Special Issue "Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2019) | Viewed by 27955

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Marina Carcea
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Centre on Food and Nutrition (CREA-AN), Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), via Ardeatina, 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Interests: grains science and technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Grains are the basis of daily diet worldwide. They are the seeds of plants, belonging mainly to the botanical groups of cereals, pseudo cereals and legumes.

They contribute macro nutrients to the human diet, mainly carbohydrates, but also proteins and lipids and micro nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, but they also are an important source of dietary fiber and bioactives, particularly wholegrains, which are interesting for the production of high-value food products with enhanced health benefits. The content of the aforesaid components vary in grains, depending on genetics and growing conditions, including environment and husbandry.

Humans cannot consume them in the raw state, as such grains undergo a number of processing steps that might include dehulling, milling, dough making, extrusion, bread making, couscous making, and pasta making, up to home cooking. Moreover, different kinds of grains can be combined in the same product to take advantage, in some cases, of the complementarity of composition, thus giving origin to a product with an improved nutritional value (see the combination of cereals and legumes).

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect studies on the latest developments in grain science with regards, in particular, to the improvement of the nutritional value of raw materials due to breeding and/or growing conditions, and the role of processing in keeping or enhancing grain nutritional potentials for the development of healthy and attractive improved traditional or new products for human consumption.

Dr. Marina Carcea
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cereals
  • legumes
  • pseudo cereals
  • nutrients
  • bioactives
  • processing

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods
Foods 2020, 9(4), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040504 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Grains are fundamental in the daily diets of many people worldwide; they are used for the production of popular foods, such as bread, bakery products, breakfast cereals, pasta, couscous, bulgur, and snacks. Botanically, they are the seeds of plants, belonging mainly to the [...] Read more.
Grains are fundamental in the daily diets of many people worldwide; they are used for the production of popular foods, such as bread, bakery products, breakfast cereals, pasta, couscous, bulgur, and snacks. Botanically, they are the seeds of plants, belonging mainly to the groups of cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes. They contribute macronutrients to the human diet, mainly carbohydrates, but also proteins and lipids, and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. They are also an important source of dietary fibre and bioactives, particularly wholegrains, which are of interest for the manufacturing of high value foods with enhanced health benefits. They can be used for the production of gluten-containing (as well as gluten-free) products. One of the main objectives of the food industry when producing grain-based foods is to manufacture safe, attractive products, with enhanced nutritional value to respond to consumer expectations. The following Special Issue “Nutritional Value of Grain Based Foods” consists of one review and eight original research papers that contribute to the existing knowledge of important ingredients, such as fat substitutes, and of the technological quality and nutritional role of grains and grain-based foods (gluten-containing and gluten-free), such as bread, muffins, and muesli bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
The Potential of Modulating the Reducing Sugar Released (and the Potential Glycemic Response) of Muffins Using a Combination of a Stevia Sweetener and Cocoa Powder
Foods 2019, 8(12), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120644 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Muffins are popular bakery products. However, they generally contain high amounts of sugar. The over-consumption of muffins may therefore result in a high calorie intake and could lead to increased health risks. For this reason, muffins were prepared substituting sucrose with two levels [...] Read more.
Muffins are popular bakery products. However, they generally contain high amounts of sugar. The over-consumption of muffins may therefore result in a high calorie intake and could lead to increased health risks. For this reason, muffins were prepared substituting sucrose with two levels of a base of stevia (Stevianna®). In addition, cocoa powder and vanilla were added to the muffin formulation with and without Stevianna® to mask any potential off flavors. Results illustrate that muffins with 50% Stevianna® replacement of sucrose were similar to the control samples in terms of volume, density and texture. However, replacement of sugar with 100% Stevianna® resulted in reductions in height (from 41 to 28 mm), volume (from 63 to 51 mL), and increased firmness (by four-fold) compared to the control sample. Sugar replacement significantly reduced the in vitro predictive glycemic response of muffins (by up to 55% of the control sample). This work illustrates the importance of sugar in maintaining muffin structure as well as controlling the rate of glucose release during simulated digestions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bread for the Aging Population: The Effect of a Functional Wheat–Lentil Bread on the Immune Function of Aged Mice
Foods 2019, 8(10), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100510 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
A functional bread tailored for the needs of the aging population was baked by substituting 24% of wheat flour with red lentil flour and compared with wheat bread. Its nutritional profile was assessed by analysing proteins, amino acids, lipids, soluble and insoluble dietary [...] Read more.
A functional bread tailored for the needs of the aging population was baked by substituting 24% of wheat flour with red lentil flour and compared with wheat bread. Its nutritional profile was assessed by analysing proteins, amino acids, lipids, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, resistant starch, total polyphenols, lignans and the antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). The wheat–lentil bread had 30% more proteins than wheat bread (8.3%, as is), a more balanced amino acids composition, an almost double mineral (0.63%, as is) as well as total dietary fibre content (4.6%, as is), double the amount of polyphenols (939.1 mg GAE/100g on dry matter, d.m.), higher amounts and variety of lignans, and more than double the antioxidant capacity (71.6 µmoL/g d.m.). The in vivo effect of 60 days bread consumption on the immune response was studied by means of a murine model of elderly mice. Serum cytokines and intraepithelial lymphocyte immunophenotype from the mice intestine were analysed as markers of systemic and intestinal inflammatory status, respectively. Analysis of immune parameters in intraepithelial lymphocytes showed significant differences among the two types of bread indicating a positive effect of the wheat–lentil bread on the intestinal immune system, whereas both breads induced a reduction in serum IL-10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comprehensive Nutrition Review of Grain-Based Muesli Bars in Australia: An Audit of Supermarket Products
Foods 2019, 8(9), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090370 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
Muesli bars are consumed by 16% of children, and 7.5% of adults, and are classified as discretionary in Australian Dietary Guidelines, containing “higher fat and added sugars” compared with core food choices. This study aimed to provide a nutritional overview of grain-based muesli [...] Read more.
Muesli bars are consumed by 16% of children, and 7.5% of adults, and are classified as discretionary in Australian Dietary Guidelines, containing “higher fat and added sugars” compared with core food choices. This study aimed to provide a nutritional overview of grain-based muesli bars, comparing data from 2019 with 2015. An audit of muesli bars, grain-based bars, and oat slices was undertaken in January 2019 (excluding fruit, nut, nutritional supplement, and breakfast bars) from the four major supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for all nutrients on-pack, including whole grain per serve and per 100g. Health Star Rating (HSR) was calculated if not included on-pack. Of all bars (n = 165), 63% were ≤ 600 kJ (268–1958 kJ), 12% were low in saturated fat, 56% were a source of dietary fibre, and none were low in sugar. Two-thirds (66%) were whole grain (≥8 g/serve), with an average of 10 g/serve, 16% of the 48 g Daily Target Intake. HSR featured on 63% of bars (average 3.2), with an overall HSR of 2.7. Compared to 2015, mean sugars declined (26.6 g to 23.7 g/100 g; p < 0.001), and 31% more bars were whole grain (109 up from 60 bars). Although categorised as discretionary, there were significant nutrient differences across grain-based muesli bars. Clearer classification within policy initiatives, including HSR, may assist consumers in choosing products high in whole grain and fibre at the supermarket shelf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Article
Micronutrient Analysis of Gluten-Free Products: Their Low Content Is Not Involved in Gluten-Free Diet Imbalance in a Cohort of Celiac Children and Adolescent
Foods 2019, 8(8), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080321 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Data about the nutritional composition of gluten-free products (GFP) are still limited. Most studies are based on ingredient and nutrition information described on the food label. However, analytical determination is considered the gold standard for compositional analysis of food. Micronutrient analytical content differences [...] Read more.
Data about the nutritional composition of gluten-free products (GFP) are still limited. Most studies are based on ingredient and nutrition information described on the food label. However, analytical determination is considered the gold standard for compositional analysis of food. Micronutrient analytical content differences were observed in a selection of GF breads, flakes and pasta, when compared with their respective gluten-containing counterparts. In general terms, lower iron, piridoxin, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, folate, manganese and vitamin B5 can be underlined. Variations in biotin and vitamin E content differed among groups. In order to clarify the potential contribution of the GFP to the gluten-free diet’s (GFD) micronutrient shortages, analytical data were used to evaluate GFD in a cohort of celiac children and adolescent. Participants did not reach recommendations for vitamin A, vitamin E, folic acid, vitamin D, biotin, iodine, and copper. It does not seem that the lower micronutrient content of the analyzed GFP groups contributed to the micronutrient deficits detected in GFD in this cohort, whose diet was not balanced. Nevertheless, GFP fortification for folate and biotin is proposed to prevent the deficiencies observed in GFD, at least in the case of pediatric celiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Article
Gluten-Free Bread with Cricket Powder—Mechanical Properties and Molecular Water Dynamics in Dough and Ready Product
Foods 2019, 8(7), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070240 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
Published data indicate that cricket powder (CP) is a good source of not only protein, fat and fiber, but also minerals. Due to the fact that this product naturally does not contain gluten, it is an interesting addition to the enrichment of gluten-free [...] Read more.
Published data indicate that cricket powder (CP) is a good source of not only protein, fat and fiber, but also minerals. Due to the fact that this product naturally does not contain gluten, it is an interesting addition to the enrichment of gluten-free foods. This paper is a report on the results of starch substitution with CP (at 2%, 6% and 10%) on the properties of dough and bread. The rheology of dough and the texture of the final product were studied. While the changes caused in the dough by the introduction of CP were not pronounced, the bread obtained from it was characterized by significantly increased hardness and improved consistency. Analyses of water behavior at the molecular level with the use of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) indicated that CP altered both the bound and bulk water fractions. Moreover, examination of water activity revealed a decreased rate of water transport in samples of bread that contained CP. These results indicate improved availability of water to the biopolymers of bread, which likely plays a role in shaping the textural properties of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Lipids and Fatty Acids in Italian Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Cultivars
Foods 2019, 8(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060223 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
The level of variation in lipids and their fatty acids was determined in the grains of 10 popular durum wheat cultivars commercially grown in Central and Southern Italy. Samples were harvested for two consecutive years to account for differences due to changes in [...] Read more.
The level of variation in lipids and their fatty acids was determined in the grains of 10 popular durum wheat cultivars commercially grown in Central and Southern Italy. Samples were harvested for two consecutive years to account for differences due to changes in climatic conditions. Total fat content was determined by means of the International Association of Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) Standard Method No. 136, whereas the fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Total lipid content ranged from 2.97% to 3.54% dry basis (d.b.) in the year 2010 and from 3.10% to 3.50% d.b. in the year 2011, and the average value was 3.22% d.b. considering both years together. Six main fatty acids were detected in all samples in order of decreasing amounts: linoleic (C18:2) > palmitic (C16:0) ≈ oleic (C18:1) > linolenic (C18:3) > stearic (C18:0) > palmitoleic (C16:1). Significant variations in the levels of single acids between two years were observed for three samples. These results will be very useful in the updating of food composition databases in general and will help authorities to set proper quality standards for wholegrain flours and products where the germ should be preserved, considering also the recent interest of industry and consumers for these kinds of products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gluten-Free Alternative Grains: Nutritional Evaluation and Bioactive Compounds
Foods 2019, 8(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060208 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3515
Abstract
Interest in gluten-free grains is increasing, together with major incidences of celiac disease in the last years. Since to date, knowledge of the nutritional and bioactive compounds profile of alternative gluten-free grains is limited, we evaluated the content of water-soluble (thiamine and riboflavin) [...] Read more.
Interest in gluten-free grains is increasing, together with major incidences of celiac disease in the last years. Since to date, knowledge of the nutritional and bioactive compounds profile of alternative gluten-free grains is limited, we evaluated the content of water-soluble (thiamine and riboflavin) and liposoluble vitamins, such as carotenoids and tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), of gluten-free minor cereals and also of pseudocereals. The analysed samples showed a high content of bioactive compounds; in particular, amaranth, cañihua and quinoa are good sources of vitamin E, while millet, sorghum and teff (Eragrostis tef, or William’s Lovegrass) are good sources of thiamine. Moreover, millet provides a fair amount of carotenoids, and in particular of lutein. These data can provide more information on bioactive compounds in gluten-free grains. The use of these grains can improve the nutritional quality of gluten-free cereal-based products, and could avoid the monotony of the celiac diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Article
A Survey of Sodium Chloride Content in Italian Artisanal and Industrial Bread
Foods 2018, 7(11), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7110181 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
A nationwide survey on salt content in both artisanal and industrial bread was undertaken in Italy to establish a baseline for salt reduction initiatives. Excess sodium intake in the diet is associated with high blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Bread [...] Read more.
A nationwide survey on salt content in both artisanal and industrial bread was undertaken in Italy to establish a baseline for salt reduction initiatives. Excess sodium intake in the diet is associated with high blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Bread has been identified as a major contributor to salt intake in the Italian diet. Most of the bread consumed in Italy comes from artisanal bakeries so 135 artisanal bread were sampled in 56 locations from Northern to Southern Italy together with 19 samples of industrial bread representative of the entire Italian production. Sodium chloride content was analysed according to the Volhardt’s method. A salt content between 0.7% and 2.3% g/100 g (as is basis) was found, with a mean value of 1.5% (Standard Deviation, 0.3). However, the majority of samples (58%) had a content below 1.5%, with 12% having a very low salt content (between 0.5% and 1.0%), whereas the remaining 42% had a salt content higher than the mean value with a very high salt content (>2.0%) recorded for 3% of samples. As regards the industrial bread, an average content of 1.6% was found (SD, 0.3). In this group, most of the samples (56%) had a very high content between 2.0% and 2.5%, whereas 5% only had a content between 1.1% and 1.5%. Statistics on salt content are also reported for the different categories of bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Fat Replacers in Baked Food Products
Foods 2018, 7(12), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7120192 - 25 Nov 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5640
Abstract
Fat provides important sensory properties to baked food products, such as colour, taste, texture and odour, all of which contribute to overall consumer acceptance. Baked food products, such as crackers, cakes and biscuits, typically contain high amounts of fat. However, there is increasing [...] Read more.
Fat provides important sensory properties to baked food products, such as colour, taste, texture and odour, all of which contribute to overall consumer acceptance. Baked food products, such as crackers, cakes and biscuits, typically contain high amounts of fat. However, there is increasing demand for healthy snack foods with reduced fat content. In order to maintain consumer acceptance whilst simultaneously reducing the total fat content, fat replacers have been employed. There are a number of fat replacers that have been investigated in baked food products, ranging from complex carbohydrates, gums and gels, whole food matrices, and combinations thereof. Fat replacers each have different properties that affect the quality of a food product. In this review, we summarise the literature on the effect of fat replacers on the quality of baked food products. The ideal fat replacers for different types of low-fat baked products were a combination of polydextrose and guar gum in biscuits at 70% fat replacement (FR), oleogels in cake at 100% FR, and inulin in crackers at 75% FR. The use of oatrim (100% FR), bean puree (75% FR) or green pea puree (75% FR) as fat replacers in biscuits were equally successful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
Back to TopTop