Special Issue "Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Daniele Naviglio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Naples, Italy
Interests: solid-liquid extraction techniques; diary oil and fat analysis; gaschromatography; liquid chromatography (HPLC); butter; olive oil; saffron analysis; iron (II) citrate complex; integrators; egg analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Monica Gallo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131, Naples, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds; biological fluids; diet; disease prevention; extraction; food; functional foods; health; lipids; nutraceuticals
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Two centuries ago, the application of Analytical Chemistry to the study of food composition gave life to a new science named “Bromatology” (from the Greek βρῶμα, brṑma, "food"). This science can be considered as a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of foods, emphasizing the aspects related to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of its components (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, etc.) and nowadays is referred to as Food Chemistry. This new science studies the chemical composition of foods and the properties of their constituents, which contribute to defining their nutritional and product value. Furthermore, it studies the chemical modifications that food constituents undergo as a result of treatments to which they are subjected (Food Technology). Therefore, food analysis makes it possible to determine the quality of a product or its nutritional value; moreover it makes it possible to reveal adulterations and identify the presence of xenobiotic substances potentially harmful to human health. Furthermore, some foods, particularly those of plant origin, contain numerous substances with beneficial health effects. These functional compounds can be ingested not only through proper nutrition but also as extracts from vegetable matrices used in the formulation of nutraceutical products or added to foods by technological or biotechnological means for the realization of functional foods. The huge growth of the industry of food in the last fifty years has enlarged the field of application of analytical chemistry to not only foods but also food technology that is fundamental to increase the production of all types of food. In this Special Issue, “Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology”, we invite all specialists and researchers working in this field to submit scientific articles in which analytical chemistry is applied to the analysis of foods and/or to the study or evaluation of food technologies and that could be of reference for future applications.

Prof. Daniele Naviglio
Prof. Monica Gallo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lipids
  • Gaschromatography
  • Saffron
  • Eggs
  • Butter
  • Olive oil
  • Antioxidants
  • Phytochemicals
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Functional foods
  • Solid-liquid extraction techniques
  • Liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • Mass spectrometry

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Aromatic Characterization of Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) Using Solid Phase Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Olfactometry and Sensory Analyses
Foods 2020, 9(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010075 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are wildly cultivated in China with different commercial varieties; however, characterization of their aromatic profiles is limited. To better understand the aromatic compounds in different mango fruits, the characteristic aromatic components of five Chinese mango varieties were investigated [...] Read more.
Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are wildly cultivated in China with different commercial varieties; however, characterization of their aromatic profiles is limited. To better understand the aromatic compounds in different mango fruits, the characteristic aromatic components of five Chinese mango varieties were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) techniques. Five major types of substances, including alcohols, terpenes, esters, aldehydes, and ketones were detected. GC-O (frequency detection (FD)/order-specific magnitude estimation (OSME)) analysis identified 23, 20, 20, 24, and 24 kinds of aromatic components in Jinmang, Qingmang, Guifei, Hongyu, and Tainong, respectively. Moreover, 11, 9, 9, 8, and 17 substances with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥1 were observed in Jinmang, Qingmang, Guifei, Hongyu, and Tainong, respectively. Further sensory analysis revealed that the OAV and GC-O (FD/OSME) methods were coincided with the main sensory aromatic profiles (fruit, sweet, flower, and rosin aromas) of the five mango pulps. Approximately 29 (FD ≥ 6, OSME ≥ 2, OAV ≥ 1) aroma-active compounds were identified in the pulps of five mango varieties, namely, γ-terpinene, 1-hexanol, hexanal, terpinolene trans-2-heptenal, and p-cymene, which were responsible for their special flavor. Aldehydes and terpenes play a vital role in the special flavor of mango, and those in Tainong were significantly higher than in the other four varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging with Machine Learning Methods to Identify Geographical Origins of Dry Narrow-Leaved Oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Fruits
Foods 2019, 8(12), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120620 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
Narrow-leaved oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) fruit is a kind of natural product used as food and traditional medicine. Narrow-leaved oleaster fruits from different geographical origins vary in chemical and physical properties and differ in their nutritional and commercial values. In this study, [...] Read more.
Narrow-leaved oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) fruit is a kind of natural product used as food and traditional medicine. Narrow-leaved oleaster fruits from different geographical origins vary in chemical and physical properties and differ in their nutritional and commercial values. In this study, near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to identify the geographical origins of dry narrow-leaved oleaster fruits with machine learning methods. Average spectra of each single narrow-leaved oleaster fruit were extracted. Second derivative spectra were used to identify effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to build discriminant models for geographical origin identification using full spectra and effective wavelengths. In addition, deep convolutional neural network (CNN) models were built using full spectra and effective wavelengths. Good classification performances were obtained by these three models using full spectra and effective wavelengths, with classification accuracy of the calibration, validation, and prediction set all over 90%. Models using effective wavelengths obtained close results to models using full spectra. The performances of the PLS-DA, SVM, and CNN models were close. The overall results illustrated that near-infrared hyperspectral imaging coupled with machine learning could be used to trace geographical origins of dry narrow-leaved oleaster fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a HILIC UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Amino Acid Profiling in Triticum Species Wheat Flours
Foods 2019, 8(10), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100514 - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) [...] Read more.
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) in wheat flour samples after acid hydrolysis with 6 M HCl in the presence of 4% (v/v) thioglycolic acid as a reducing agent. The developed method proved to be a fast and reliable tool for acquiring information on the AA profile of cereal flours. The method has been applied and tested in 10 flour samples of spelt, emmer, and common wheat flours of organic or conventional cultivation and with different extraction rates (70%, 90%, and 100%). All the aforementioned allowed us to study and evaluate the variation of the AA profile among the studied flours, in relation to other quality characteristics, such as protein content, wet gluten, and gluten index. Significant differences were observed in the AA profiles of the studied flours. Moreover, AA profiles exhibited significant interactions with quality characteristics that proved to be affected based mainly on the type of grain. A statistical and multivariate analysis of the AA profiles and quality characteristics has been performed, as to identify potential interactions between protein content, amino acids, and quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Volatile Constituents in Platostoma palustre (Blume) Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction
Foods 2019, 8(9), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090415 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase [...] Read more.
Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). HS-SPME is a non-heating method, and the results show relatively true values of the samples during flavor isolation. However, it is a kind of headspace analysis that has the disadvantage of a lower detection ability to relatively higher molecular weight compounds; also, the data are not quantitative, but instead are used for comparison. The SDE method uses distillation 2 h for flavor isolation; therefore, it quantitatively identifies more volatile compounds in the samples while the samples withstand heating. Both methods were used in this study to investigate information about the samples. The results showed that Nongshi No. 1 had the highest total quantity of volatile components using HS-SPME, whereas SDE indicated that Taoyuan Mesona 1301 (TYM1301) had the highest volatile concentration. Using the two extraction methods, 120 volatile components were identified. Fifty-six volatile components were identified using HS-SPME, and the main volatile compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. A total of 108 volatile components were identified using SDE, and the main volatile compounds were α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Compared with SDE, HS-SPME sampling extracted a significantly higher amount of monoterpenes and had a poorer detection of less volatile compounds, such as sesquiterpenes, terpene alcohols, and terpene oxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Analytical and Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Food Colorants in Food Matrices
Foods 2020, 9(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010058 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
Color additives are widely used by the food industry to enhance the appearance, as well as the nutritional properties of a food product. However, some of these substances may pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are consumed excessively and [...] Read more.
Color additives are widely used by the food industry to enhance the appearance, as well as the nutritional properties of a food product. However, some of these substances may pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are consumed excessively and are regulated, giving great importance to their determination. Several matrix-dependent methods have been developed and applied to determine food colorants, by employing different analytical techniques along with appropriate sample preparation protocols. Major techniques applied for their determination are chromatography with spectophotometricdetectors and spectrophotometry, while sample preparation procedures greatly depend on the food matrix. In this review these methods are presented, covering the advancements of existing methodologies applied over the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Open AccessReview
Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): A Powerful and Greener Alternative to the Latest Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques
Foods 2019, 8(7), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070245 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The [...] Read more.
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The objective of this procedure is the extraction of any compounds that can be carried out from the inner solid material to the outlet, resulting in a solution containing colorants, bioactive compounds, odorous substances, etc. Over the years, in the extraction techniques sector, there have been many important changes from the points of view of production, quality, and human and environmental safety due to improvements in technology. In more recent times, the interest of the scientific community has been aimed at the study of sustainable processes for the valorization of extracts from vegetables and food by-products, through the use of non-conventional (innovative) technologies that represent a valid alternative to conventional methods, generally through saving time and energy and the formation of fewer by-products. Therefore, with the development of principles based on the prevention of pollution, on a lower risk for human health, and on a low environmental impact, new systems have been implemented to reduce extraction times and solvent consumption, to improve efficiency, and to increase the productivity of the extracts. From this point of view, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), performed using the Naviglio extractor, compared to traditional applications, is a technique that is able to reduce extraction times, generally leads to higher yields, does not require heating of the system, allows one to extract the active ingredients, and avoids their degradation. This technique is based on a new solid-liquid extraction principle named Naviglio’s principle. In this review, after reviewing the latest extraction techniques, an overview of RSLDE applications in various research and production sectors over the past two decades is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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