary fiber in baked goods
  • Phytochemicals, micronutrients and proteins in baked goods
  • Food by-products and waste reduction
  • Rheological, textural and sensory improvement of baked goods
  • Sugar free, fat reduction and gluten-free baked goods
  • Whole grain baked goods
  • Enzymes in baked goods

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Current Trends in the Realm of Baking: When Indulgent Consumers Demand Healthy Sustainable Foods
Foods 2019, 8(10), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100518 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The term “baked goods” encompasses multiple food products made from flour (typically wheat flour) [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Tempering Improves Flour Properties of Refined Intermediate Wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)
Foods 2019, 8(8), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080337 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate [...] Read more.
Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate wheatgrass flour properties, namely composition, color, solvent retention capacity, starch damage, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Changes in flour attributes were evaluated via a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, with factors targeting moisture (comparing un-tempered controls to samples of 12% and 14% target moisture), time (4, 8, and 24 h), and temperature (30 and 45 °C). All investigated parameters were significantly affected by target moisture; however, samples tempered to 12% moisture showed few differences to those tempered to 14%. Similarly, neither tempering time nor temperature exerted pronounced effects on most flour properties, indicating water uptake was fast and not dependent on temperature within the investigated range. Lactic acid retention capacity significantly correlated with ash (r = −0.739, p < 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (r = −0.746, p < 0.01), polyphenol oxidase activity (r = −0.710, p < 0.01), starch content (r = 0.841, p < 0.01), and starch damage (r = 0.842, p < 0.01), but not with protein (r = 0.357, p > 0.05). In general, tempering resulted in flour with less bran contamination but only minor losses in protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological Properties of Wheat–Flaxseed Composite Flours Assessed by Mixolab and Their Relation to Quality Features
Foods 2019, 8(8), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080333 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
The effect of adding brown and golden flaxseed variety flours (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% w/w) to wheat flours of different quality for bread-making on Mixolab dough rheological properties and bread quality was studied. The flaxseed–wheat composite flour parameters determined [...] Read more.
The effect of adding brown and golden flaxseed variety flours (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% w/w) to wheat flours of different quality for bread-making on Mixolab dough rheological properties and bread quality was studied. The flaxseed–wheat composite flour parameters determined such as fat, protein (PR), ash and carbohydrates (CHS) increased by increasing the level of flaxseed whereas the moisture content (MC) decreased. The Falling Number values (FN) determined for the wheat–flaxseed composite flours increased by increasing the level of flaxseed. Within Mixolab data, greater differences were attributed to the eight parameters analysed: water absorption, dough development time, dough stability and all Mixolab torques during the heating and cooling stages. Also, a general decreased was also recorded for the differences between Mixolab torques which measures the starching speed (C3-2), the enzymatic degradation speed (C4-3) and the starch retrogradation rate (C5-4), whereas the difference which measures the speed of protein weakening due to heat (C1-2) increased. Composite dough behaviour presented a close positive relationship between MC and DT, and FN and PR with the C1-2 at a level of p < 0.05. The bread physical and sensory quality was improved up to a level of 10–15% flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Upcycled Defatted Sunflower Seed Flour as a Functional Ingredient in Biscuits
Foods 2019, 8(8), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080305 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
Defatted sunflower seed flour (DSSF) is an upcycled by-product of sunflower oil extraction, rich in protein, fibre and antioxidants. This study assessed the instrumental and sensory quality of biscuits enriched with DSSF at 18% and 36% w/w as a replacement for [...] Read more.
Defatted sunflower seed flour (DSSF) is an upcycled by-product of sunflower oil extraction, rich in protein, fibre and antioxidants. This study assessed the instrumental and sensory quality of biscuits enriched with DSSF at 18% and 36% w/w as a replacement for wheat flour. Measurements included colour, texture, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity. Sensory analysis was carried out with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The inclusion of DSSF significantly increased the protein content of the biscuits, as well as the TPC and antioxidant capacity of the biscuits. The resulting products were significantly darker, less red and less yellow with increasing DSSF levels, while hardness (measured instrumentally) increased. Sensory results agreed with colour measurements, concluding that DSSF biscuits were more “Brown” than the control, and with texture measurements where biscuits with 36% DSSF had a significantly firmer bite. In addition, DSSF biscuits at 36% inclusion had higher QDA scores for “Off-note” and the lowest scores for “Crumbly” and “Crumb aeration”. DSSF biscuits at 18% inclusion were similar to the control in most parameters and should be considered for further developments. These results show the potential of the upcycled DSSF by-product as a novel, sustainable and healthy food ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer-Driven Improvement of Maize Bread Formulations with Legume Fortification
Foods 2019, 8(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070235 - 29 Jun 2019
Abstract
The fortification of maize bread with legume flour was explored in order to increase the protein content of the traditional Portuguese bread ‘broa’, comprised of more than 50% maize flour. The optimization of legume incorporation (pea, chickpea, faba bean, lentil), considering [...] Read more.
The fortification of maize bread with legume flour was explored in order to increase the protein content of the traditional Portuguese bread ‘broa’, comprised of more than 50% maize flour. The optimization of legume incorporation (pea, chickpea, faba bean, lentil), considering the influence of different maize flours (traditional-white, traditional-yellow, hybrid-white, hybrid-yellow), on consumer liking and sensory profiling of ‘broa’ was studied. A panel of 60 naïve tasters evaluated twenty different breads, divided in four sets for each legume flour fortification, each set including four breads with varying maize flour and a control (no legume). Tasters evaluated overall liking and the sensory profile through a check-all-that-apply ballot. Crude protein and water content were also analyzed. There were no significant differences in overall liking between the different types of legumes and maize. The incorporation of chickpea flour yields a sensory profile that most closely resembles the control. The protein content increased, on average, 21% in ‘broa’, with legume flours having the highest value obtained with faba bean incorporation (29% increase). Thus, incorporation of legume flours appears to be an interesting strategy to increase bread protein content, with no significant impact on consumer liking and the ‘broa’ bread sensory profile. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Protein Digestibility of Cereal Products
Foods 2019, 8(6), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060199 - 08 Jun 2019
Abstract
Protein digestibility is currently a hot research topic and is of big interest to the food industry. Different scoring methods have been developed to describe protein quality. Cereal protein scores are typically low due to a suboptimal amino acid profile and low protein [...] Read more.
Protein digestibility is currently a hot research topic and is of big interest to the food industry. Different scoring methods have been developed to describe protein quality. Cereal protein scores are typically low due to a suboptimal amino acid profile and low protein digestibility. Protein digestibility is a result of both external and internal factors. Examples of external factors are physical inaccessibility due to entrapment in e.g., intact cell structures and the presence of antinutritional factors. The main internal factors are the amino acid sequence of the proteins and protein folding and crosslinking. Processing of food is generally designed to increase the overall digestibility through affecting these external and internal factors. However, with proteins, processing may eventually also lead to a decrease in digestibility. In this review, protein digestion and digestibility are discussed with emphasis on the proteins of (pseudo)cereals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Flour Particle Size Distribution on the Quality of Maize Gluten-Free Cookies
Foods 2019, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020083 - 23 Feb 2019
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to analyse the influence of particle size distribution of maize flour in the formulation of gluten-free cookies. Different cookie formulations were made with three distinct maize flour fractions obtained by sieving (less than 80 µm; between [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to analyse the influence of particle size distribution of maize flour in the formulation of gluten-free cookies. Different cookie formulations were made with three distinct maize flour fractions obtained by sieving (less than 80 µm; between 80 and 180 µm; greater than 180 µm). Cookies dimension, texture and colour were evaluated. Flour hydration properties and cookie dough rheology were also measured. Overall, an increase in maize flour particle size decreases the values of water holding capacity (WHC), swelling volume and G’ (elastic modulus) for the doughs. An increase in average particle size also increases diameter and spread factor of the cookies but decreases their hardness. A higher percentage of thick particles is more effective to reduce cookie hardness, but a certain percentage of thinner particles is necessary to give cohesion to the dough and to allow formation of the cookies without breaking. Cookies with a larger diameter also presented a darker colour after baking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Whole Grain Muffin Acceptance by Young Adults
Foods 2018, 7(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060091 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Adolescents and young adults in the United States do not consume recommended amounts of whole grains. University dining services have opportunities to inform students about whole grains and to offer foods containing blends of whole grains with refined flour to increase daily consumption [...] Read more.
Adolescents and young adults in the United States do not consume recommended amounts of whole grains. University dining services have opportunities to inform students about whole grains and to offer foods containing blends of whole grains with refined flour to increase daily consumption of these healthful foods. An online survey of university students (n = 100) found that 70% of respondents did not know the proportion of servings of whole grains that should be eaten daily. Mini blueberry muffins containing 50, 75, and 100% white whole wheat flour were served to 50 undergraduate students who rated their liking of the muffins using a nine-point hedonic scale. Respondents liked all muffin formulations similarly for appearance, taste, texture and overall liking. After the whole grain content of each muffin was revealed, 66% of students increased their liking of the muffins containing 100% whole wheat flour. Only half of the students increased their liking for the 75% whole wheat flour muffins, and most students reported no change in liking for the muffins made with the lowest percentage of whole wheat flour. Labeling whole grain foods in university foodservice operations may increase consumption of this food group by some students. Further research with actual purchase behavior is needed. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Using Pulses in Baked Products: Lights, Shadows, and Potential Solutions
Foods 2019, 8(10), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100451 - 02 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nowadays, consumers are more conscious of the environmental and nutritional benefits of foods. Pulses—thanks to both nutritional and health-promoting features, together with their low environmental impact—satisfy the demand for high-protein/high-fiber products. However, their consumption is still somewhat limited in Western countries, due to [...] Read more.
Nowadays, consumers are more conscious of the environmental and nutritional benefits of foods. Pulses—thanks to both nutritional and health-promoting features, together with their low environmental impact—satisfy the demand for high-protein/high-fiber products. However, their consumption is still somewhat limited in Western countries, due to the presence of antinutrient compounds including phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors, and some undigested oligosaccharides, which are responsible for digestive discomfort. Another limitation of eating pulses regularly is their relatively long preparation time. One way to increase the consumption of pulses is to use them as an ingredient in food formulations, such as bread and other baked products. However, some sensory and technological issues limit the use of pulses on an industrial scale; consequently, they require special attention when combined with cereal-based products. Developing formulations and/or processes to improve pulse quality is necessary to enhance their incorporation into baked products. In this context, this study provides an overview of strengths and weaknesses of pulse-enriched baked products focusing on the various strategies—such as the choice of suitable ingredients or (bio)-technological approaches—that counteract the negative effects of including pulses in baked goods. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bovine Milk Fats and Their Replacers in Baked Goods: A Review
Foods 2019, 8(9), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090383 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
Milk fats and related dairy products are multi-functional ingredients in bakeries. Bakeries are critical local industries in Western countries, and milk fats represent the most important dietary lipids in countries such as New Zealand. Milk fats perform many roles in bakery products, including [...] Read more.
Milk fats and related dairy products are multi-functional ingredients in bakeries. Bakeries are critical local industries in Western countries, and milk fats represent the most important dietary lipids in countries such as New Zealand. Milk fats perform many roles in bakery products, including dough strengthening, textural softeners, filling fats, coating lipids, laminating fats, and flavor improvers. This review reports how milk fats interact with the ingredients of main bakery products. It also elaborates on recent studies on how to modulate the quality and digestibility of baked goods by designing a new type of fat mimetic, in order to make calorie- and saturated fat-reduced bakery products. It provides a quick reference for both retailers and industrial manufacturers of milk fat-based bakery products. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Structural Basis of Resistant Starch (RS) in Bread: Natural and Commercial Alternatives
Foods 2019, 8(7), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070267 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bread is categorized as having a high amount of rapidly digested starch that may result in a rapid increase in postprandial blood glucose and, therefore, poor health outcomes. This is mostly the result of the complete gelatinization that starch undergoes during baking. The [...] Read more.
Bread is categorized as having a high amount of rapidly digested starch that may result in a rapid increase in postprandial blood glucose and, therefore, poor health outcomes. This is mostly the result of the complete gelatinization that starch undergoes during baking. The inclusion of resistant starch (RS) ingredients in bread formulas is gaining prominence, especially with the current positive health outcomes attributed to RS and the apparition of novel RS ingredients in the market. However, many RS ingredients contain RS structures that do not resist baking and, therefore, are not suitable to result in a meaningful RS increase in the final product. In this review, the structural factors for the resistance to digestion and hydrothermal processing of RS ingredients are reviewed, and the definition of each RS subtype is expanded to account for novel non-digestible structures recently reported. Moreover, the current in vitro digestion methods used to measure RS content are critically discussed with a view of highlighting the importance of having a harmonized method to determine the optimum RS type and inclusion levels for bread-making. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bread Enrichment with Oilseeds. A Review
Foods 2018, 7(11), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7110191 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The use of oilseeds in bakery products has gained popularity in recent years, both for their organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the studies centered on the use of oilseeds (flaxseed, chia, sunflower, pumpkin, [...] Read more.
The use of oilseeds in bakery products has gained popularity in recent years, both for their organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the studies centered on the use of oilseeds (flaxseed, chia, sunflower, pumpkin, sesame and poppyseed) in breads and other bakery products. This review highlights the effect of oilseeds on the mechanical and physical properties of bread according to the enrichment level, origin and way of addition (whole, crushed, oil or mucilage). In general, the incorporation of oilseeds improves the nutritional profile of bakery products with and without gluten, and provides several health benefits. Mucilages of oilseeds can also act as a fat replacer thanks to their properties. The incorporation of oilseeds modifies the rheology of the doughs, the volume of the products and their texture, affecting their organoleptic characteristics and their acceptability. Nevertheless, these changes will depend on the type of seed used, as well as on the method of addition. Full article
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