Special Issue "Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Golfo Moatsou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Dairy Research, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: dairy science and technology; cheese science and technology; analytical methods; effect of processing on the composition and the biochemical characteristics of milk and dairy products; indices of heat treatment, properties of yogurt; differentiation of milk from different species; casein genotypes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The exploitation of milk components through cheesemaking has been an ancient practice that continues to develop following the scientific and technological advances. The existence of precious milk components along with enzymes and microorganisms in the cheese matrix is regulated by the conditions of cheesemaking and ripening, i.e., cheese technology. Cheese technology with emphasis to treatments that improve the efficacy of cheesemaking or the characteristics of cheeses, is within the scope of the present Special Issue.

Apart from providing essential nutrients, cheese exhibits particular physical and interesting biological properties. Assessment and understanding of the mechanisms related to the evolution of these properties and the development of specific treatments that can enhance them has attracted the interest of researchers worldwide. In this respect, manuscripts on functionality and biological value of cheese will be presented in this Special Issue.

The submission of regular research papers, reviews and short communications is encouraged.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Golfo Moatsou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cheese technology
  • Cheese ripening
  • Cheese structure
  • Cheese composition
  • Cheese bioactivity
  • Cheese functionality
  • Innovative technologies
  • Analytical methods
  • Cheese microbiology
  • Chemometrics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
“Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties:” A Special Issue
Foods 2019, 8(10), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100512 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
The objective of the present editorial to critical synopsize articles that make up the Special Issue “Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties.” The published research papers are multidisciplinary studies which refer to some of the most important sub-topics of Cheese Science and [...] Read more.
The objective of the present editorial to critical synopsize articles that make up the Special Issue “Cheese: Technology, Compositional, Physical and Biofunctional Properties.” The published research papers are multidisciplinary studies which refer to some of the most important sub-topics of Cheese Science and Technology. They present the results of experimental studies and analyses that can be further exploited by academia and cheese producers. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Salting Method on the Chemical and Texture Characteristics of Ovine Halloumi Cheese
Foods 2019, 8(7), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070232 - 29 Jun 2019
Abstract
The effects of dry salting for 24 h, or brine salting under different conditions (i.e., 7%, 10%, or 13% NaCl (w/w) at 4 or 20 °C for 3, 6, 24, or 48 h) on ovine Halloumi cheese composition and [...] Read more.
The effects of dry salting for 24 h, or brine salting under different conditions (i.e., 7%, 10%, or 13% NaCl (w/w) at 4 or 20 °C for 3, 6, 24, or 48 h) on ovine Halloumi cheese composition and textural properties were studied. In the brine-salted cheeses, the moisture content, ranging from 45.53 ± 0.7 to 53.55 ± 0.6 g/100 g, was decreased as the concentration and temperature of brine and salting time were increased. In contrast, the salt content, ranging from 2.17 ± 0.01 to 4.97 ± 0.10 g/100 g, increased by increasing the salting time and brine concentration, and the increased sodium content of cheeses was correlated with their decreased potassium content. Cheeses dry-salted for 24 h contained higher levels of calcium (1064–1093 mg/100 g) than brine-salted cheeses kept for 24 or 48 h (751–922 mg/100 g). The same trend was observed for phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium content. In addition, dry-salted cheeses showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower hardness and fracturability values, compared to cheeses brine salted at 13% brine for more than 24 h, independently of the brine temperature. It was concluded that dry salting of Halloumi cheese for one day was the most appropriate salting method for dietary and nutritious reasons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Reduced-Fat, Reduced-Sodium Semi-Hard Sheep Milk Cheese
Foods 2019, 8(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060204 - 11 Jun 2019
Abstract
This paper examines the effects of the incorporation of denatured whey proteins along with salting in NaCl/KCl brine on the characteristics and ripening of sheep milk reduced-fat (RF), semi-hard cheese. Incorporation of denatured whey proteins was carried out by: i. adding commercial microparticulated [...] Read more.
This paper examines the effects of the incorporation of denatured whey proteins along with salting in NaCl/KCl brine on the characteristics and ripening of sheep milk reduced-fat (RF), semi-hard cheese. Incorporation of denatured whey proteins was carried out by: i. adding commercial microparticulated whey protein (MWP) in reduced-fat cheese milk (RFM), or ii. by ‘in situ’ heat-induced partial denaturation of whey proteins of reduced-fat cheese milk (RFD). The implemented cheesemaking conditions included curd washing, moderate clotting, scalding temperatures, and ripening of cheeses packed in plastic bags under vacuum at 10 °C. Full-fat cheeses (FF) were manufactured in parallel. Physicochemical composition, textural profile, and proteolysis were assessed throughout 60 days of ripening. The mean moisture, fat on dry matter (FDM), moisture on non-fat substances (MNFS), protein on dry matter (PDM), salt, and salt-in-moisture (S/M) content of the RF cheeses were 47.4%, 32.8%, 57.3%, 54.3%, 1.63%, and 3.36%, respectively; pH ≈ 5.0, aw ≈ 0.977, Ca ≈ 1000 mg/100 g cheese. The MNFS of FF and RF cheeses were similar. Proteolysis indices were not affected by any of the treatments, and they were similar to the FF counterparts. The applied cheesemaking technology was adequate for the production of semi-hard reduced-fat and reduced-sodium cheeses. Ripening under packaging hindered moisture loss without impairing the evolution of proteolysis and textural parameters. The same holds true for salting in NaCl/KCl brine. The high pasteurization of cheese milk was more effective for the increase of moisture and MNFS than the addition of MWP, without exhibiting any adverse effects. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Adding Different Stabilizers in Brine on the Physicochemical, Sensory, Microbiological and Textural Properties of White Cheese
Foods 2019, 8(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040133 - 19 Apr 2019
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four different thickening agents (guar gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum, and gelatin) on the textural and sensory properties of white cheese. For this purpose, various white cheeses were manufactured with brines (the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four different thickening agents (guar gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum, and gelatin) on the textural and sensory properties of white cheese. For this purpose, various white cheeses were manufactured with brines (the salt ratio was 8% and 12%) that contained different types and concentrations of gums; white cheese textural and sensory properties were studied during storage (at 4 °C). Also, microbiological properties including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were investigated. The physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and sensory properties of the cheeses were determined on the 1st, 15th, and 30th days of storage. During the storage period of cheese, the top-rated samples in terms of sensory properties were cheeses with gelatin and carrageenan gum. The microbiological data displayed that there was an inverse relationship between the number of bacteria and the amount of gum used, although it was not precisely linear. At the same time, the highest values were generally determined in the control samples, and although not to a very great extent, gelatinous examples were found to contain a lower number of lactic acid bacteria than others. Regarding the textural properties, the hardness value of all samples containing gelatin showed a continuous increasing trend, while the springiness values increased only in the samples with xanthan gum and guar gum. At the end of storage, it was observed that the inherent adhesiveness of the samples decreased by more than half and the use of gelatin resulted in an increase in the gumminess of the cheeses. As a result, it was determined that reducing the salt used in the brine by up to 8% did not cause any defect since stabilizers were preventing water passage into the cheese by holding water. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Swiss Cheese Flavor Variability Based on Correlations of Volatile Flavor Compounds, Descriptive Sensory Attributes, and Consumer Preference
Foods 2019, 8(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020078 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Minimizing flavor variation in cheeses without perceived flavor defects in order to produce a consistent product is a challenge in the Swiss cheese industry. This study evaluated flavor variability based on correlations of volatile flavor compounds and sensory attributes. The headspace concentrations of [...] Read more.
Minimizing flavor variation in cheeses without perceived flavor defects in order to produce a consistent product is a challenge in the Swiss cheese industry. This study evaluated flavor variability based on correlations of volatile flavor compounds and sensory attributes. The headspace concentrations of volatile compounds were analyzed using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), while the sensory attributes were evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. The important discriminating volatile compounds were classified into five functional groups: sulfur-containing compounds (methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional), organic acids (propanoic acid, acetic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid), aldehydes (3-methylbutanal, butanal, and 2-methylpropanal), a ketone (2,3-butanedione), and an ester (ethyl hexanoate). Correlations were identified among volatile compounds and between volatile compounds and sensory attributes. Only a small number of volatile compounds strongly correlated positively or negatively to a specific sensory attribute. Nutty malty, milkfat lactone, salty, umami, and sweet positively correlated to overall liking and nutty flavor liking of Swiss cheese. Evaluation of cheese flavor using correlations between volatile compounds and sensory attributes provided further understanding of the complexity of flavor and flavor variability among Swiss cheeses manufactured from different factories that can be used to improve flavor consistency of Swiss cheeses. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Influence of pH, NaCl, and the Deacidifying Yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces marxianus on the Production of Pigments by the Cheese-Ripening Bacteria Arthrobacter arilaitensis
Foods 2018, 7(11), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7110190 - 19 Nov 2018
Abstract
Arthrobacter arilaitensis is a food-related bacterial species under investigation for its involvement in the coloration of surface-ripened cheeses. Presently, information about this species in association with the development of appropriate cheese coloration is still lacking. This study was performed in order to investigate—with [...] Read more.
Arthrobacter arilaitensis is a food-related bacterial species under investigation for its involvement in the coloration of surface-ripened cheeses. Presently, information about this species in association with the development of appropriate cheese coloration is still lacking. This study was performed in order to investigate—with the use of spectrocolorimetry—the influence of pH, NaCl, and deacidifying yeasts on the pigmentation of Arthrobacter arilaitensis biofilms. Three types of cheese-based (curd) solid media were prepared by using different deacidification methods: (i) chemical deacidification by NaOH (CMNaOH); (ii) biological deacidification by the yeast strain Debaryomyces hansenii 304 (CMDh304); and (iii) biological deacidification by the yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus 44 (CMKm44). Each medium was prepared with initial pH values of 5.8, 7.0, and 7.5. After pasteurization, agar was incorporated and NaCl was added in varying concentrations (0%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/v)). A. arilaitensis Po102 was then inoculated on the so prepared “solid-curd” media, and incubated at 12 °C under light conditions for 28 days. According to the data obtained by spectrocolorimetry in the Compagnie Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color system, all controlled factors appeared to affect the pigments produced by the A. arilaitensis strain. NaCl content in the media showed distinct inhibitory effects on the development of color by this strain when the initial pH was at 5.8. By contrast, when the initial pH of the media was higher (7.0, 7.5), only the highest concentration of NaCl (8%) had this effect, while the coloring capacity of this bacterial species was always higher when D. hansenii 304 was used for deacidification compared to K. marxianus 44. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microbiological Changes during Ripening of Chihuahua Cheese Manufactured with Raw Milk and Its Seasonal Variations
Foods 2018, 7(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7090153 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chihuahua cheese is a traditional cheese produced in Northwest Mexico that is consumed shortly after production. Cheeses prepared during autumn, winter and summer were collected from five dairies, and analyzed to determine seasonal influence on proximate analysis, texture profile and the microbiological dynamic [...] Read more.
Chihuahua cheese is a traditional cheese produced in Northwest Mexico that is consumed shortly after production. Cheeses prepared during autumn, winter and summer were collected from five dairies, and analyzed to determine seasonal influence on proximate analysis, texture profile and the microbiological dynamic during a ripening period of 270 days. Coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, molds, yeast, as well as presumptive mesophilic lactobacilli, thermophilic lactobacilli, lactococci, thermophilic cocci and enterococci, were enumerated by plate count on selective agar. Manufacturing dairy had an effect on Chihuahua cheese composition and texture profile. Seasonality influence on the microbial dynamic was observed, since the highest initial counts of coliforms (5.14 log CFU/g), coagulase-positive staphylococci (4.13 log CFU/g) and mesophilic lactobacilli (7.86 log CFU/g) were detected on summer samples. Also, ripening time affected the survival of coliforms and presumptive lactococci after 270 days (1.24 and 5.89 log CFU/g respectively) while from day 90th, coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Microbial changes and seasonal influence provide information on the microbiota that can influence the sensorial characteristics of Chihuahua cheese. Full article
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