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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Food and Byproducts Processing towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy
Foods 2019, 8(9), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090425 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 104
Abstract
The bioeconomy concept was initially focused on resource substitution, aiming to mitigate the depletion of fossil resources and confer an alternative approach for resource utilization[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Phytochemicals in Daucus carota and Their Health Benefits—Review Article
Foods 2019, 8(9), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090424 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Carrots are a multi-nutritional food source. They are an important root vegetable, rich in natural bioactive compounds, which are recognised for their nutraceutical effects and health benefits. This review summarises the occurrence, biosynthesis, factors affecting concentration, and health benefits of phytochemicals found in [...] Read more.
Carrots are a multi-nutritional food source. They are an important root vegetable, rich in natural bioactive compounds, which are recognised for their nutraceutical effects and health benefits. This review summarises the occurrence, biosynthesis, factors affecting concentration, and health benefits of phytochemicals found in Daucus carota. Two hundred and fifty-five articles including original research papers, books, and book chapters were analysed, of which one hundred and thirty articles (most relevant to the topic) were selected for writing the review article. The four types of phytochemicals found in carrots, namely phenolics, carotenoids, polyacetylenes, and ascorbic acid, were summarised. These chemicals aid in the risk reduction of cancer and cardiovascular diseases due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, plasma lipid modification, and anti-tumour properties. Numerous factors influence the amount and type of phytochemicals present in carrots. Genotype (colour differences) plays an important role; high contents of α and β-carotene are present in orange carrots, lutein in yellow carrots, lycopene in red carrots, anthocyanins in the root of purple carrots, and phenolic compounds abound in black carrots. Carotenoids range between 3.2 mg/kg and 170 mg/kg, while vitamin C varies from 21 mg/kg to 775 mg/kg between cultivars. Growth temperatures of carrots influence the level of the sugars, carotenoids, and volatile compounds, so that growing in cool conditions results in a higher yield and quality of carrots, while higher temperatures would increase terpene synthesis, resulting in carrots with a bitter taste. It is worthwhile to investigate the cultivation of different genotypes under various environmental conditions to increase levels of phytochemicals and enhance the nutritional value of carrot, along with the valorisation of carrot by-products. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Preparation of Chitosan/Corn Starch/Cinnamaldehyde Films for Strawberry Preservation
Foods 2019, 8(9), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090423 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 114
Abstract
In this study, the casting method was used to make chitosan (CS)/corn starch/cinnamaldehyde film, and the preservation performance of the film was examined. The results showed that the tensile strength of the film can reach to 31.24 ± 0.22 MPa when the mass [...] Read more.
In this study, the casting method was used to make chitosan (CS)/corn starch/cinnamaldehyde film, and the preservation performance of the film was examined. The results showed that the tensile strength of the film can reach to 31.24 ± 0.22 MPa when the mass ratios of CS, corn starch, and glycerin were 2.5%, 7%, and 0.5% respectively. The addition of cinnamaldehyde made the films have great inhibitory effect on Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus, and Escherichia coli. In particular, the film had a significant fresh-keeping effect on strawberries, which reduced the loss of nutritional value, when aiming at soluble solids, titratable acid value, weight loss rate, and other indexes of strawberries. Thus, the films can slow down the physiological changes of strawberries and extend their shelf life to 11 days. Therefore, this work demonstrates the noteworthy potential of these novel films, incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds as innovative solutions to be used in active food packaging to extend the shelf-life of food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Open AccessArticle
Fresh Pasta Manufactured with Fermented Whole Wheat Semolina: Physicochemical, Sensorial, and Nutritional Properties
Foods 2019, 8(9), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090422 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Fresh pasta (SP) was prepared by mixing semolina with liquid sourdough, whole wheat semolina based, and the effects of sourdough inclusion were evaluated against a control sample (CP) prepared using semolina and whole wheat semolina. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensorial analyses were performed on [...] Read more.
Fresh pasta (SP) was prepared by mixing semolina with liquid sourdough, whole wheat semolina based, and the effects of sourdough inclusion were evaluated against a control sample (CP) prepared using semolina and whole wheat semolina. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensorial analyses were performed on pasteurized fresh pasta, before and after cooking. The optimum cooking time was not affected by whole wheat sourdough, whereas differences were found in color, firmness, and cooking loss. Changes of in vitro digested starch fractions in SP pasta were affected by a higher cooking loss. Overall, SP samples were characterized by improved nutraceutical features, namely higher content of free essential amino acids and phenolic compounds, lower phytic acid content, and higher antioxidant activity. Sensory analyses (acceptability and check-all-that-apply (CATA) tests) showed significantly higher scores for the SP, and the differences were enhanced when the consumers were informed about the product composition and how it was manufactured. Consumers checked for more positive sensory parameters for the SP than the CP. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Shelf Life Extension and Improvement of the Nutritional Value of Fish Fillets through Osmotic Treatment Based on the Sustainable Use of Rosa damascena Distillation By-Products
Foods 2019, 8(9), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090421 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
The objective of this work is the comparative study of different osmotic treatments at 37 °C on the quality and shelf life of chilled sea bass fillets. Fish fillets were treated using osmotic solutions consisting of oligofructose (40%–50%–60%) and 5% NaCl with (BP/OT) [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is the comparative study of different osmotic treatments at 37 °C on the quality and shelf life of chilled sea bass fillets. Fish fillets were treated using osmotic solutions consisting of oligofructose (40%–50%–60%) and 5% NaCl with (BP/OT) and without (OT) former antioxidant enrichment by using Rosa damascena distillation by-products. Water activity decreased to approximately 0.95 after 330 minutes of osmotic treatment. Untreated and osmotically treated fish fillets (BP/OT) and (OT) were subsequently stored at 5 °C and their quality was evaluated based on microbial growth and lipid oxidation. Osmotic treatment extended significantly the shelf life of fish in terms of microbial growth; however, it also accelerated its lipid oxidation. The impregnation of Rosa damascena phenolics not only counterbalanced this negative effect, but led to a more than four-fold increase of the shelf life of sea bass, as compared to the untreated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Shelf-Life Extension of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter spp. in Raw Milk, Beef, and Pork Meat in Northern Poland
Foods 2019, 8(9), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090420 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine whether raw milk, unpasteurized dairy products, pork, and beef available for sale in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie and Wielkopolska regions in Poland are contaminated with Campylobacter spp. bacteria and may be a potential source of infection. For [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether raw milk, unpasteurized dairy products, pork, and beef available for sale in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie and Wielkopolska regions in Poland are contaminated with Campylobacter spp. bacteria and may be a potential source of infection. For isolated strains, antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of genes responsible for virulence were examined. Material for research included 1058 food samples collected between 2014 and 2018 with 454 samples of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products (milk from vending machines, milk from owners of dairy cows, cheese, milk cream) and 604 samples of raw meat (pork, beef). The results indicated that 9.3% of the samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., and Campylobacter jejuni was predominant in this study. Campylobacter bacteria was not found in milk collected from vending machines, as well as cheese and milk cream samples. Campylobacter was noted in 12.7% of beef samples, 11.8% of raw milk purchased from individual suppliers, and 10.9% of pork samples. Resistance to erythromycin (2.0%), azithromycin (3.1%), gentamicin (4.1%), tetracycline (65.3%), and ciprofloxacin (71.4%) was determined using the disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the prevalence of racR, sodB, csrA, virB11, cdtB, iam, and wlaN genes were examined using the PCR method. The sodB, csrA, and cdtB genes exhibited the highest detection rate, but none of the genes were identified in 100% of the isolates. Statistically significant differences between the presence of virulence marker genes, including for iam, racR, and csrA markers, were noted among different sources of the isolates. Differences in the distribution of iam, wlaN, and virB11 were also shown between C. jejuni and C. coli strains. As a result of the analysis, it has been concluded that unpasteurized milk, beef, and pork could be a sources of Campylobacter pathogens. Moreover, this study revealed virulent properties of Campylobacter isolated from such food products and high resistance rates to fluoroquinolones, which may represent difficulties in campylobacteriosis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosecurity in Meat and Poultry Production)
Open AccessArticle
Application of the Just-About-Right Scales in the Development of New Healthy Whole-Wheat Muffins by the Addition of a Product Obtained from White and Red Grape Pomace
Foods 2019, 8(9), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090419 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 130
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of sensory attributes, by the use of just-about-right (JAR) scales and penalty analysis, of new healthy whole-wheat muffins with high fibre content due to the addition of two products obtained from white and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of sensory attributes, by the use of just-about-right (JAR) scales and penalty analysis, of new healthy whole-wheat muffins with high fibre content due to the addition of two products obtained from white and red grape pomace. Furthermore, the nutritional, colour and texture properties of the muffins were evaluated. For that, five formulations of whole-wheat muffins were studied: a control muffin made with 100% whole-wheat flour and muffins made with 10 and 20% of white and red grape pomace product, respectively. The incorporation of grape pomace products in the recipe led to muffins with "high-fibre content", which would imply healthy properties in these muffins. The hardness and chewiness increased whereas the springiness, cohesiveness, resilience and colour parameters decreased when the grape pomace products were incorporated. The sensory analysis indicated high levels of acceptability of the muffins that incorporated white and red grape pomace products at concentrations of 10%. The penalty analysis showed that none of the attributes evaluated affected the acceptability of the new muffins significantly; only the darker colour of the muffins caused by the red grape pomace product could affect the acceptability, although this fact was not clearly demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Calcium, Citrate, and Urea on the Stability of Ultra-High Temperature Treated Milk: A Full Factorial Designed Study
Foods 2019, 8(9), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090418 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
The composition of raw milk is important for the stability of dairy products with a long shelf-life. Based on known historical changes in raw milk composition, the aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how possible future variations in [...] Read more.
The composition of raw milk is important for the stability of dairy products with a long shelf-life. Based on known historical changes in raw milk composition, the aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how possible future variations in milk composition may affect the stability of dairy products. The effects of elevated calcium, citrate, and urea levels on the stability of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk stored for 52 weeks at 4, 20, 30, and 37 °C were investigated by a two-level full factorial designed study with fat separation, fat adhesion, sedimentation, color, pH, ethanol stability, and heat coagulation time as response variables. The results showed that elevated level of calcium lowered the pH, resulting in sedimentation and significantly decreased stability. Elevated level of citrate was associated with color, but the stability was not improved compared to the reference UHT milk. Elevated levels of urea or interaction terms had little effect on the stability of UHT milk. Storage conditions significantly affected the stability. In conclusion, to continue produce dairy products with high stability, the dairy industry should make sure the calcium content of raw milk is not too high and that storage of the final product is appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Flavonoid, Carotenoid, Soluble Sugar and Vitamin C in ‘Cara Cara’ Juice during Storage
Foods 2019, 8(9), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090417 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 172
Abstract
In view of understanding the stability of sterilized ‘Cara Cara’ juice during storage, the changes of specific quality parameters (flavonoid, carotenoid, vitamin C, soluble sugar and antioxidant activities) of ‘Cara Cara’ juice were systematically investigated over the course of 16 weeks in storage [...] Read more.
In view of understanding the stability of sterilized ‘Cara Cara’ juice during storage, the changes of specific quality parameters (flavonoid, carotenoid, vitamin C, soluble sugar and antioxidant activities) of ‘Cara Cara’ juice were systematically investigated over the course of 16 weeks in storage at 4, 20, 30 and 40 °C. Total flavonoid and carotenoid indexes showed slight degradation at each temperature, while vitamin C and soluble sugar degraded intensively, especially at 40 °C storage with a great amount of HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) accumulated. There were 29 carotenoids detected during storage, including carotenes and carotenoid esters. Carotenes were kept stable, while the degradations of carotenoid esters were fitted by biexponential function. Carotenoid ester group 2 contained epoxy structures that quickly decreased in the first four weeks at all storage temperatures, while the ester group 1 (belonged to β-cryptoxanthin ester) was degraded gradually. The 13- or 15-cis-lycopene, isomerized from all-(trans)-lycopene, increased with storage time at each temperature. Total flavonoid and carotenoid indexes in stored ‘Cara Cara’ juice were positively correlated with hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioprospecting for Antithrombotic Polar Lipids from Salmon, Herring, and Boarfish By-Products
Foods 2019, 8(9), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090416 - 15 Sep 2019
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Marine polar lipids (PLs) have exhibited promising cardioprotection. In this study, marine by-products such as salmon heads (SHs), their brain, eyes and main optic nerves (SBEON), and head-remnants after SBEON removal (RemSH), as well as herring fillets (HFs), herring heads (HHs) and minced [...] Read more.
Marine polar lipids (PLs) have exhibited promising cardioprotection. In this study, marine by-products such as salmon heads (SHs), their brain, eyes and main optic nerves (SBEON), and head-remnants after SBEON removal (RemSH), as well as herring fillets (HFs), herring heads (HHs) and minced boarfish (MB), were evaluated as potential sustainable sources of such bioactive PLs. The antithrombotic bioactivities of PLs derived from these marine by-products were assessed for the first time in human platelets against platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), while their fatty acid composition was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PLs from all marine by-products tested possess strong antithrombotic activities against aggregation of human platelets induced by all platelet agonists tested. RemSH, SBEON, HHs, HFs, and MB exhibited strong anti-PAF effects, similar to those previously reported for salmon fillets. PLs from MB had the strongest anti-collagen effects and PLs from SHs and SBEON were the most active against thrombin and ADP. PLs from HHs had similar antithrombotic effects with those from HFs in all agonists. RemSH was less active in all agonists, suggesting that SBEON is the main source of bioactive PLs in SHs. All PLs were rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid, with favourable low values of the ω6/ω3 ratio. Salmon, herring, and boarfish by-products are rich sources of bioactive marine PLs with potent antithrombotic and cardioprotective properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Volatile Constituents in Platostoma palustre (Blume) Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction
Foods 2019, 8(9), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090415 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase [...] Read more.
Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). HS-SPME is a non-heating method, and the results show relatively true values of the samples during flavor isolation. However, it is a kind of headspace analysis that has the disadvantage of a lower detection ability to relatively higher molecular weight compounds; also, the data are not quantitative, but instead are used for comparison. The SDE method uses distillation 2 h for flavor isolation; therefore, it quantitatively identifies more volatile compounds in the samples while the samples withstand heating. Both methods were used in this study to investigate information about the samples. The results showed that Nongshi No. 1 had the highest total quantity of volatile components using HS-SPME, whereas SDE indicated that Taoyuan Mesona 1301 (TYM1301) had the highest volatile concentration. Using the two extraction methods, 120 volatile components were identified. Fifty-six volatile components were identified using HS-SPME, and the main volatile compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. A total of 108 volatile components were identified using SDE, and the main volatile compounds were α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Compared with SDE, HS-SPME sampling extracted a significantly higher amount of monoterpenes and had a poorer detection of less volatile compounds, such as sesquiterpenes, terpene alcohols, and terpene oxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Open AccessArticle
Triangular Test of Amanita Mushrooms by Using Electronic Nose and Sensory Panel
Foods 2019, 8(9), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090414 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 165
Abstract
This work aims to advance understanding of the differentiation of mushroom species through electronic devices that use sensors of various technologies and techniques for pattern recognition, comparing mainly volatile substances that emanate from them. In this first phase, the capacity of human olfaction [...] Read more.
This work aims to advance understanding of the differentiation of mushroom species through electronic devices that use sensors of various technologies and techniques for pattern recognition, comparing mainly volatile substances that emanate from them. In this first phase, the capacity of human olfaction to differentiate between the smell released by different wild mushrooms of the genus Amanita was analyzed by means of a triangular sensory test, comparing later the data to those obtained for the same samples with an electronic nose in a similar test. The results, still very preliminary, encourage imagining the wide application that these techniques will have and the feedback that this application can suppose for the training of the sense of human olfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Novel Application of Electronic Nose in Food Field)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dynamic Changes in Post-Ingestive Sensations after Consumption of a Breakfast Meal High in Protein or Carbohydrate
Foods 2019, 8(9), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090413 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 161
Abstract
The obesity epidemic urges exploration of several parameters that play an important role in our eating behaviours. Post-ingestive sensations can provide a more comprehensive picture of the eating experience than mere satiety measurements. This study aimed to (1) quantify the dynamics of different [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic urges exploration of several parameters that play an important role in our eating behaviours. Post-ingestive sensations can provide a more comprehensive picture of the eating experience than mere satiety measurements. This study aimed to (1) quantify the dynamics of different post-ingestive sensations after food intake and (2) study the effect of protein and carbohydrate on hedonic and post-ingestive responses. Forty-eight participants (mean age 20.4) were served a breakfast meal high in protein (HighPRO) or high in carbohydrate (HighCHO) on two separate days using a randomised controlled crossover design. Post-ingestive sensations were measured every 30 min, for 3 h post intake using visual analogue scale (VAS). Results showed a significant main effect of time for all post-ingestive sensations. HighCHO induced higher hedonic responses compared to HighPRO, as well as higher ratings for post-ingestive sensations such as Satisfaction, Food joy, Overall wellbeing and Fullness. HighPRO, on the other hand, induced higher ratings for Sweet desire post intake. The development of sensations after a meal might be important for consumers’ following food choices and for extra calorie intake. More detailed knowledge in this area could elucidate aspects of overeating and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Autochthonous and Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Employed for Production of “Advanced Traditional Cheeses”
Foods 2019, 8(9), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090412 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Microbial characterization of two Italian traditional cheeses, Giuncata and Caciotta Leccese, was carried out, with the aim to isolate autochthonous bacterial strains to be used as starters to improve and standardize the quality of these cheeses. More than 400 bacterial isolates were found, [...] Read more.
Microbial characterization of two Italian traditional cheeses, Giuncata and Caciotta Leccese, was carried out, with the aim to isolate autochthonous bacterial strains to be used as starters to improve and standardize the quality of these cheeses. More than 400 bacterial isolates were found, using PCR-based identification, to belong to 12 species of the Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc genera. The dominant strains were screened for antagonistic activity against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and exopolysaccharide production, acidification, and proteolytic activity. Since Streptococcus macedonicus was found to be the most prevalent lactic acid bacteria species present in milk and in both types of cheese, the best performing strain of this species was successfully used, alone or in combination with a selected autochthonous Lactococcus lactis strain, in pilot-scale productions of Giuncata and Caciotta Leccese cheeses, respectively. The combined inoculums of selected autochthonous strains positively influenced the sensory characteristics of both Giuncata and Caciotta cheeses. Finally, the selected autochthonous cultures were enriched with a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain and successfully used in pilot-scale productions of these traditional cheeses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of an autochthonous S. macedonicus strain as a starter for the production of cheeses with added probiotics. In addition, the identification of the probiotic strain in the feces of healthy volunteers fed with the advanced traditional cheese proved its effectiveness as a carrier for the delivery of probiotics to the human body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Safety and Quality of Dairy Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Industrial Boiling on the Nutritional Profile of Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)
Foods 2019, 8(9), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090411 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Industrial cooking of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) under well-established procedures is advantageous for current consumers, which demand healthy and convenient food. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of industrial water boiling, without the addition of salt, on the nutritional profile [...] Read more.
Industrial cooking of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) under well-established procedures is advantageous for current consumers, which demand healthy and convenient food. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of industrial water boiling, without the addition of salt, on the nutritional profile of common octopus. True retentions (TRs) were calculated for essential nutrients and toxic elements. After boiling, the moisture content decreased, resulting in a concentration of other constituents (protein, fat, fatty acids, majority of amino acids, phosphorus, zinc, and iodine). High TRs were obtained for some essential nutrients: 90.2% (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), 89.1% (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), ≥74.6% (indispensable amino acids, IAA), and 86.8% (iodine). In both raw and boiled octopus, polyunsaturated fatty acids (252.2 and 425.1 mg/100 g), leucine (940.1 and 1613.4 mg/100 g), glutamate (1971.5 and 3257.1 mg/100 g), sodium (393.3 and 332.5 mg/100 g), and zinc (12.6 and 16.6 mg/kg) were, respectively, the most abundant fatty acids, IAA, dispensable amino acids, macro, and micro elements. Cadmium, lead, and mercury levels found in boiled octopus were 0.02, 0.10, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. The consumption of 150 g (usual portion) of boiled octopus is advisable because it contributes to significant daily intakes of EPA+DHA (>100%), selenium (75.6%), and iodine (12.4%), and 25% of the daily adequate intake of sodium for adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Multifunctional Biosurfactant Extract Obtained from Corn Steep Water as Bactericide for Agrifood Industry
Foods 2019, 8(9), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090410 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
The increase of crop production along with stricter requirements on food security have augmented the demand of new and eco-friendly bactericides. Most of the bactericides used at the moment consist of persistent organic substances, representing a risk for environmental and human health. For [...] Read more.
The increase of crop production along with stricter requirements on food security have augmented the demand of new and eco-friendly bactericides. Most of the bactericides used at the moment consist of persistent organic substances, representing a risk for environmental and human health. For instance, agriculture bactericides used for crop protection includes copper-based, dithiocarbamate and amide bactericides, which are not biodegradable, resulting in the necessity of further research about the production of new active principles that attack microorganisms without producing any harmful effect on human health or environment. The biosurfactant extract evaluated in this work as a bactericide, is obtained from corn steep water, a residual stream of corn wet milling industry, which is fermented spontaneously by probiotic lactic acid bacteria that possess the capacity to produce biosurfactants. In previous works, it has been demonstrated that this biosurfactant extract is able to promote the growth of Lactobacillus casei in drinkable yogurts, though its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains has not been evaluated at the moment. The results obtained in this work have proved that this biosurfactant extract is effective as bactericide against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, at concentrations of 1 mg/mL, opening the door to its use in agrifood formulations for reducing the use of chemical pesticides and preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Functionality of Plant Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Comparative Study on Gluten Protein Composition of Ancient (Einkorn, Emmer and Spelt) and Modern Wheat Species (Durum and Common Wheat)
Foods 2019, 8(9), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090409 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The spectrophotometric Bradford assay was adapted for the analysis of gluten protein contents (gliadins and glutenins) of spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn. The assay was applied to a set of 300 samples, including 15 cultivars each of common wheat, spelt, durum wheat, [...] Read more.
The spectrophotometric Bradford assay was adapted for the analysis of gluten protein contents (gliadins and glutenins) of spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn. The assay was applied to a set of 300 samples, including 15 cultivars each of common wheat, spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn cultivated at four locations in Germany in the same year. The total protein content was equally influenced by location and wheat species, however, gliadin, glutenin and gluten contents were influenced more strongly by wheat species than location. Einkorn, emmer and spelt had higher protein and gluten contents than common wheat at all four locations. However, common wheat had higher glutenin contents than einkorn, emmer and spelt resulting in increasing ratios of gliadins to glutenins from common wheat (< 3.8) to spelt, emmer and einkorn (up to 12.1). With the knowledge that glutenin contents are suitable predictors for high baking volume, cultivars of einkorn, emmer and spelt with good predicted baking performance were identified. Finally, spelt, emmer and einkorn were found to have a higher nitrogen partial factor productivity than common and durum wheat making them promising crops for a more sustainable agriculture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hypoallergenic and Low-Protein Ready-to-Feed (RTF) Infant Formula by High Pressure Pasteurization: A Novel Product
Foods 2019, 8(9), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090408 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Infant milk formula (IMF) is designed to mimic the composition of human milk (9–11 g protein/L); however, the standard protein content of IMF (15 g/L) is still a matter of controversy. In contrast to breastfed infants, excessive protein in IMF is associated with [...] Read more.
Infant milk formula (IMF) is designed to mimic the composition of human milk (9–11 g protein/L); however, the standard protein content of IMF (15 g/L) is still a matter of controversy. In contrast to breastfed infants, excessive protein in IMF is associated with overweight and symptoms of metabolic syndrome in formula-fed infants. Moreover, the beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) content in cow milk is 3–4 g/L, whereas it is not present in human milk. It is considered to be a major reason for cow milk allergy in infants. In this respect, to modify protein composition, increasing the ratio of alpha-lactalbumin (α-Lac) to β-Lg would be a pragmatic approach to develop a hypoallergenic IMF with low protein content. Such a formula would ensure the necessary balance of essential amino acids, as 123 and 162 amino acid residues are available in α-Lac and β-Lg, respectively. Hence, in this study, a pasteurized form of hypoallergenic and low-protein ready-to-feed (RTF) formula, a new product, is developed to retain heat-sensitive bioactives and other components. Therefore, the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) under 300–600 MPa at approximately 20–40 °C and HTST pasteurization (72 °C for 15 and 30 s) were investigated and compared. The highest ratio of α-Lac to β-Lg was achieved after HPP (600 MPa for 5 min applied at 40.4 °C), which potentially explains the synergistic effect of HPP and heat on substantial denaturation of β-Lg, with significant retention of α-Lac in reconstituted IMF. Industrial relevance: This investigation showed the potential production of a pasteurized RTF formula, a niche product, with a reduced amount of allergenic β-Lg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Stability of Stripped Soybean Oil during Accelerated Oxidation: Impact of Monoglyceride and Triglyceride—Structured Lipids Using DHA as sn-2 Acyl-Site Donors
Foods 2019, 8(9), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090407 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The current work aimed to clarify the effects of four structured lipids, including monoglycerides with docosahexaenoic acid (2D-MAG), diacylglycerols with caprylic acid (1,3C-DAG), triglyceride with caprylic acid at sn-1,3 and DHA at sn-2 position (1,3C-2D-TAG) and caprylic triglyceride on the oxidative stability of [...] Read more.
The current work aimed to clarify the effects of four structured lipids, including monoglycerides with docosahexaenoic acid (2D-MAG), diacylglycerols with caprylic acid (1,3C-DAG), triglyceride with caprylic acid at sn-1,3 and DHA at sn-2 position (1,3C-2D-TAG) and caprylic triglyceride on the oxidative stability of stripped soybean oil (SSO). The results revealed that compared to the blank group of SSO, the oxidation induction period of the sample with 2 wt% 2D-MAG and that with 1,3C-DAG were delayed by 2–3 days under accelerated oxidation conditions (50 °C), indicating that 2D-MAG and 1,3C-DAG prolonged the oxidation induction period of SSO. However, the inhibitory effect of α-tocopherol on SSO oxidation was reduced by 2D-MAG after addition of 2D-MAG to SSO containing α-tocopherol. 2D-MAG exhibited different antioxidative/pro-oxidative effects in the added/non-added antioxidants system. Compared to caprylic triglyceride, DHA at the sn-2 acyl site induced oxidation of structured lipids, thus further promoting the oxidation of SSO. The antioxidant was able to inhibit not only the oxidation of DHA in the SSO, but also the transesterification of sn-2 DHA to sn-1/sn-3 DHA in the structured lipid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Open AccessArticle
Lipid Oxidation Inhibition Capacity of 11 Plant Materials and Extracts Evaluated in Highly Oxidised Cooked Meatballs
Foods 2019, 8(9), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090406 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The underlying mechanism(s) behind the potential carcinogenicity of processed meat is a popular research subject of which the lipid oxidation is a common suspect. Different formulations and cooking parameters of a processed meat product were evaluated for their capacity to induce lipid oxidation. [...] Read more.
The underlying mechanism(s) behind the potential carcinogenicity of processed meat is a popular research subject of which the lipid oxidation is a common suspect. Different formulations and cooking parameters of a processed meat product were evaluated for their capacity to induce lipid oxidation. Meatballs made of beef or pork, containing different concentrations of fat (10 or 20 g 100 g−1), salt (2 or 4 g 100 g−1), subjected to differing cooking types (pan or deep frying), and storage times (1, 7, and 14 days), were evaluated using thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). The deep-fried meatball type most susceptible to oxidation was used as the model meat product for testing the lipid oxidation inhibiting capacity of 11 plant materials and extracts, in two concentrations (100 and 200 mg kg−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE)), measured after 14 days of storage using TBARS. Summer savory lyophilized powder was the most efficient plant material, lowering lipid oxidation to 13.8% and 21.8% at the 200 and 100 mg kg−1 concentration, respectively, followed by a sea buckthorn leaf extract, lowering lipid oxidation to 22.9% at 100 mg kg−1, compared to the meatball without added antioxidants. The lipid oxidation was thus successfully reduced using these natural antioxidants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Control and Monitoring of Milk Renneting Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology Tool
Foods 2019, 8(9), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090405 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 129
Abstract
Failures in milk coagulation during cheese manufacturing can lead to decreased yield, anomalous behaviour of cheese during storage, significant impact on cheese quality and process wastes. This study proposes a Process Analytical Technology approach based on FT-NIR spectroscopy for milk renneting control during [...] Read more.
Failures in milk coagulation during cheese manufacturing can lead to decreased yield, anomalous behaviour of cheese during storage, significant impact on cheese quality and process wastes. This study proposes a Process Analytical Technology approach based on FT-NIR spectroscopy for milk renneting control during cheese manufacturing. Multivariate Curve Resolution optimized by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was used for data analysis and development of Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) charts. Fifteen renneting batches were set up varying temperature (30, 35, 40 °C), milk pH (6.3, 6.5, 6.7), and fat content (0.1, 2.55, 5 g/100 mL). Three failure batches were also considered. The MCR-ALS models well described the coagulation processes (explained variance ≥99.93%; lack of fit <0.63%; standard deviation of the residuals <0.0067). The three identified MCR-ALS profiles described the main renneting phases. Different shapes and timing of concentration profiles were related to changes in temperature, milk pH, and fat content. The innovative implementation of MSPC charts based on T2 and Q statistics allowed the detection of coagulation failures from the initial phases of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Composition and Apparent Degree of Polymerization of Fructans in Five Wild Agave Varieties: Potential Industrial Use
Foods 2019, 8(9), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090404 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 131
Abstract
In this study, we characterize fructan extracts from five wild agave varieties at three ages to identify their potential use in the food industry. Physicochemical parameters (solids soluble total and pH), sugar content and fructan distribution profiles by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) were [...] Read more.
In this study, we characterize fructan extracts from five wild agave varieties at three ages to identify their potential use in the food industry. Physicochemical parameters (solids soluble total and pH), sugar content and fructan distribution profiles by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) were evaluated. We found that the ages and variety influenced the carbohydrate content and also fructan dispersion. Two- to four-year-old plants exhibited the highest concentrations of free sugars and fructans, with a low apparent degree of polymerization (DPa) of ≤9 monomers, which highlights their potential use as prebiotics. Conversely, 10- to 12-year-old plants presented a low concentration of free sugars and fructans with a maximum DPa of 70 monomers, which can be used to obtain fractions with high, intermediate and low DPa. These fractions have a potential use in the food industry as prebiotic, soluble fibers, stabilizers and sweeteners, among others. The agave varieties Agave spp., Agave salmiana, and Agave atrovirens showed mainly fructooligosaccharides (FOSs). Due to the presence of these low molecular carbohydrates, prebiotics, fermented products and/or syrups could be obtained. A. salmiana spp. crassipina and Agave tequilana variety cenizo presented DPa ≤50 and DPa ≤70, respectively, which could be useful in the production of fructan fractions of different DPa. These fractions might be used as functional ingredients in the manufacture of a wide range of food products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Efficiency of Deoxynivalenol Degradation by Essential Oils under In Vitro Conditions
Foods 2019, 8(9), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090403 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are complex natural products of plant origin and exhibit different desirable, e.g., antimicrobial properties. Their growth inhibition effect on the pathogenic fungi of the genus, Fusarium, which forms deoxynivalenol (DON), has been documented. DON is the most common contaminant [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are complex natural products of plant origin and exhibit different desirable, e.g., antimicrobial properties. Their growth inhibition effect on the pathogenic fungi of the genus, Fusarium, which forms deoxynivalenol (DON), has been documented. DON is the most common contaminant of grains and their products, causing strong emetic effects after their consumption. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of selected EOs to degrade DON under in vitro conditions, using various incubation terms. The impact of a different temperature, pH, incubation time, mycotoxin, and essential oil concentration was tested. The results indicate that the kind of EO influences the effectiveness of mycotoxin level reduction, and the most effective EOs were palmarosa and lemon oils. A higher reduction of DON content by EOs was achieved after 24 h of the experiment (up to 72%), at a pH range between 3 and 6 and a temperature of 20 °C. Moreover, the effect of various doses of white and pink grapefruit and palmarosa EOs (100 and 200 μL/mL) on toxin level reduction was observed. The experiment confirmed that the selected EOs may be effective in DON reduction, as previously documented in experiments with zearalenone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simple and Efficient Green Extraction of Steviol Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Leaves
Foods 2019, 8(9), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090402 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 176
Abstract
The food industry has currently shown great interest in alternative sweeteners to sugars with the aim of producing healthier products. In light of this, steviol glycosides are natural low-caloric sweeteners present in Stevia rebaudiana, which have additionally been described as bioactive components [...] Read more.
The food industry has currently shown great interest in alternative sweeteners to sugars with the aim of producing healthier products. In light of this, steviol glycosides are natural low-caloric sweeteners present in Stevia rebaudiana, which have additionally been described as bioactive components with potential therapeutic properties. In this work, a green method for the extraction of steviol glycosides from stevia leaves was optimized by applying a factorial screening design of five variables (time, temperature, agitation, grinding, and sample–solvent ratio) and the subsequent response surface design of Box-Behnken. The optimized extraction method allows for the recovery of stevia sweeteners in a simple and efficient manner by using tap water as the extractant, without the application of an auxiliary energy source to reduce costs, thus representing an interesting strategy for their industrial-scale production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Food Additives: From Source to Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Accumulation γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Biogenic Amines in a Traditional Raw Milk Ewe’s Cheese
Foods 2019, 8(9), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090401 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 200
Abstract
The influence of calf (R1), kid (R2) and pig (R3) rennets on microbiota, biogenic amines (BAs) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in raw milk ewe’s cheeses was evaluated. Cheeses were investigated at different ripening times for their microbial composition, free amino acids [...] Read more.
The influence of calf (R1), kid (R2) and pig (R3) rennets on microbiota, biogenic amines (BAs) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in raw milk ewe’s cheeses was evaluated. Cheeses were investigated at different ripening times for their microbial composition, free amino acids (FAAs), BAs and GABA content. Moreover, the expression of tyrosine (tdc) and histidine (hdc) decarboxylases genes was evaluated by quantitative Real Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Microbial counts showed similar values in all samples. Pig rennet were cheeses were characterized by higher proteolysis and the highest values of BAs. The BAs detected were putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine, while histamine was absent. qRT-PCR confirmed this data, in fact hdc gene was not upregulated, while tdc gene expression increased over time in agreement with the increasing content of tyramine and the highest fold changes were detected in R3 cheeses. GABA showed the highest concentration in R2 cheeses reaching a value of 672 mg/kg. These results showed that the accumulation of BAs and GABA in Pecorino di Farindola is influenced by ripening time and type of coagulant. Further studies are required to develop starter cultures to reduce BAs content and improve health characteristics of raw milk ewe’s cheeses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Microbiological Profile and Bioactive Properties of Insect Powders Used in Food and Feed Formulations
Foods 2019, 8(9), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090400 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Microbiological, nutritional and bioactive properties of edible powders obtained from Acheta domesticus (house cricket) and Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) were investigated. Except for the enterobacteria, viable bacteria were at a higher concentration in mealworm flour. The diversity evaluation carried out using MiSeq Illumina that [...] Read more.
Microbiological, nutritional and bioactive properties of edible powders obtained from Acheta domesticus (house cricket) and Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) were investigated. Except for the enterobacteria, viable bacteria were at a higher concentration in mealworm flour. The diversity evaluation carried out using MiSeq Illumina that mainly identified Citrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae in mealworm powder and members of the Porphyromonadaceae family in house cricket powder. Enterococci were identified and characterized for their safety characteristics in terms of the absence of antibiotic resistance and virulence. Both powders represent a good source of proteins and lipids. The fatty acid profile of mealworm powder was characterized by the predominance of the monounsaturated fatty acids and house cricket powder by saturated fatty acids. The enzymatic hydrolysis produced the best results in terms of percentage of degree of hydrolysis with the enzyme Alcalase, and these data were confirmed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Furthermore, the results showed that the protein hydrolysate of these powders produces a significant antioxidant power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Moist Cooking Blanching on Colour, Phenolic Metabolites and Glucosinolate Content in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis)
Foods 2019, 8(9), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090399 - 08 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis) is a widely consumed leafy vegetable by the rural people in South Africa. Traditional blanching methods (5%, 10% or 20% lemon juice solutions in steam, microwave treatments and hot water bath at 95 [...] Read more.
Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis) is a widely consumed leafy vegetable by the rural people in South Africa. Traditional blanching methods (5%, 10% or 20% lemon juice solutions in steam, microwave treatments and hot water bath at 95 °C) on the changes of colour properties, phenolic metabolites, glucosinolates and antioxidant properties were investigated in this study. Blanching at 95 °C in 5% lemon juice solution maintained the chlorophyll content, reduced the difference in colour change ∆E, and increased the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities (ferric reducing-antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay). The highest concentration of kaempferol-dihexoside, kaempferol-sophoroside, kaempferol hexoside, and ferulic acid was noted in samples blanched in 5% lemon juice, at 95 °C. However, concentrations of kaempferol O-sophoroside-O-hexoside was highest in raw leaf samples. Supervised Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and the UPLC-MS and chemometric approach showed the acid protocatechuoyl hexose unique marker identified responsible for the separation of the blanching treatments (5% lemon juice at 95° C) and raw leaves. However, other unidentified markers are also responsible for the separation of the two groups (the raw leaves and the hot water moist blanched samples) and these need to be identified. Blanching at 95 °C in 10% lemon solution significantly increased the glucosinolate sinigrin content. Overall blanching at 95 °C in 5% lemon juice solution can be recommended to preserve the functional compounds in Nightshade leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) Essential Oils: Volatile Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, and Hypolipidemic Effect
Foods 2019, 8(9), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090398 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Lime peels are mainly obtained from the byproducts of the juice manufacturing industry, which we obtained and used to extract essential oil (2.3%) in order to examine the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects. We identified 60 volatile compounds of lime essential oil (LEO) with [...] Read more.
Lime peels are mainly obtained from the byproducts of the juice manufacturing industry, which we obtained and used to extract essential oil (2.3%) in order to examine the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects. We identified 60 volatile compounds of lime essential oil (LEO) with GC/MS, of which the predominant constituents were limonene, γ-terpinene, and β-pinene. Lime essential oil was measured according to the DPPH assay and ABTS assay, with IC50 values of 2.36 mg/mL and 0.26 mg/mL, respectively. This study also explored the protective effects of LEO against lipid-induced hyperlipidemia in a rat model. Two groups of rats received oral LEO in doses of 0.74 g/100 g and 2.23 g/100 g with their diets. Eight weeks later, we found that the administration of LEO improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels in the hyperlipidemic rats (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, the LEO improved the health of the rats in terms of obesity, atherogenic index, and fatty liver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Properties and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Macrofungi
Foods 2019, 8(9), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090397 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Many delicious and nutritional macrofungi are widely distributed and used in East Asian regions, considered as edible and medicinal foods. In this study, 11 species of dried and fresh, edible and medicinal macrofungi, Ganoderma amboinense, Agaricus subrufescens, Dictyophora indusiata, Pleurotus [...] Read more.
Many delicious and nutritional macrofungi are widely distributed and used in East Asian regions, considered as edible and medicinal foods. In this study, 11 species of dried and fresh, edible and medicinal macrofungi, Ganoderma amboinense, Agaricus subrufescens, Dictyophora indusiata, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus geesteranu, Hericium erinaceus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Pleurotus sapidus, Antrodia camphorata, and Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing, were investigated to determine the content of their nutritional components, including proteins, fat, carbohydrates, trace minerals, coarse cellulose, vitamins, and amino acids. The amino acid patterns and similarity of macrofungi were distinguished through principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analyses, respectively. A total of 103 metabolic small molecules of macrofungi were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and were aggregated by heatmap. Moreover, the macrofungi were classified by principal component analysis based on these metabolites. The results show that carbohydrates and proteins are two main components, as well as the nutritional ingredients, that differ among various species and varied between fresh and dried macrofungi. The amino acid patterns in L. edodes and A. subrufescens were different compared with that of the other tested mushrooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction and Characterization of Self-Assembled Collagen Isolated from Grass Carp and Crucian Carp
Foods 2019, 8(9), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090396 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Collagens were extracted from grass carp skin (GCC), grass carp scales (GSC), and crucian carp skin (CCC) using an acid-enzyme combination method, and their characteristics and self-assembly properties were analyzed. Electrophoretic patterns characterized all three as type I collagens. An ultraviolet analysis identified [...] Read more.
Collagens were extracted from grass carp skin (GCC), grass carp scales (GSC), and crucian carp skin (CCC) using an acid-enzyme combination method, and their characteristics and self-assembly properties were analyzed. Electrophoretic patterns characterized all three as type I collagens. An ultraviolet analysis identified the optimal wavelengths for collagen detection, while a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the triple-helical structure of the collagens. The GCC, GSC, and CCC had denaturation temperatures of 39.75, 34.49, and 39.05 °C, respectively. All three were shown to self-assemble into fibrils at 30 °C in the presence of NaCl, but the fibril formation rate of CCC (40%) was slightly higher than those of GCC (28%) and GSC (27%). The GSC were shown to form a more strongly intertwined fibril network with a characteristic D-periodicity. The fish collagens extracted in this study have potential applications in the development of functionalized materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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