Special Issue "Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Daniele Naviglio
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Naples, Italy
Interests: solid-liquid extraction techniques; diary oil and fat analysis; gaschromatography; liquid chromatography (HPLC); butter; olive oil; saffron analysis; iron (II) citrate complex; integrators; egg analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Monica Gallo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131, Naples, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds; biological fluids; diet; disease prevention; extraction; food; functional foods; health; lipids; nutraceuticals
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Two centuries ago, the application of Analytical Chemistry to the study of food composition gave life to a new science named “Bromatology” (from the Greek βρῶμα, brṑma, "food"). This science can be considered as a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of foods, emphasizing the aspects related to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of its components (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, etc.) and nowadays is referred to as Food Chemistry. This new science studies the chemical composition of foods and the properties of their constituents, which contribute to defining their nutritional and product value. Furthermore, it studies the chemical modifications that food constituents undergo as a result of treatments to which they are subjected (Food Technology). Therefore, food analysis makes it possible to determine the quality of a product or its nutritional value; moreover it makes it possible to reveal adulterations and identify the presence of xenobiotic substances potentially harmful to human health. Furthermore, some foods, particularly those of plant origin, contain numerous substances with beneficial health effects. These functional compounds can be ingested not only through proper nutrition but also as extracts from vegetable matrices used in the formulation of nutraceutical products or added to foods by technological or biotechnological means for the realization of functional foods. The huge growth of the industry of food in the last fifty years has enlarged the field of application of analytical chemistry to not only foods but also food technology that is fundamental to increase the production of all types of food. In this Special Issue, “Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology”, we invite all specialists and researchers working in this field to submit scientific articles in which analytical chemistry is applied to the analysis of foods and/or to the study or evaluation of food technologies and that could be of reference for future applications.

Prof. Daniele Naviglio
Prof. Monica Gallo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lipids
  • Gaschromatography
  • Saffron
  • Eggs
  • Butter
  • Olive oil
  • Antioxidants
  • Phytochemicals
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Functional foods
  • Solid-liquid extraction techniques
  • Liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • Mass spectrometry

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091296 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
Foods are a mixture of substances capable of supplying the human body with nutrients, which, once metabolized, are used mainly for the production of energy, heat, replenishment, and growth material for organs and tissues, ensuring the normal performance of vital functions necessary for [...] Read more.
Foods are a mixture of substances capable of supplying the human body with nutrients, which, once metabolized, are used mainly for the production of energy, heat, replenishment, and growth material for organs and tissues, ensuring the normal performance of vital functions necessary for growth of the human body. Therefore, the study of the chemical composition of foods and the properties of their constituents helps to define their nutritional and commodity values. Furthermore, it allows for evaluation of the chemical modifications that the constituents of the food undergo following the treatments (Food Technology) to which they are subjected. Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry based on the qualitative and quantitative determination of compounds present in a sample under examination. Therefore, through its application, it is possible to determine the quality of a product and/or its nutritional value, reveal adulterations, identify the presence of xenobiotic substances potentially harmful to human health (heavy metals, IPA, pharmaceuticals, etc.). Furthermore, some foods, in particular those of plant origin, contain numerous substances, secondary metabolites, with huge beneficial effects for human health. These functional components can be taken both through a correct diet, but also obtained from different food matrices by technological or biotechnological processes for the formulation of both functional foods and/or nutraceutical products. This Special Issue brings together 10 original studies and two comprehensive reviews on the above topics, in particular: (i) processes of extraction, identification, and characterization of biologically active compounds from different food matrices, (ii) overview of the main techniques applied for the determination of food colors, (iii) newer and greener solid-liquid extraction techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
A Cross-Flow Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L.: Process Design to Avoid Degradation
Foods 2020, 9(6), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060743 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. are well known for their content of curcuminoids, which are compounds with interesting biological activity against various inflammatory states and diseases. Curcuminoids can degrade during processing. This piece of work investigates fast, efficient and cost-effective metabolite recovery from [...] Read more.
Rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. are well known for their content of curcuminoids, which are compounds with interesting biological activity against various inflammatory states and diseases. Curcuminoids can degrade during processing. This piece of work investigates fast, efficient and cost-effective metabolite recovery from turmeric under ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). An analytical evaluation of curcuminoid stability under sonication in different solvents is reported for the first time. HPLC and quantitative 1H-NMR were used. Under the applied conditions, EtOAc was found to be the optimal extraction medium, rather than EtOH, due to its lower radical generation, which facilitates better curcuminoid stability. Kinetic characterization, by means of the Peleg equation, was applied for single-step UAE on two different rhizome granulometries. Over a time of 90 min, maximum extraction yields were 25.63% and 47.56% for 6 and 2 mm matrix powders, respectively. However, it was observed that the largest portion of curcuminoid recovery was achieved in the first 30 min. Model outcomes were used as the basis for the design of a suitable multi-step cross-flow approach that supports and emphasizes the disruptive role of cavitation. The maximum curcuminoid yield was achieved over three steps (92.10%) and four steps (80.04%), for lower and higher granulometries, respectively. Finally, the central role of the solvent was further confirmed by turmeric oleoresin purification. The EtOAc extract was purified via crystallization, and a 95% pure curcuminoid product was isolated without any chromatographic procedure. No suitable crystallization was observed for the EtOH extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Hydrocolloid-Based Coatings with Nanoparticles and Transglutaminase Crosslinker as Innovative Strategy to Produce Healthier Fried Kobbah
Foods 2020, 9(6), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060698 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study addresses the effect of coating solutions on fried kobbah. Coating solutions were made of pectin (PEC) and grass pea flour (GPF), treated or not with transglutaminase (TGase) and nanoparticles (NPs)—namely mesoporous silica NPs (MSN) or chitosan NPs (CH–NPs). Acrylamide content (ACR), [...] Read more.
This study addresses the effect of coating solutions on fried kobbah. Coating solutions were made of pectin (PEC) and grass pea flour (GPF), treated or not with transglutaminase (TGase) and nanoparticles (NPs)—namely mesoporous silica NPs (MSN) or chitosan NPs (CH–NPs). Acrylamide content (ACR), water, oil content and color of uncoated (control) and coated kobbah were investigated. Zeta potential, Z-average and in vitro digestion experiments were carried out. Zeta potential of CH–NPs was stable from pH 2.0 to pH 6.0 around + 35 mV but decreasing at pH > 6.0. However, the Z-average of CH–NPs increased by increasing the pH. All coating solutions were prepared at pH 6.0. ACR of the coated kobbah with TGase-treated GPF in the presence nanoparticles (MSN or CH–NPs) was reduced by 41.0% and 47.5%, respectively. However, the PEC containing CH–NPs showed the higher reduction of the ACR by 78.0%. Water content was higher in kobbah coated by PEC + CH–NPs solutions, while the oil content was lower. The color analysis indicated that kobbah with lower browning index containing lower ACR. Finally, in vitro digestion studies of both coating solutions and coated kobbah, demonstrated that the coating solutions and kobbah made by means of TGase or nanoparticles were efficiently digested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Spectinomycin and Lincomycin in Poultry Eggs by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2020, 9(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050651 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of spectinomycin and lincomycin in poultry egg (whole egg, albumen and yolk) samples. In this work, the samples were extracted and [...] Read more.
A method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of spectinomycin and lincomycin in poultry egg (whole egg, albumen and yolk) samples. In this work, the samples were extracted and purified using an ASE350 instrument and solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the parameters of the ASE method were experimentally optimized. The appropriate SPE cartridges were selected, and the conditions for the derivatization reaction were optimized. After derivatization, the poultry egg (whole egg, albumen and yolk) samples were analyzed by GC-MS/MS. This study used blank poultry egg (whole egg, albumen and yolk) samples to evaluate the specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery and precision of the method. The linearity (5.6–2000 μg/kg for spectinomycin and 5.9–200 μg/kg for lincomycin), correlation coefficient (≥0.9991), recovery (80.0%–95.7%), precision (relative standard deviations, 1.0%–3.4%), limit of detection (2.3–4.3 μg/kg) and limit of quantification (5.6–9.5 μg/kg) of the method met the requirements for EU parameter verification. Compared with traditional liquid–liquid extraction methods, the proposed method is fast and consumes less reagents, and 24 samples can be processed at a time. Finally, the feasibility of the method was evaluated by testing real samples, and spectinomycin and lincomycin residues in poultry eggs were successfully detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Conventional Soxhlet Extraction for Rosemary Antioxidants, Yield, Composition, and Environmental Footprint
Foods 2020, 9(5), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050584 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Nowadays, “green analytical chemistry” challenges are to develop techniques which reduce the environmental impact not only in term of analysis but also in the sample preparation step. Within this objective, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was investigated to determine the initial composition of key [...] Read more.
Nowadays, “green analytical chemistry” challenges are to develop techniques which reduce the environmental impact not only in term of analysis but also in the sample preparation step. Within this objective, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was investigated to determine the initial composition of key antioxidants contained in rosemary leaves: Rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CO). An experimental design was applied to identify an optimized PLE set of extraction parameters: A temperature of 183 °C, a pressure of 130 bar, and an extraction duration of 3 min enabled recovering rosemary antioxidants. PLE was further compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction (CSE) in term of global processing time, energy used, solvent recovery, raw material used, accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness to extract quantitatively RA, CA, and CO from rosemary leaves. A statistical comparison of the two extraction procedure (PLE and CSE) was achieved and showed no significant difference between the two procedures in terms of RA, CA, and CO extraction. To complete the study showing that the use of PLE is an advantageous alternative to CSE, the eco-footprint of the PLE process was evaluated. Results demonstrate that it is a rapid, clean, and environmentally friendly extraction technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Profile and Biological Properties of Colchicum triphyllum (Meadow Saffron)
Foods 2020, 9(4), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040457 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this work, the phytochemical profile and the biological properties of Colchicum triphyllum (an unexplored Turkish cultivar belonging to Colchicaceae) have been comprehensively investigated for the first time. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects [...] Read more.
In this work, the phytochemical profile and the biological properties of Colchicum triphyllum (an unexplored Turkish cultivar belonging to Colchicaceae) have been comprehensively investigated for the first time. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of flower, tuber, and leaf extracts, obtained using different extraction methods, namely maceration (both aqueous and methanolic), infusion, and Soxhlet. Besides, the complete phenolic and alkaloid untargeted metabolomic profiling of the different extracts was investigated. In this regard, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) allowed us to putatively annotate 285 compounds when considering the different matrix extracts, including mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, and tyrosol equivalents. The most abundant polyphenols were flavonoids (119 compounds), while colchicine, demecolcine, and lumicolchicine isomers were some of the most widespread alkaloids in each extract analyzed. In addition, our findings showed that C. triphyllum tuber extracts were a superior source of both total alkaloids and total polyphenols, being on average 2.89 and 10.41 mg/g, respectively. Multivariate statistics following metabolomics allowed for the detection of those compounds most affected by the different extraction methods. Overall, C. triphyllum leaf extracts showed a strong in vitro antioxidant capacity, in terms of cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC; on average 96.45 mg Trolox Equivalents (TE)/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) reducing power (on average 66.86 mg TE/g). Interestingly, each C. triphyllum methanolic extract analyzed (i.e., from tuber, leaf, and flower) was active against the tyrosinase in terms of inhibition, recording the higher values for methanolic macerated leaves (i.e., 125.78 mg kojic acid equivalent (KAE)/g). On the other hand, moderate inhibitory activities were observed against AChE and α-amylase. Strong correlations (p < 0.01) were also observed between the phytochemical profiles and the biological activities determined. Therefore, our findings highlighted, for the first time, the potential of C. triphhyllum extracts in food and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
ELISA and Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Sensitive and Specific Determination of Lead (II) in Water, Food and Feed Samples
Foods 2020, 9(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030305 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lead is a heavy metal with increasing public health concerns on its accumulation in the food chain and environment. Immunoassays for the quantitative measurement of environmental heavy metals offer numerous advantages over other traditional methods. ELISA and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), based on [...] Read more.
Lead is a heavy metal with increasing public health concerns on its accumulation in the food chain and environment. Immunoassays for the quantitative measurement of environmental heavy metals offer numerous advantages over other traditional methods. ELISA and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), based on the mAb we generated, were developed for the detection of lead (II). In total, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of lead (II) were 9.4 ng/mL (ELISA) and 1.4 ng/mL (CLEIA); the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.7 ng/mL (ic-ELISA) and 0.1 ng/mL (ic-CLEIA), respectively. Cross-reactivities of the mAb toward other metal ions were less than 0.943%, indicating that the obtained mAb has high sensitivity and specificity. The recovery rates were 82.1%–108.3% (ic-ELISA) and 80.1%–98.8% (ic-CLEIA), respectively. The developed methods are feasible for the determination of trace lead (II) in various samples with high sensitivity, specificity, fastness, simplicity and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Aromatic Characterization of Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) Using Solid Phase Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Olfactometry and Sensory Analyses
Foods 2020, 9(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010075 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are wildly cultivated in China with different commercial varieties; however, characterization of their aromatic profiles is limited. To better understand the aromatic compounds in different mango fruits, the characteristic aromatic components of five Chinese mango varieties were investigated [...] Read more.
Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are wildly cultivated in China with different commercial varieties; however, characterization of their aromatic profiles is limited. To better understand the aromatic compounds in different mango fruits, the characteristic aromatic components of five Chinese mango varieties were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) techniques. Five major types of substances, including alcohols, terpenes, esters, aldehydes, and ketones were detected. GC-O (frequency detection (FD)/order-specific magnitude estimation (OSME)) analysis identified 23, 20, 20, 24, and 24 kinds of aromatic components in Jinmang, Qingmang, Guifei, Hongyu, and Tainong, respectively. Moreover, 11, 9, 9, 8, and 17 substances with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥1 were observed in Jinmang, Qingmang, Guifei, Hongyu, and Tainong, respectively. Further sensory analysis revealed that the OAV and GC-O (FD/OSME) methods were coincided with the main sensory aromatic profiles (fruit, sweet, flower, and rosin aromas) of the five mango pulps. Approximately 29 (FD ≥ 6, OSME ≥ 2, OAV ≥ 1) aroma-active compounds were identified in the pulps of five mango varieties, namely, γ-terpinene, 1-hexanol, hexanal, terpinolene trans-2-heptenal, and p-cymene, which were responsible for their special flavor. Aldehydes and terpenes play a vital role in the special flavor of mango, and those in Tainong were significantly higher than in the other four varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Application of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging with Machine Learning Methods to Identify Geographical Origins of Dry Narrow-Leaved Oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Fruits
Foods 2019, 8(12), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120620 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Narrow-leaved oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) fruit is a kind of natural product used as food and traditional medicine. Narrow-leaved oleaster fruits from different geographical origins vary in chemical and physical properties and differ in their nutritional and commercial values. In this study, [...] Read more.
Narrow-leaved oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia) fruit is a kind of natural product used as food and traditional medicine. Narrow-leaved oleaster fruits from different geographical origins vary in chemical and physical properties and differ in their nutritional and commercial values. In this study, near-infrared hyperspectral imaging covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to identify the geographical origins of dry narrow-leaved oleaster fruits with machine learning methods. Average spectra of each single narrow-leaved oleaster fruit were extracted. Second derivative spectra were used to identify effective wavelengths. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to build discriminant models for geographical origin identification using full spectra and effective wavelengths. In addition, deep convolutional neural network (CNN) models were built using full spectra and effective wavelengths. Good classification performances were obtained by these three models using full spectra and effective wavelengths, with classification accuracy of the calibration, validation, and prediction set all over 90%. Models using effective wavelengths obtained close results to models using full spectra. The performances of the PLS-DA, SVM, and CNN models were close. The overall results illustrated that near-infrared hyperspectral imaging coupled with machine learning could be used to trace geographical origins of dry narrow-leaved oleaster fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Validation of a HILIC UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Amino Acid Profiling in Triticum Species Wheat Flours
Foods 2019, 8(10), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100514 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) [...] Read more.
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) in wheat flour samples after acid hydrolysis with 6 M HCl in the presence of 4% (v/v) thioglycolic acid as a reducing agent. The developed method proved to be a fast and reliable tool for acquiring information on the AA profile of cereal flours. The method has been applied and tested in 10 flour samples of spelt, emmer, and common wheat flours of organic or conventional cultivation and with different extraction rates (70%, 90%, and 100%). All the aforementioned allowed us to study and evaluate the variation of the AA profile among the studied flours, in relation to other quality characteristics, such as protein content, wet gluten, and gluten index. Significant differences were observed in the AA profiles of the studied flours. Moreover, AA profiles exhibited significant interactions with quality characteristics that proved to be affected based mainly on the type of grain. A statistical and multivariate analysis of the AA profiles and quality characteristics has been performed, as to identify potential interactions between protein content, amino acids, and quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Volatile Constituents in Platostoma palustre (Blume) Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction
Foods 2019, 8(9), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090415 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase [...] Read more.
Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). HS-SPME is a non-heating method, and the results show relatively true values of the samples during flavor isolation. However, it is a kind of headspace analysis that has the disadvantage of a lower detection ability to relatively higher molecular weight compounds; also, the data are not quantitative, but instead are used for comparison. The SDE method uses distillation 2 h for flavor isolation; therefore, it quantitatively identifies more volatile compounds in the samples while the samples withstand heating. Both methods were used in this study to investigate information about the samples. The results showed that Nongshi No. 1 had the highest total quantity of volatile components using HS-SPME, whereas SDE indicated that Taoyuan Mesona 1301 (TYM1301) had the highest volatile concentration. Using the two extraction methods, 120 volatile components were identified. Fifty-six volatile components were identified using HS-SPME, and the main volatile compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. A total of 108 volatile components were identified using SDE, and the main volatile compounds were α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Compared with SDE, HS-SPME sampling extracted a significantly higher amount of monoterpenes and had a poorer detection of less volatile compounds, such as sesquiterpenes, terpene alcohols, and terpene oxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview
Analytical and Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Food Colorants in Food Matrices
Foods 2020, 9(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010058 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Color additives are widely used by the food industry to enhance the appearance, as well as the nutritional properties of a food product. However, some of these substances may pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are consumed excessively and [...] Read more.
Color additives are widely used by the food industry to enhance the appearance, as well as the nutritional properties of a food product. However, some of these substances may pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are consumed excessively and are regulated, giving great importance to their determination. Several matrix-dependent methods have been developed and applied to determine food colorants, by employing different analytical techniques along with appropriate sample preparation protocols. Major techniques applied for their determination are chromatography with spectophotometricdetectors and spectrophotometry, while sample preparation procedures greatly depend on the food matrix. In this review these methods are presented, covering the advancements of existing methodologies applied over the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): A Powerful and Greener Alternative to the Latest Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques
Foods 2019, 8(7), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070245 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 16
Abstract
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The [...] Read more.
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The objective of this procedure is the extraction of any compounds that can be carried out from the inner solid material to the outlet, resulting in a solution containing colorants, bioactive compounds, odorous substances, etc. Over the years, in the extraction techniques sector, there have been many important changes from the points of view of production, quality, and human and environmental safety due to improvements in technology. In more recent times, the interest of the scientific community has been aimed at the study of sustainable processes for the valorization of extracts from vegetables and food by-products, through the use of non-conventional (innovative) technologies that represent a valid alternative to conventional methods, generally through saving time and energy and the formation of fewer by-products. Therefore, with the development of principles based on the prevention of pollution, on a lower risk for human health, and on a low environmental impact, new systems have been implemented to reduce extraction times and solvent consumption, to improve efficiency, and to increase the productivity of the extracts. From this point of view, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), performed using the Naviglio extractor, compared to traditional applications, is a technique that is able to reduce extraction times, generally leads to higher yields, does not require heating of the system, allows one to extract the active ingredients, and avoids their degradation. This technique is based on a new solid-liquid extraction principle named Naviglio’s principle. In this review, after reviewing the latest extraction techniques, an overview of RSLDE applications in various research and production sectors over the past two decades is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop