Special Issue "The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2020) | Viewed by 45225

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Laura Jaime
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Research (CIAL, UAM-CSIC). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Nicolás Cabrera, 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: health food ingredients; advance extraction technologies; isolation procedures; sustainable process; antioxidant activity; an-ti-inflammatory activity; chemical analysis; in vitro bioaccessibility; intestinal absorption; encapsulation of bioactive ingredients
Prof. Dr. Susana Santoyo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Research (CIAL, UAM-CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Nicolás Cabrera, 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: antioxidant activity; antiinflammatory activity; plant extracts; phenolic compounds; pressurized liquid extraction; phenolic compounds encapsulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The health benefits deriving from the consumption of certain foods have been common knowledge since ancient time. At present, numerous research papers have been focused on the beneficial role played by certain food components in the close relationship between food intake and health status. In this sense, many foods, including fruits, vegetables, fish, seaweeds, herbs, etc., are known to be excellent sources of bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fatty acids, and saponins, among others.

On the other hand, development of new foods or nutraceuticals with health benefits is a current topic today and represents an attractive opportunity for the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. However, this launch of new products should be endorsed by strong scientific evidence on the health benefits attributable to the intake of their bioactive ingredients. To this purpose, an elucidation about the most suitable source of a specific bioactive compound is required. This study should include the development of the better extraction technique, isolation, and also an accurate analysis of the bioactive compounds using the most adequate techniques. Moreover, the biological activities of these compounds should be elucidated, including in vitro, cell, and also clinical trials. Studies focusing on changes during the digestion process, intestinal absorption rates, biological mechanisms of action or bioactivity of their metabolites are required to establish the real contribution of these compounds to the health status.

Therefore, in accordance with the aforementioned, this Special issue is looking for original research papers and review articles addressing recent advances in health benefits of the bioactive compounds in foods, including new sources of bioactive compounds, bioactive compounds in foods and their molecular mechanisms, their analysis, isolation, bioaccesibility, intestinal absorption rate, and bioavailability among other related aspects.

Prof. Laura Jaime de Pablo
Prof. Susana Santoyo Díez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • biological activity
  • isolation
  • analysis
  • mechanism of action
  • bioaccesibility
  • intestinal absorption
  • bioavailability

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods
Foods 2021, 10(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020325 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
The health benefits of consuming certain foods have been commonly known since ancient times [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)

Research

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Article
Structural Characterization of Quinoa Polysaccharide and Its Inhibitory Effects on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101511 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Quinoa is a kind of nutritious food crop with anti-obesity activity, however, the mechanism is not unclear. In this study, we separated and purified bioactive polysaccharide from quinoa (denoted SQWP-2). The chemical structural was characterized and its effect on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation was [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a kind of nutritious food crop with anti-obesity activity, however, the mechanism is not unclear. In this study, we separated and purified bioactive polysaccharide from quinoa (denoted SQWP-2). The chemical structural was characterized and its effect on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation was evaluated. The molecular weight of SQWP-2 was found to be 7.49 × 103 Da, and the polysaccharide consisted of fructose and glucose. The Glc-(1→, Fru-(2→, →4)-Glcp-(1→, and →4,6)-Glcp-(1→ glycosidic linkages were identified in SQWP-2 through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed the monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkage content, and a suggestion of the structural formula is provided. In Western Blotting and RT-PCR assays, treatment with SQWP-2 significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 differentiation by suppressing PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1C and AP2 expression. Quinoa polysaccharide isolated here could represent an anti-obesity agent once the structures and differentiation inhibition are definitively characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Quality Attributes of Cryoconcentrated Calafate (Berberis microphylla) Juice during Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091314 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of centrifugal block cryoconcentration (CBCC) at three cycles applied to fresh calafate juice. The fresh juice and cryoconcentrate at each cycle were stored for five weeks at 4 °C and quality attributes were analyzed every 7 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of centrifugal block cryoconcentration (CBCC) at three cycles applied to fresh calafate juice. The fresh juice and cryoconcentrate at each cycle were stored for five weeks at 4 °C and quality attributes were analyzed every 7 days. CBCC had significant effects in the calafate juice, since in the last cycle, the cryoconcentrate reached a high value of total soluble solids (TSS, ≈42 °Brix), with final attractive color, and an increase of approximately 2.5, 5.2, 5.1, 4.0 and 5.3 times in relation to the fresh juice values, for total bioactive compounds (TBC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), respectively. However, at 35 days under storage, these values decreased by 5%, 13%, 15%, 19%, 24% and 27%, for TSS, TBC, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and ORAC, respectively. Additionally, until the day 14, the panelists indicated a good acceptability of the reconstituted cryoconcentrate. Therefore, CBCC can be considered a novel and viable technology for the preservation of quality attributes from fresh calafate juice with interesting food applications of the cryoconcentrates due to their high stability during storage time in comparison to the fresh juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Modifications of Gut Microbiota after Grape Pomace Supplementation in Subjects at Cardiometabolic Risk: A Randomized Cross-Over Controlled Clinical Trial
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091279 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Polyphenols are dietary bioactive compounds able to induce modifications in the gut microbiota profile, although more clinical studies are needed. With this aim, a randomized cross-over clinical trial was conducted, where 49 subjects at cardiometabolic risk (exhibiting at least two metabolic syndrome factors) [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are dietary bioactive compounds able to induce modifications in the gut microbiota profile, although more clinical studies are needed. With this aim, a randomized cross-over clinical trial was conducted, where 49 subjects at cardiometabolic risk (exhibiting at least two metabolic syndrome factors) were supplemented with a daily dose of 8 g of grape pomace (GP) for 6 weeks, with an equivalent control (CTL) period. The levels of total bacteria and Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Lactobacilliales, Bacteroides and Prevotella were estimated in fecal DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were assessed by gas chromatography. Several cardiometabolic markers were evaluated in blood samples. GP reduced insulin levels only in half of the participants (responders). GP supplementation did not cause significant modifications in the microbiota profile of the whole group, except for a tendency (p = 0.059) towards a decrease in the proportion of Lactobacilliales, while it increased the proportion of Bacteroides in non-responder subjects. The reduction of insulin levels in subjects at cardiometabolic risk upon GP supplementation appears not to be induced by changes in the major subgroups of gut microbiota. Further studies at the species level may help to elucidate the possible role of microbiota in GP-induced insulinemic status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Untargeted Metabolomics of Fermented Rice Using UHPLC Q-TOF MS/MS Reveals an Abundance of Potential Antihypertensive Compounds
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081007 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Enzyme treatment and fermentation of cereals are known processes that enhance the release of bound bioactive compounds to make them available for bioactivity. In this study, we tested the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory ability of destarched rice, Prozyme 2000p treated destarched rice [...] Read more.
Enzyme treatment and fermentation of cereals are known processes that enhance the release of bound bioactive compounds to make them available for bioactivity. In this study, we tested the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory ability of destarched rice, Prozyme 2000p treated destarched rice (DP), and fermented DP samples. Prozyme 2000p treatment increased the ACE inhibitory ability from 15 ± 5% to 45 ± 3%. Fermentation of the Prozyme 2000p treated samples with Enterococcus faecium EBD1 significantly increased the ACE inhibitory ability to 75 ± 5%, while captopril showed an ACE inhibition of 92 ± 4%. An untargeted metabolomics approach using Ultra-high-performance liquid tandem chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry revealed the abundance of vitamins, phenolic compounds, antioxidant peptides, DPP IV inhibitory peptides, and antihypertensive peptides in the fermented samples which may account for its strong ACE inhibition. Although fermented DP had decreased fatty acid levels, the amount of essential amino acid improved drastically compared to destarched rice. Our results show that fermenting Prozyme-treated destarched rice with Enterococcus faecium EBD1 generates abundant bioactive compounds necessary for developing antihypertensive functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Improving the Functional Activities of Curcumin Using Milk Proteins as Nanocarriers
Foods 2020, 9(8), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9080986 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Curcumin is one of the most common spices worldwide. It has potential benefits, but its poor solubility and bioavailability have restricted its application. To overcome these problems, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium caseinate (SC), α-lactalbumin (α-La), β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), whey [...] Read more.
Curcumin is one of the most common spices worldwide. It has potential benefits, but its poor solubility and bioavailability have restricted its application. To overcome these problems, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of sodium caseinate (SC), α-lactalbumin (α-La), β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein isolate (WPI) as nanocarriers of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities of the formed nanoparticles were examined. The physicochemical characteristics of the formed nanoparticles as well as the entrapment efficiency (%) and the in vitro behavior regarding the release of curcumin (%) were examined. The results showed that the formation of curcumin–milk protein nanoparticles enhanced both the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro behavior release of curcumin (%). Cur/β-lg nanoparticles had the highest antioxidant activity, while SC and WPC nanoparticles had the highest anticancer effect. The antimicrobial activity of the formed nanoparticles was much higher compared to curcumin and the native milk proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Valorisation of Grape Stems as a Source of Phenolic Antioxidants by Using a Sustainable Extraction Methodology
Foods 2020, 9(5), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050604 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Pressurized liquid extraction with ethanol:water mixtures was proposed for obtaining phenolic antioxidants from grape stems. The optimal extraction conditions were elucidated by using a central composite rotatable design (solvent (X1, 0–100% ethanol:water v/v), temperature (X2, 40–120 [...] Read more.
Pressurized liquid extraction with ethanol:water mixtures was proposed for obtaining phenolic antioxidants from grape stems. The optimal extraction conditions were elucidated by using a central composite rotatable design (solvent (X1, 0–100% ethanol:water v/v), temperature (X2, 40–120 °C) and time (X3, 1–11 min)). Response surface methodology determined 30% ethanol:water, 120 °C and 10 min as the optimal extraction conditions regarding total phenolic content (TPC) (185.3 ± 2.9 mg gallic acid/g of extract) and antioxidant activity (3.55 ± 0.21 mmol Trolox/g, 1.22 ± 0.06 mmol Trolox/g and 1.48 ± 0.17 mmol Trolox/g of extract in ABTS, DPPH and ORAC methodologies, respectively). The antioxidant activity was attributed to total polymer procyanidins and flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers, although other phenolic compound contributions should not be ruled out. Forty-two phenolic compounds were identified in the optimal extract, mainly polymer procyanidins and, to a lesser extent, monomers and oligomers of flavan-3-ols, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, ε-viniferin, gallic and caftaric acid. Ethyl gallate, ellagic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, delphinidin-7-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were reported for the first time in grape stem extracts. In conclusion, this study highlights the use of this winery side stream as a source of antioxidants within a sustainable food system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Mineral Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Coffee Beverages Depending on the Brewing Method
Foods 2020, 9(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020121 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3781
Abstract
Coffee, being one of the world’s most popular beverages, is a rich source of dietary antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral content and antioxidant activity as well as acidity of coffee beverages depending on the brewing technique. We [...] Read more.
Coffee, being one of the world’s most popular beverages, is a rich source of dietary antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral content and antioxidant activity as well as acidity of coffee beverages depending on the brewing technique. We tested coffee brews made and served at a popular urban coffee shop (Szczecin, Poland). Five coffee brewing techniques were used: Aeropress, drip, espresso machine, French press, and simple infusion. Our findings showed that the brewing method had a significant effect on all parameters tested in the study. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was high (31%–42% inhibition of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl); reduction potential from 3435.06 mol Fe3+/mL to 4298.19 mol Fe3+/mL). Polyphenolic content ranged from 133.90 g (French press) to 191.29 g of gallic acid/L (Aeropress brew), depending on the coffee extraction method. Mineral content was also found to differ between brewing methods. Coffees prepared by simple infusion and Aeropress provided a valuable source of magnesium, manganese, chromium, cobalt, and potassium, whereas the drip brew was found to be a good source of silicon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Melanoidins from Chinese Distilled Spent Grain: Content, Preliminary Structure, Antioxidant, and ACE-Inhibitory Activities In Vitro
Foods 2019, 8(10), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100516 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
Distilled spent grain (DSG), as the major by-product of baijiu making, contains melanoidins generated via the Maillard reaction. In this study, four melanoidin fractions (RF1‒RF4) were isolated successively from dried DSG (DDSG) using sodium hydroxide solution and water as extractants, and the content, [...] Read more.
Distilled spent grain (DSG), as the major by-product of baijiu making, contains melanoidins generated via the Maillard reaction. In this study, four melanoidin fractions (RF1‒RF4) were isolated successively from dried DSG (DDSG) using sodium hydroxide solution and water as extractants, and the content, preliminary structure, and ACE-inhibitory activities in vitro of melanoidins were first investigated. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The results indicated that the total content of melanoidins was 268.60 mg/g DDSG dry weight (dw) using a model system of glucose and serine as standard, and RF4 showed the highest content of melanoidins (174.30 mg/g DDSG dw). Functional groups like C=O, N‒H, C‒N, O‒H, C‒H, C‒O, C-C, and ‒C‒CO‒C‒ were present in the structure of melanoidins from RF4, as determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) assay. The highest antioxidant activities, as assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assays, and the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (95.92% at 2 mg RF4/mL) were also exhibited by RF4. The RF4 was further fractionated by ultrafiltration based on molecular weight (MW). The more than 100 kDa melanoidins (RF4-6) exhibited the highest yield and antioxidant activity. The 3‒10 kDa melanoidins (RF4-2) were more efficient in ACE-inhibitory activity. Our study could raise awareness of the DDSG as a value-added resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Stability of Flavonoid, Carotenoid, Soluble Sugar and Vitamin C in ‘Cara Cara’ Juice during Storage
Foods 2019, 8(9), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090417 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
In view of understanding the stability of sterilized ‘Cara Cara’ juice during storage, the changes of specific quality parameters (flavonoid, carotenoid, vitamin C, soluble sugar and antioxidant activities) of ‘Cara Cara’ juice were systematically investigated over the course of 16 weeks in storage [...] Read more.
In view of understanding the stability of sterilized ‘Cara Cara’ juice during storage, the changes of specific quality parameters (flavonoid, carotenoid, vitamin C, soluble sugar and antioxidant activities) of ‘Cara Cara’ juice were systematically investigated over the course of 16 weeks in storage at 4, 20, 30 and 40 °C. Total flavonoid and carotenoid indexes showed slight degradation at each temperature, while vitamin C and soluble sugar degraded intensively, especially at 40 °C storage with a great amount of HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) accumulated. There were 29 carotenoids detected during storage, including carotenes and carotenoid esters. Carotenes were kept stable, while the degradations of carotenoid esters were fitted by biexponential function. Carotenoid ester group 2 contained epoxy structures that quickly decreased in the first four weeks at all storage temperatures, while the ester group 1 (belonged to β-cryptoxanthin ester) was degraded gradually. The 13- or 15-cis-lycopene, isomerized from all-(trans)-lycopene, increased with storage time at each temperature. Total flavonoid and carotenoid indexes in stored ‘Cara Cara’ juice were positively correlated with hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Review

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Review
Apitherapy for Age-Related Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction (Sarcopenia): A Review on the Effects of Royal Jelly, Propolis, and Bee Pollen
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101362 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 7356
Abstract
The global pandemic of sarcopenia, skeletal muscle loss and weakness, which prevails in up to 50% of older adults is increasing worldwide due to the expansion of aging populations. It is now striking young and midlife adults as well because of sedentary lifestyle [...] Read more.
The global pandemic of sarcopenia, skeletal muscle loss and weakness, which prevails in up to 50% of older adults is increasing worldwide due to the expansion of aging populations. It is now striking young and midlife adults as well because of sedentary lifestyle and increased intake of unhealthy food (e.g., western diet). The lockdown measures and economic turndown associated with the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are likely to increase the prevalence of sarcopenia by promoting sedentarism and unhealthy patterns of eating. Sarcopenia has multiple detrimental effects including falls, hospitalization, disability, and institutionalization. Although a few pharmacological agents (e.g., bimagrumab, sarconeos, and exercise mimetics) are being explored in different stages of trials, not a single drug has been approved for sarcopenia treatment. Hence, research has focused on testing the effect of nutraceuticals, such as bee products, as safe treatments to prevent and/or treat sarcopenia. Royal jelly, propolis, and bee pollen are common bee products that are rich in highly potent antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, and amino acids. These products, in order, stimulate larval development into queen bees, promote defenses of the bee hive against microbial and environmental threats, and increase royal jelly production by nurse bees. Thanks to their versatile pharmacological activities (e.g., anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, etc.), these products have been used to treat multiple chronic conditions that predispose to muscle wasting such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorder, and cancer, to name a few. They were also used in some evolving studies to treat sarcopenia in laboratory animals and, to a limited degree, in humans. However, a collective understanding of the effect and mechanism of action of these products in skeletal muscle is not well-developed. Therefore, this review examines the literature for possible effects of royal jelly, bee pollen, and propolis on skeletal muscle in aged experimental models, muscle cell cultures, and humans. Collectively, data from reviewed studies denote varying levels of positive effects of bee products on muscle mass, strength, and function. The likely underlying mechanisms include amelioration of inflammation and oxidative damages, promotion of metabolic regulation, enhancement of satellite stem cell responsiveness, improvement of muscular blood supply, inhibition of catabolic genes, and promotion of peripheral neuronal regeneration. This review offers suggestions for other mechanisms to be explored and provides guidance for future trials investigating the effects of bee products among people with sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Review
Insights on Health and Food Applications of Equus asinus (Donkey) Milk Bioactive Proteins and Peptides—An Overview
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091302 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Due to its similarity with human milk and its low allergenic properties, donkey milk has long been used as an alternative for infants and patients with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA). In addition, this milk is attracting growing interest in human nutrition because [...] Read more.
Due to its similarity with human milk and its low allergenic properties, donkey milk has long been used as an alternative for infants and patients with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA). In addition, this milk is attracting growing interest in human nutrition because of presumed health benefits. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antiproliferative and antidiabetic activity. In addition, it stimulates the immune system, regulates the gastrointestinal flora, and prevents inflammatory diseases. Although all donkey milk components can contribute to functional and nutritional effects, it is generally accepted that the whey protein fraction plays a significant role. This review aims to highlight the active proteins and peptides of donkey milk in comparison with other types of milk, emphasizing their properties and their roles in different fields of health and food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Review
Bioactive Compounds and Bioactivities of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
Foods 2019, 8(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060185 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 238 | Viewed by 16934
Abstract
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common and widely used spice. It is rich in various chemical constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and raw fibers. The health benefits of ginger are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds, such [...] Read more.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common and widely used spice. It is rich in various chemical constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and raw fibers. The health benefits of ginger are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds, such as gingerols and shogaols. Accumulated investigations have demonstrated that ginger possesses multiple biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, neuroprotective, cardiovascular protective, respiratory protective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antinausea, and antiemetic activities. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger, and the mechanisms of action are also discussed. We hope that this updated review paper will attract more attention to ginger and its further applications, including its potential to be developed into functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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